Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 1 Chapter 24 Vitamins and Minerals.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 1 Chapter 24 Vitamins and Minerals."— Presentation transcript:

1 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 1 Chapter 24 Vitamins and Minerals

2 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 2 Chapter 24 Lesson 24.1

3 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 3 Learning Objectives Identify the actions and indications for vitamins and minerals List at least six products used to treat vitamin or mineral deficiencies

4 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 4 Vitamins Natural chemical compounds found in animals and plants Dietary considerations Deficiencies Antioxidants MyPyramid Table 24-1

5 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 5 Vitamin A Action Fat-soluble; aids visual adjustment; role in cell membrane stabilization Uses Treat deficiencies, eye diseases, and night blindness

6 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 6 Vitamin A (cont.) Adverse Reactions Hypervitaminosis Drug Interactions Oral contraceptives, mineral oil, antihyperlipidemic drugs

7 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 7 Vitamin A (cont.) Nursing Implications Lifespan requirements Routes for administration Patient teaching: nutritional sources

8 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 8 Vitamin B 1 (Thiamine) Action Water-soluble; coenzyme involved with carbohydrate metabolism; role in neurology Uses Treatment of beriberi

9 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 9 Vitamin B 1 (Thiamine) (cont.) Adverse Reactions Sensitivity reactions Parenteral precautions Drug Interactions Poor stability with concurrent use of neutral or alkaline solutions

10 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 10 Vitamin B 1 (Thiamine) (cont.) Nursing Implications and Patient Teaching Food preparation Dietary sources

11 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 11 Vitamin B 2 (Riboflavin) Action Water-soluble; precursor of two essential enzymes that deal with metabolism of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates Related to the release of energy to cells Active in the respiratory system Uses Deficiency

12 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 12 Vitamin B 2 (Riboflavin) (cont.) Drug Interactions Oral contraceptives Nursing Implications and Patient Teaching Storage Change in urine color

13 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 13 Niacin Action Water-soluble; part of two coenzyme systems that transfer hydrogen in intracellular respiration Uses Prevent or treat deficiencies Pellagra: symptoms

14 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 14 Niacin (cont.) Adverse Reactions Dry skin, pruritis, skin rash, GI disorders, allergies, feelings of warmth, headache, tingling of the skin, transient flushing in the face and neck Drug Interactions Antihypertensives Nursing Implications/Patient Teaching Dietary sources

15 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 15 Pantothenic Acid Action Synthesis of coenzyme A; role in release of energy in fats, proteins, and carbohydrates Uses Treatment of paralytic ileus

16 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 16 Pantothenic Acid (cont.) Nursing Implications and Patient Teaching Food preparation Dietary sources

17 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 17 Vitamin B 6 (Pyridoxine Hydrochloride) Action Water-soluble; functions as coenzyme in metabolism of protein, fats, and carbohydrates Uses Treat deficiencies due to inborn errors of metabolism, such as vitamin B 6 dependency, B 6 -responsive chronic anemia, and other rare vitamin problems

18 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 18 Vitamin B 6 (cont.) Adverse Reactions None; pyridoxine dependency Drug Interactions Oral contraceptives; levodopa Concurrent use with chloramphenicol may prevent optic neuritis

19 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 19 Vitamin B 6 (cont.) Nursing Implications and Patient Teaching Storage Dietary sources Food preparation

20 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 20 Folic Acid (Vitamin B 9 ) Action Water soluble; required for normal erythropoiesis and nucleoprotein synthesis Metabolized in the liver and changed to an active form Uses Treat anemias caused by folic acid deficiencies; treat alcoholism, hepatic disease, hemolytic anemia; supplemental during infancy (formula), lactation, oral contraceptive use, and pregnancy

21 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 21 Folic Acid (cont.) Adverse Reactions Folic acid is not toxic Allergic reaction may manifest as bronchospasm, erythema, malaise, pruritis, or rash Drug Interactions Antagonists: chloramphenicol and methotrexate

22 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 22 Folic Acid (cont.) Nursing Implications and Patient Teaching RDA Parenteral forms should be protected from light Patient and family teaching: nutritional counseling; laboratory monitoring; need for medical follow-up

23 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 23 Vitamin B 12 Action Water-soluble and contains cobalt; produced by Streptomyces griseus; functions in fat, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism; part of the erythrocyte-maturing factor in the liver; required for DNA synthesis Uses Treats all B 12 deficiencies, pernicious anemia, other anemias, malabsorption syndromes, blind loop syndrome, pregnancy, chronic liver disease complicated by vitamin B 12 deficiency, malignancy, thyrotoxicosis, renal disorders Used in the flushing dose in Schilling test

24 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 24 Vitamin C Action Acts in several enzyme systems; involved in intracellular oxidation-reduction potentials; aids in the change of folic acid and the metabolism of certain amino acids; aids in the absorption of calcium and iron; blocks the absorption of copper in the GI tract; protects vitamins A and E and polyunsaturated fatty acids; necessary for the formation of teeth, connective tissue, and capillaries for the synthesis of collagen; wound healing

25 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 25 Vitamin D Action and Uses Fat-soluble Three categories Movement of calcium and phosphorus ions into small intestine, kidneys, and bone Used to treat childhood rickets, adult osteomalacia, hypoparathyroidism, and familial hypophosphatemia Adverse Reactions: Vitamin D toxicity Nursing Implications and Patient Teaching

26 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 26 Vitamin E Fat-soluble Functions are not understood Antioxidant: prevents cell membrane damage Stabilizes the RBC wall to protect against hemolysis or destruction

27 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 27 Vitamin K Action Fat soluble; helps hepatic formation of active prothrombin proconvertin, plasma thromboplastin component, and the Stuart factor Uses Treat or prevent blood-clotting disorders

28 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 28 Chapter 24 Lesson 24.2

29 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 29 Learning Objectives Identify the actions and uses for minerals in the body List at least six supplements used to treat mineral deficiencies Prepare a teaching plan for patients who require mineral supplements

30 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 30 Minerals 19 inorganic substances present in the body; 13 are essential to normal metabolism and function Ions: positive and negative charges Electrolytes Table 24-2

31 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 31 Calcium Action Essential for muscular and neurologic activity; formation and repair of skeletal tissues; activates several enzymes that influence cell membrane permeability and muscle contraction; aids in blood clotting; activates pancreatic lipase; influences intestinal absorption of cobalamin; involved in the transmission of neurotransmitters and in metabolic processes; regulation of lymphocyte and phagocyte function through interaction with calmodulin Uses Supplement when dietary levels are low

32 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 32 Calcium (cont.) Adverse Reactions Hypercalcemia symptoms Drug Interactions Vitamin D; phytic acid (found in bran and whole-grain cereals) Nursing Implications/Patient Teaching Dietary sources

33 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 33 Fluoride Action Strengthens enamel Uses Reduces dental caries

34 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 34 Fluoride (cont.) Adverse Reactions GI distress, urticaria, and malaise; excessive salivation, mottling of teeth, GI disturbances, and nausea are seen with overdosage Drug Interactions Nursing Implications and Patient Teaching Administration; avoid glass containers when diluting fluoride; milk may decrease absorption

35 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 35 Iron Action An essential mineral for the synthesis of myoglobin and hemoglobin; stimulates the hematopoietic system and increases hemoglobin to correct iron deficiency Uses Treatment of symptomatic iron deficiency; prevent hypochromic anemia during infancy, childhood, pregnancy, and breastfeeding from other anemias; after some GI surgeries

36 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 36 Iron (cont.) Adverse Reactions Drug Interactions Nursing Implications and Patient Teaching Nutritional sources, adverse effects

37 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 37 Magnesium Action Maintains osmotic pressure, ion balance, bone structure, muscular contraction, and nerve conduction Uses Deficiencies Adverse Reactions Diarrhea Nursing Implications and Patient Teaching Cardiac monitoring Nutrition

38 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 38 Manganese Action Activates many enzymes, assists in normal skeletal and connective tissue development, helps in the initiation of protein synthesis, and plays a part in the synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids Uses Dietary supplements for multiple deficiencies Natural sources of manganese

39 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 39 Potassium Action Principle intracellular cation of most body tissues; active in maintaining normal renal function, contraction of muscle, and transmission of nerve impulses Uses Prophylactic – nephrotic syndrome, hepatic cirrhosis with ascites, hyperaldosteronism Replacement therapy

40 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 40 Potassium (cont.) Adverse Reactions Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, GI bleeding Drug Interactions Contraindications Nursing Implications/Patient Teaching Dilution and administration; monitoring of serum blood levels; dietary sources

41 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 41 Zinc Action and Uses Essential for normal growth and tissue repair, mineralization of bone, detoxification, creation of DNA, synthesis of protein Prevent zinc deficiency and aid wound healing Adverse Reactions GI, nausea and vomiting; excessive dosage; intoxication Drug Interactions Calcium Nursing Implications/Patient Teaching Dosing and nutrition

42 Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 42 Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies Assessment Diagnosis Planning Implementation Evaluation Patient and family teaching


Download ppt "Elsevier items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 1 Chapter 24 Vitamins and Minerals."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google