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Organizational Behavior

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Presentation on theme: "Organizational Behavior"— Presentation transcript:

1 Organizational Behavior
Organizational Behavior 13th Edition Don Hellriegel & John W. Slocum, Jr.

2 Workplace Stress and Aggression
Workplace Stress and Aggression Chapter 8

3 Learning Goals Explain the concept of and influences on creating stress Identify the primary sources of work-related stressors State the potential impacts of severe stress on health, performance, and job burnout Describe how individual differences influence reactions to stressful situations Apply individual and leader insights to the management of workplace stress Explain four major types of workplace aggression Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.1

4 Learning from Experience: Stress and Coping with a Layoff
Learning Insights Difficulties, challenges and stresses due to extended layoffs in a poor economy Stress of a layoff may motivate search for new career options Severe and extended stress may have adverse health impacts Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.2

5 Surveys of Workplace Stress and Aggression: A Few Findings
65% said that workplace stress had caused physical and psychological difficulties 40% view their jobs as very or extremely stressful 48% said that excessive stress makes it hard for them to perform well on the job 14% had felt like striking a coworker in the past year, but didn’t Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.3

6 Nature of Stress Stress: the excitement, feeling of anxiety, and/or physical tension that occurs when the demands placed on an individual are thought to exceed the person’s ability to cope Fight-or-flight response: the biochemical and bodily changes that represent a natural reaction to an environmental stressor Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.4

7 Figure 8.1: Common Influences on the Stress Experienced by an Individual
Stressors from Work and the Environment Level of Stress Experienced Perceptions Past experiences Social support Individual differences Influenced by the Individual’s Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.5

8 Ethics Insight At some plants, we have six-weeks unpaid layoffs on a rolling basis. A big concern for a lot of employees is “Am I going to have a job?” This way, it’s a comfort to them—like having six weeks off, and still having a job to come back to. We’ve been doing this for two years now. Employees feel like they have some sort of control, and they almost always come back. Stacy Guinn, HR Coordinator, Sherwin-Williams Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.6

9 Figure 8.2: Work-Related Stressors and Experienced Stress
Level of Stress Experienced Workload Job conditions Role conflict and ambiguity Career development Interpersonal relations Workplace aggression Conflict between work and life roles Work-Related Stressors Perceptions Past experiences Social support Individual differences Influenced by the Employee Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.7

10 Communication Competency: Workplace Incivility: How Not to Communicate
Learning Insights Adverse consequences of demeaning communications by managers Adverse consequences of snide comments thru by managers Adverse consequences of public humiliation about others by managers Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.8

11 Figure 8.3: Path of Work-Family Pressures, Stress, and Conflict
Figure 8.3: Path of Work-Family Pressures, Stress, and Conflict Severe Work versus Family Pressures Creates Stress on the Employee Leads to Work- Family Conflicts Dissatisfaction Frustration Depression Other Possible Results Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.9

12 Moderate Stress Events
Examples of Stressful Events for College Students (Adapted from Table 8.1) High Stress Events Death of parent Death of spouse Divorce Flunking out Moderate Stress Events Academic probation Death of close friend Major injury or illness Parents’ divorce Serious arguments with romantic partner Low Stress Events Change in eating habits Change in social activities Conflict with instructor Lower grades than expected Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.10

13 Examples of Effects of Severe Stress
Examples of Effects of Severe Stress Physiological effects: Increased blood pressure, increased heart rate, sweating, hot and cold spells, etc. Emotional effects: Anger, anxiety, depression, lowered self-esteem, etc. Behavioral effects: Poor performance, absenteeism, high accident rates, high turnover rates, etc. Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.11

14 Possible Effects of Severe Stress on Health
Possible Effects of Severe Stress on Health Health problems Coronary heart disease, back pain, headaches, etc. Impact on the organization Increased health insurance costs and lost work days Over 75% of industrial accidents are rooted in stress Stress-related workers’ compensation claims Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.12

15 Figure 8.4: Typical Relationship between Performance and Stress Arousal
Good Stress Distress High Fatigue Exhaustion Performance Comfort zone Ill health Healthy tension Low Low Arousal stress High Adapted from Nixon, P. Stress: The human function curve. American Institute of Stress. (March 2007). Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.13

16 Figure 8.5: The Path to Job Burnout
Figure 8.5: The Path to Job Burnout Job Burnout Constant pressure Insecurity Competition Conflict Economic problems Loneliness Other Working Conditions Unfulfilled expectations Lack of meaning Lack of control Overwork Poor decisions Leading to: Stress Exhaustion Frustration Helplessness Depersonalization Culminating in: Produce: Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.14

17 Type A Personality: Some Characteristics
Type A Personality: Some Characteristics Sense of urgency about time Competitive, almost hostile orientation Thinking about other things while talking to someone Impatience with barriers to task accomplishment Sense of guilt when relaxing or taking a vacation Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.15

18 Hardy Personality: Some Characteristics
Sense of personal control Attribute one’s own behavior to internal causes Commitment to their work and personal relationships Change or potential threats seen as challenges and opportunities for growth Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.16

19 Self Competency: Chesley B
Self Competency: Chesley B. Sullenberger III, Captain of US Airways Flight 1549 Learning Insights Continuous learning and preparation is vital for coping with high stress crises Trust in the leader is vital under crisis situations A hardy personality matters in a crisis Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.17

20 Examples of Individual Stress Management Insights
Plan ahead and practice good time management Exercise, diet, rest, and other health-related behaviors Maintain a positive perspective and sense of humor Balance work life and personal life Learn relaxation techniques Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.18

21 Insights for Reducing Work Stressors
Improvements in the physical work environment Job design Changes in workloads and deadlines Changes in work schedules, more flexible hours, and sabbaticals Increased employee participation Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.19

22 Insights for Modifying Behaviors
Insights for Modifying Behaviors Team building Career counseling and other employee assistance programs Time management workshops Job burnout workshops Training in relaxation techniques Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.20

23 Change Competency: Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics’ Wellness Program
Change Competency: Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics’ Wellness Program Learning Insights Wellness programs require multiple strategies and interventions Benefits to employees—tangible and intangible— need to be continuously emphasized Benefits to organization—tangible and intangible— need to be assessed in relation to costs Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.21

24 Categories of Workplace Aggression
Categories of Workplace Aggression Hostility—abusive verbal or symbolic behaviors Obstructionism—behavior that is designed to hamper the individual’s performance Overt aggression—many types of assault, violence, and destruction of property Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.22

25 Self-Serving Biases Used to Justify Aggressive Behaviors
Hostile attribution bias—assumption that people tend to be motivated by the desire to harm others Potency bias—assumption that interactions with others are contests to establish dominance versus submissiveness Retribution bias—individuals think that taking revenge (retribution) is more important than preserving relationships continued Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.23

26 Self-Serving Biases Used to Justify Aggressive Behaviors (continued)
Derogation of target bias—individuals see those they wish to make (or have made) targets of aggressions as evil, immoral, or untrustworthy Social discounting bias—individuals believe that social customs reflect free will and the opportunity to satisfy their own needs Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.24

27 Workplace Bullying Flaunts status or authority, condescending
Workplace Bullying Repeated and persistent negative actions directed towards one or more individuals that involve a perceived power imbalance and create a hostile work environment Flaunts status or authority, condescending Gives others the silent treatment Insulting, yelling, shouting, rage Verbal forms of sexual harassment Talks about others behind their back Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.25

28 Insights for Addressing Bullying
Insights for Addressing Bullying Speak directly to the bully Tell a friend or colleague Keep a diary of the specific behaviors and incidents Discuss the bullying with your manager or other authority File a formal complaint Legal action, if all else fails Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.26

29 Mobbing: Special Type of Bullying
Mobbing: Special Type of Bullying Ganging up by coworkers, subordinates, or superiors to force someone out of the workplace through rumor, intimidation, humiliation, discrediting, and/or isolation Tyranny of the group Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.27

30 Sexual Harassment Recall discussion of it and harassment in Chapter 2
Sexual Harassment Recall discussion of it and harassment in Chapter 2 Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature Quick pro quo: submission to harassment is used as the basis for employment decisions Hostile environment: creates an offensive working environment Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.28

31 Harassment Policy (See Chapter 2)
Harassment Policy (See Chapter 2) Protection against retaliation Definition of Harassment Plus Prohibition statement Complaint procedure Disciplinary measures Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.29

32 Examples of Actions for Stopping Sexual Harassment Actions
Tell person the behavior is offensive orally and, if necessary, in writing Keep detailed record Tell an appropriate “higher level” person and in writing Use the employer’s procedures for sexual harassment Last resort: go legal Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.30

33 Harm Model of Aggression Continuum
Workplace Violence Any act in which a person is abused, threatened, intimidated or assaulted and that represents an explicit or implicit challenge to the person’s safety, well-being or health at work Harm Model of Aggression Continuum Harassment Aggression Rage Mayhem Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.31

34 Warning Signs of Workplace Violence
Warning Signs of Workplace Violence Violent and threatening behavior—violence “Strange” behavior Performance problems Interpersonal problems: expressions of resentment “At the end of his (or her) rope” Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.32

35 Diversity Competency: Darwin Realty
Diversity Competency: Darwin Realty Learning Insights Some soured relationships can evolve into violence— especially against women Supportive employees and managers may help Best efforts may, sadly, fail due to inadequate legal protections Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.33

36 Aggression Toward the Organization
Aggression Toward the Organization Ignore or be rude to customers Blaming customer problems on higher management Theft Damaging or destroying equipment and facilities Slacking, off, reduced commitment Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.34

37 Discussion Questions Go to What suggestions are presented that help to reduce the stresses of being laid off? What are the ethical implications for leaders who ignore the impacts of severe workplace stress on their employees? Assume a leader is lacking in the diversity competency. How does this deficiency link to the severe workplace stress experienced by some or all employees? Give an example of your use of the fight-or-flight response. In that situation, all things considered, was your response effective or ineffective? continued Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.35

38 Discussion Questions (continued)
Have you experienced or observed workplace incivility? If yes, what impacts, if any, did it have on you or others? Explain. Review the Self-Competency feature entitled “Chesley Sullenberger III, Captain of US Airways Flight 1549.” Based on the descriptions of Sullenberger, what characteristics of the hardy personality are illustrated? Tie the specific comments about him to each of the characteristics identified. Review the Change Competency feature entitled “Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics’ Wellness Program.” How does this program help reduce work stressors and modify behaviors? continued Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.36

39 Discussion Questions (continued)
Identify and list some of the stressors in a job that you have had. Which were the most difficult to deal with? Why? How would others who know you assess you in comparison to (a) the Type A personality, (b) the Type B personality, and (c) the hardy personality? Explain. Have you experienced or witnessed workplace bullying? If yes, did the organization’s leaders deal with it effectively? Explain. Have you experienced or witnessed workplace violence? If yes, did the organization’s leaders deal with it effectively? Explain. Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.37

40 Experiential Exercise: Self Competency—Work-Related Stress Inventory
Do your scores suggest that you need to take action to lower your stress level? If “yes,” what actions do you think would be most effective? Of the seven competencies discussed in this book (communication, self, diversity, etc.), which three are likely to be most effective and important to you in managing your stress level? Explain. Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.38

41 Case: Ethics Competency—Coleen Colombo and Colleagues Resist Mortgage Fraud
Is the “fight-or-flight” response evident in this case? Explain. What influences on the stress experience appear to be present? What were the primary work-related stressors for Coleen Colombo and Sylvia Vega-Sutfin? Explain. Do you think the lawsuit was warranted “rather than accepting arbitration”? Explain. What defense mechanisms used by individuals to justify aggressive behaviors are evident? Explain. Chapter 8: PowerPoint 8.39


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