2 Mandates: Laws & Curriculum 1983: A Nation at Risk (National Commission on Excellence in Education, 1983).“Mediocre educational performance…act of war. We have…been committing…unthinking, unilateral educational disarmament.1994: Goals 2000: Educate America Act - States were instructed to use the framework established by Goals 2000 to create world-class academic standards, provide support, and assess student progress (Lunenburg & Irby, 1999)1995: NASPE - Moving into the Future: National Standards for Physical Education
3 Discussion Q What have you heard about NCLB? How has NCLB been both a positive and negative force in PE?
4 Mandates: Laws & Curriculum 2002: No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act (reauthorization of 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act)1. Increased accountability – States were required to develop standards and align them with assessments. Students were tested in reading and math during grades 3-8 and once during high school. All schools and districts were required to achieve adequate yearly progress (AYP). Test data were publicly disclosed including group scores by socio-economic status, race, disability status, and language proficiency. School district data were disclosed on state report cards and corrective measures were instituted in schools that failed to make AYP.2. Improved flexibility and local control - States and local communities were given more discretion about how federal dollars were spent.3. More parental choice – Parents were given the option of transferring their children from failing schools to better performing public schools. Children who remaining in failing schools were eligible for supplemental educational services including tutoring, after school enrichment, and summer school.4. Greater utilization of proven teaching methods
5 Mandates continued… Students with Disabilities PL (FAPE, IEP, LRE)Section 504 of Rehabilitation ActIEP (performance, goals, services provided, transition, dates/duration, evaluation)Direct service (included in special education definition)Inclusion with support
6 Mandates continued… Legal Liability (covered more in O&A) Act as “reasonable & prudent” professionalUnclear proceduresLack of supervision (Ithaca wall partition)Unsafe activities (steal the bacon soccer)Unanticipated performances (diss long jump)Skill discrepancy/entry levelEquipment/facilities (pamper pole trapeze)Safety guidelinesAge appropriate activities (3rd grade BB)
7 Mandates continued… State government Time allocated Click on “State School Health Policies Database”Summary of CT laws
8 Quasi-Mandate: Healthy People 2010 Healthy People 2010 provides a framework for prevention and promoting health. It is a statement of national health objectives designed to identify the most significant preventable threats to health and to establish national goals to reduce these threats.
9 Trends: Overweight and Obesity Epidemic Stats from National Center for Health Statistics (CDC)
10 Trends: Changing Demographics in the US Life expectancy – the US is 38th in the world♀ 81 years♂ 73 yearsQuality health and physical activity programs will increase for the growing population of older adults
11 Trends: Teaching to Diverse Student Populations Teaching to a diverse student population – How can physical educators ensure an equitable and positive experience regardless of diversity factors? Give some examples from the categories below….GenderRaceCultureSocial ClassPhysical AbilityCognitive AbilityGifted/TalentedAt RiskLearning StyleMelegrano exampleGlatthorn, A.A: Learning Twice
12 Other Trends in PE Physical activity and fitness programs Technology Community fitness programs, corporate fitness, older adult fitness, outdoor recreational activities, after-school physical activity programs for children, programs for individuals with disabilities and economically disadvantaged.TechnologyGaming (Wii, DDR), fitness monitoring (polar HR, bioelectrical impedence), distance learning, , webquests, online textbooks
13 Future of PE Wellness based PE (wellness teachers) Adventure education, confidence building, trust formation, leadership developmentFitness (region 15)Greater reliance on technologyEmbracing greater diversity of physical activity options more aligned with recreational trends