Presentation on theme: "Assessment Determine starting point Analyze Errors Monitor Progress Modify Instruction Instructional Delivery Secure student attention Pace instruction."— Presentation transcript:
Assessment Determine starting point Analyze Errors Monitor Progress Modify Instruction Instructional Delivery Secure student attention Pace instruction appropriately Monitor student performance Provide feedback Instructional Design Determine Content Select Language of Instruction Select examples Schedule scope and sequence Provide for cumulative review Initial Evaluation Archival Assessment Diagnostic Assessments Formal Standardized Measures Madigan, Hall, & Glang(1997) Assessment Instruction Cycle
Graph and Analyze Data Compare trend of student progress to goal line (goal line connects beginning performance with year-end target) –If student progress is less steep than goal line, modify instruction –If student progress is steeper than goal line, set higher target
Interpreting Graphed Data - Aimlines 0 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 Words Read Correctly Per min. Session Number Baseline Intervention
Interpreting Graphed CBM Data: Trend A way to look at overall direction of the observed behavior as demonstrated through a trend. Trend increasing rate or degree zero trend (flat line) decreasing
Interpreting Graphed CBM Data: 3 Data Point Rules If 3 consecutive data points are: below the aimline below the aimline, make an instructional change above the aimlineabove the aimline, the student is making adequate progress. Consider setting a new instructional goal. are not above or below the aimlineare not above or below the aimline for 3 consecutive data points, make no changes
Establishing Aimlines Dynamic Aim –Best guess about the criterion for success Instructional Placement Standards –Criterion for success in based on instructional placement standards Prescriptive Standards –Expected growth rates
Graphic Display Tells us When to make a change Error Analysis What skills need to be taught?
Error Analysis Error analysis Involves reviewing the students scored CBM reading probes to identify specific error types and patterns Helps to set priorities for teaching Error patterns Indicate areas in need of further instruction Constitute a database for determining what content and strategies to teach
Error Analysis Process 1. Identify errors on students ORF probes 2. Categorize errors by type (for example) Letter/sound correspondence letters, sounds, sound combinations Word-type errors Rule based (VCe pattern), word beginnings and endings, compound words Irregular error (e.g., said, was, beautiful) Random guessing error 3. Look for error patterns within each error type
Error Analysis Sounds Reg. Irreg. Multi-Syllable Contract- Words Words Words ions
Error Analysis Example 2 (cont.) money k-now can not gIve it is pie-e-ses
Error Analysis Example 2 do not w-ant say-id one sig want-ing one I will
Error Analysis Sounds Reg. Irreg. Multi-syllabic Contract- Words Words Words ions know (r) money 2 pieces cant have (r) give college its ************************************************************************************************** wantwanted dont said Ill one sign
Error Analysis Example 2 (cont.) Error Patterns Irregular words: Words with silent letters and irregular vowel sounds Word Types: Contractions Multisyllabic Words Sound Combination
Implications for Instruction Use of effective teaching strategies –Pinpoint error types and efficiently teach or reteach the skill Determine instructional strategy to teach the skill. Be sure necessary preskills for strategies are present. Do students know letters used in words? Do students know facts in a computation problem? Do students know basic mechanics rules for written expression ?
Sequencing Guidelines (Carnine, Silbert & Kameenui, 1997) 1. Preskills of a strategy are taught before the strategy itself is presented. 2. Instances that are consistent with a strategy are introduced before exceptions. 3. High utility skills are introduced before less useful ones. 4. Easy skills are taught before more difficult. 5. Strategies and information that are likely to be confused are not introduced at the same time.(Separate skills that are easily confused.)
Instructional Design Structure Selection of Examples: Sequence of Examples: Guided Practice Examples: Independent Practice Examples:
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