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Advanced Biology Chapter 22 Nonspecific Body Defenses and Immunity.

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Presentation on theme: "Advanced Biology Chapter 22 Nonspecific Body Defenses and Immunity."— Presentation transcript:

1 Advanced Biology Chapter 22 Nonspecific Body Defenses and Immunity

2 Nonspecific – Innate Nonspecific – Innate Specific – Adaptive Specific – Adaptive

3 Intact skin and mucosa Intact skin and mucosa

4 Phagocytes Phagocytes Other cells (inflammatory) Other cells (inflammatory)

5 Specific Defense Specific Defense B Cells and T Cells B Cells and T Cells

6 Functional System Functional System No Organs No Organs Trillions of Cells Trillions of Cells

7 Resistance to Disease Resistance to Disease

8 Nonspecific Nonspecific

9 Specific Specific

10 Keratin provides a barrier – resistant to weak acids/bases and bacterial toxins Keratin provides a barrier – resistant to weak acids/bases and bacterial toxins

11 Acidic – pH 3-5, inhibits bacterial growth; sebum contains chemicals toxic to bacteria Acidic – pH 3-5, inhibits bacterial growth; sebum contains chemicals toxic to bacteria

12 Stomach – concentrated HCl and protein digesting enzymes Stomach – concentrated HCl and protein digesting enzymes

13 Saliva and lacrimal fluid contains lysozyme which destroys bacteria Saliva and lacrimal fluid contains lysozyme which destroys bacteria

14 Sticky mucus traps microorganisms Sticky mucus traps microorganisms

15 MACROPHAGES MACROPHAGES Derived from monocytes Derived from monocytes Free MAC wander all over Free MAC wander all over

16 Kupffer cells -liver Kupffer cells -liver Alveolar cells – Lungs Alveolar cells – Lungs Permanent residents Permanent residents

17 WBC that can phagocytize WBC that can phagocytize

18 Neutrophils release defensins – kills everything around it, including itself Neutrophils release defensins – kills everything around it, including itself

19 WBC WBC Defend against parasitic worms by surrounding it and discharging enzymes Defend against parasitic worms by surrounding it and discharging enzymes

20 Some bacteria can replicate inside MACs, MACs are stimulated to release other chemicals (Nitric oxide) Some bacteria can replicate inside MACs, MACs are stimulated to release other chemicals (Nitric oxide)

21 Police the body Police the body Checks markers – releases cytolytic chemicals Checks markers – releases cytolytic chemicals

22 Prevent Spread of damaging agents Prevent Spread of damaging agents

23 Dispose of cell debris Dispose of cell debris

24 Set stage for repair Set stage for repair

25 Enhance the bodys nonspecific defenses by attacking microorganisms or hinder their ability to reproduce Enhance the bodys nonspecific defenses by attacking microorganisms or hinder their ability to reproduce

26 Classical – Binding of antibodies Classical – Binding of antibodies Alternative – Certain protein factors are initiated Alternative – Certain protein factors are initiated

27 Convergence on C3, Splitting it, C3a, C3b. Initiates events that cause lysis, promotes phagocytosis and enhances inflammation Convergence on C3, Splitting it, C3a, C3b. Initiates events that cause lysis, promotes phagocytosis and enhances inflammation

28 Message to tell other cells there is a virus Message to tell other cells there is a virus Those cells synthesize PKR which interferes with viral replication Those cells synthesize PKR which interferes with viral replication

29 Pyrogens Pyrogens Pyro – fire Pyro – fire

30 Causes liver/spleen to retain zinc/iron Causes liver/spleen to retain zinc/iron

31 Helps speed up metabolic rate of cells Helps speed up metabolic rate of cells

32 Can denature bacterial enzymes Can denature bacterial enzymes

33 Advanced Biology Chapter 22 Specific Body Defenses: Immunity

34 Immune Response Immune Response

35 Good Good

36 To mount an immune response is expensive. Lots of energy is required. Being specific, energy is only expended when necessary. To mount an immune response is expensive. Lots of energy is required. Being specific, energy is only expended when necessary.

37 Study of Immunity Study of Immunity

38 Antigen-Specific Antigen-Specific Systemic Systemic Memory Memory

39 Humoral (Antibody- mediated) Humoral (Antibody- mediated) Cellular (Cell-mediated) Cellular (Cell-mediated)

40 Intruders Intruders Not self Not self

41 Immunogenicity – stimulate the proliferation of specific lymphocytes and antibody production Immunogenicity – stimulate the proliferation of specific lymphocytes and antibody production

42 Reactivity – Ability to react with lymphocytes or antibodies Reactivity – Ability to react with lymphocytes or antibodies

43 Part of antigen that is immunogenic Part of antigen that is immunogenic Binds to it Binds to it

44 Self-antigen Self-antigen Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)

45 Class I MHC – All body cells Class I MHC – All body cells Class II MHC – Immune Response Cells Class II MHC – Immune Response Cells

46 Antigen Presenting Cells (APC) Antigen Presenting Cells (APC)

47 B Lymphocytes (Humoral) B Lymphocytes (Humoral)

48 T Lymphocytes (Cell mediated) T Lymphocytes (Cell mediated)

49 To be able to recognize a specific antigen To be able to recognize a specific antigen

50 Eliminates them Eliminates them

51 Before meeting antigen Before meeting antigen It is in your genes It is in your genes An antigen only determines which B or T cell will proliferate and attack An antigen only determines which B or T cell will proliferate and attack

52 Engulfs antigen, shows it to a T cell Engulfs antigen, shows it to a T cell

53 Advanced Biology Chapter 22 Humoral Immune Response

54 Not a game show Not a game show

55 1 st Encounter b/w immunocompetent lymphocyte and invading antigen 1 st Encounter b/w immunocompetent lymphocyte and invading antigen

56 3 to 6 Days 3 to 6 Days Takes time for B cells to differentiate Takes time for B cells to differentiate

57 2ndry much faster, more prolonged and more effective. 2-3 day response 2ndry much faster, more prolonged and more effective. 2-3 day response See pg 775 See pg 775

58 The capacity to produce a powerful 2ndry humoral response The capacity to produce a powerful 2ndry humoral response

59 When B cells encounter antigens and produce antibodies against them When B cells encounter antigens and produce antibodies against them

60 Naturally acquired: During bacterial & viral infections Naturally acquired: During bacterial & viral infections

61 Artificially acquired: Through vaccine Artificially acquired: Through vaccine

62 Dead or attenuated (living but weakened) pathogens Dead or attenuated (living but weakened) pathogens

63 Spare us from most of the symptoms Spare us from most of the symptoms Provide functional antigenic determinates Provide functional antigenic determinates

64 No memory is established No memory is established Fetus to mother Fetus to mother

65 Immunoglobulins Immunoglobulins

66 IgD – Attaches to B cells, activates B cells IgD – Attaches to B cells, activates B cells

67 IgM – Large, pentamer shape. Antigen receptive, 1 st Ig released during primary response. Fixes and activates complement IgM – Large, pentamer shape. Antigen receptive, 1 st Ig released during primary response. Fixes and activates complement

68 IgG – Most abundant – %. Crosses placenta, protects against bacteria, viruses and toxins. Fixes complement. IgG – Most abundant – %. Crosses placenta, protects against bacteria, viruses and toxins. Fixes complement.

69 IgA – Dimer (2), found in body secretions, helps prevent attachment of pathogens to epithelial cells IgA – Dimer (2), found in body secretions, helps prevent attachment of pathogens to epithelial cells

70 IgE – Stem region is bound to mast cells and basophils (allergies) IgE – Stem region is bound to mast cells and basophils (allergies)

71 Antigen-Antibody complexes Antigen-Antibody complexes

72 Complement Complement

73 Neutralization – blocks specific sites on viruses and bacteria Neutralization – blocks specific sites on viruses and bacteria

74 Agglutination – Clumping of cells Agglutination – Clumping of cells

75 Precipitation – not rain. Precipitation – not rain. Antigen molecules, not cells, are clumped together. Antigen molecules, not cells, are clumped together. See page 780. See page 780.

76 Advanced Biology Chapter 22 Cell-Mediated Immune Response

77 Microorganisms that slip inside body cells Microorganisms that slip inside body cells Trying to avoid immune system Trying to avoid immune system

78 CD4 = T4, Helper Ts CD4 = T4, Helper Ts CD8 = T8, Cytotoxic Ts CD8 = T8, Cytotoxic Ts

79 Through processed parts on an APC Through processed parts on an APC

80 Provide means for signaling to immune system cells that infectious microorganisms are hiding in body cells Provide means for signaling to immune system cells that infectious microorganisms are hiding in body cells

81 Step 1: Antigen Binding Step 1: Antigen Binding T cell antigen receptors, TCRs, bind to an antigen-MHC protein complex T cell antigen receptors, TCRs, bind to an antigen-MHC protein complex

82 Helper Ts bind to MHC II – w/help of APC Helper Ts bind to MHC II – w/help of APC Cytotoxic Ts bind to MHC I – needs no APC Cytotoxic Ts bind to MHC I – needs no APC

83 Step 2: Costimulation Step 2: Costimulation If bound to right costimulator (protein, chemicals), stimulation (proliferation) occurs. W/O right match, T cell activity is stopped If bound to right costimulator (protein, chemicals), stimulation (proliferation) occurs. W/O right match, T cell activity is stopped

84 Mediators involved in cellular immunity Mediators involved in cellular immunity

85 Lymphokines – released by activated T cells Lymphokines – released by activated T cells Monokines – secreted by MACs Monokines – secreted by MACs

86 Interleukin 1 & 2 – IL 1 released by MACs tells T cells to liberate IL 2, which encourages T cells to divide more rapidly. Interleukin 1 & 2 – IL 1 released by MACs tells T cells to liberate IL 2, which encourages T cells to divide more rapidly.

87 Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) – enhances nonspecific cell killing Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) – enhances nonspecific cell killing

88 Perforin/lymphotoxin are cell toxins that T cells can release. Lethal Hit. Perforin/lymphotoxin are cell toxins that T cells can release. Lethal Hit.

89 Gamma Interferon – enhance killing power of MACs Gamma Interferon – enhance killing power of MACs

90 Regulatory cells Regulatory cells Interact with B cells Interact with B cells

91 Major function is to chemically or directly stimulate proliferation of other T cells and B cells that have already become bound to antigen Major function is to chemically or directly stimulate proliferation of other T cells and B cells that have already become bound to antigen

92 W/O helper Ts, there is no immune response!! W/O helper Ts, there is no immune response!!

93 Killer T cells Killer T cells They can directly attack and kill other cells They can directly attack and kill other cells

94 Main target is virus infected cells, also tissue cells that have been infected, parasites, cancer cells, foreign cells introduced by blood transfusions or organ transplants Main target is virus infected cells, also tissue cells that have been infected, parasites, cancer cells, foreign cells introduced by blood transfusions or organ transplants

95 Help stop immune response after antigen has been destroyed Help stop immune response after antigen has been destroyed

96 Promote allergic reactions Promote allergic reactions

97


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