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1 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Asbestos Claims Based on Automotive Work Edward M. Slaughter Hawkins Parnell Thackston & Young LLP Atlanta Austin.

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Presentation on theme: "1 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Asbestos Claims Based on Automotive Work Edward M. Slaughter Hawkins Parnell Thackston & Young LLP Atlanta Austin."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Asbestos Claims Based on Automotive Work Edward M. Slaughter Hawkins Parnell Thackston & Young LLP Atlanta Austin Charleston Dallas Los Angeles St. Louis San Francisco

2 2 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Epidemiological Studies Involving Auto Mechanics Study Evidence of Causation? 1) McDonald and McDonald (1980) NO 2) Petersen and Milham (1980)NO 3) Teta et al. (1983)NO 4) Spirtas et al. (1985)NO 5) Olsen and Jensen (1987)NO 6) Jarvholm and Brisman (1988)NO 7) Hansen (1989)NO 8) Gustavsson et al. (1990)NO 9) Woitowitz and Rodelsperger (1994)NO 10) Coggon et al. (1995)NO 11) Teschke et al. (1997)NO 12) Agudo et al. (2000)NO 13) Milham and Ossiander (2001)NO 14) National Institute of Occupational Safety & Health (NIOSH) (2002)NO 15) Hansen and Meersohn (2003)NO 16) Hessel et al. (2004)NO 17) McElvenny et al. (2005)NO 18) Rolland et al. (2010)NO 19) Rake et al. (2010)NO 20) Aguilar-Madrid et al. (2010)NO 21) Merlo et al. (2010)NO

3 3 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Funding for Epidemiological Studies Involving Auto Mechanics Government, Universities and/or Medical Community IndustryCar or Brake Manufacturers Petersen (1980)McDonald (1980)Hessel (2004) Teta (1983)Gustavsson (1990) Olsen and Jensen (1987)Jarvholm and Brisman (1988) Hansen (1989) Spirtas (1985) Woitowitz and Rodeslperger (1994) Coggon (1995) Teschke (1997) Agudo (2000) Milham and Ossiander (2001) NIOSH (2002) Hansen and Meersohn (2003) McElvenny (2005) Rake (2010) Rolland (2010) Aguilar-Madrid (2010) Merlo (2010)

4 4 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Sam Hammar: the epidemiology does not support evidence that chrysotile causes mesothelioma in brake mechanics. - Dr. Sam Hammar, Farag Depo, 11/02/10, 18:18-20

5 5 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Sam Hammar: In terms of science the question of whether automotive mechanics and especially dedicated brake mechanics with protracted exposures to dust derived from grinding, shaping of new brake block linings have an increased risk of malignant mesothelioma remains unresolved and contentious - Dail, David H. and Samuel P. Hammar. Pulmonary Pathology. 2nd ed. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1994

6 6 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Changing Regulations Regarding Asbestos 1930s1940s1950s1960s1970s1980s1990s2000s f/cc 30 f/cc ACGIH 12 f/cc Walsh Healy 5 f/cc OSHA 2 f/cc OSHA 0.2 f/cc OSHA 0.1 f/cc OSHA 0

7 7 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Author Sampling Year(s) AffiliationApproach 8-Hour TWA (f/cc) Mean (Range)* Hickish & Knight 1968Ford UK Analyzed personal samples for a mechanic cleaning 11 cars 0.68 Johnson et al. 1976–77NIOSH Analyzed personal samples using PCM at 7 garages ( ) Roberts1979NIOSH Analyzed personal samples for 1 mechanic using PCM Roberts1979NIOSH Analyzed personal samples for 2 mechanics using PCM ( ) Roberts & Zumwalde 1979NIOSH Analyzed personal samples for 13 mechanics using PCM ( ) Rodelsperger et al Germany Univ. Institute Analyzed 31 personal samples using PCM * Concentrations from authors or estimated from published data by Paustenbach et al Exposure Studies – Automobiles/Light Trucks

8 8 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Author Sampling Year(s) AffiliationApproach 8-Hour TWA (f/cc) Mean (Range)* Plato et al Dept. of Occ. Health – Karolinska Hospital - Sweden Analyzed 23 samples using PCM 0.1 ( ) Moore1988Univ. of PAAnalyzed 35 samples ( ) Sheehy et al.1986–87NIOSH Analyzed 83 personal samples ( ) Yeung et al.1996 Worksafe Australia Analyzed 4 personal samples using PCM ( ) * Concentrations from authors or estimated from published data by Paustenbach et al Exposure Studies – Automobiles/Light Trucks

9 9 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Automobile Brake Mechanic 8-Hour TWA Exposure Studies ASBESTOS CONCENTRATION (f/cc) Prior OSHA Level (1) (2) (3) (4) 1987 <0.002 (5) (6) (7) 1996 (1) Hikish & Knight (1970); (2) Johnson (1979) NIOSH; (3) Nicholson (1984) NIOS 1979 Data; (4) Kauppinen (1987); (5) Moore (1988); (6) Federa Reg (1990) OSHA Data; (6) Yeung (1996) Mean or Single Value Range (no mean or single value reported)

10 10 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP U.S. Government Warning CAUTION Contains Asbestos Fibers Avoid Creating Dust Breathing Asbestos Dust May Cause Serious Bodily Harm 29 CFR 1910, § a(g)(2)(ii) (June 7, 1972)

11 11 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Actual Brake Product Warning Caution Contains Asbestos Fibers Avoid Creating Dust Breathing Asbestos Dust May Cause Serious Bodily Harm

12 12 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP U.S. Government Jobsite Warning Signs Asbestos dust may cause asbestosis, a severe lung disease, and is implicated in the development of certain cancers. Control of exposure to asbestos dust helps protect against these hazards. 29 CFR 1910, § a(e)(2) (January 12, 1972)

13 13 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP OSHA – Government Position: Asbestos Is A Carcinogen

14 14 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP EPA Gold Book Guidance for Preventing Asbestos Disease Among Auto Mechanics (1986)

15 15 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Asbestos – A Carcinogen Asbestos is 1 of over 130 occupational carcinogens listed by the U.S. Government Source:

16 16 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Peanut Butter – No Safe Level? Q. And peanut butter has aflatoxin in it, right? A. It's not supposed to, but they allow a certain amount of aflatoxin in peanut butter, yes, sir. Q. Do you eat peanut butter? A. Occasionally. Q. Here's some peanut butter. Would you hold that up, please? That's peanut butter, right? A. Yes. Q. And based on your view, that there's no safe level of exposure to a known carcinogen, someone who eats peanut butter will put themselves at an increased risk of liver cancer? A. Yes. Dr. Arthur Frank, Schwarber Depo, 09/10/07, 106:1-17

17 17 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Dose Calculation 101 Exposure Duration (work-years) Asbestos Concentration (fibers/cc) Cumulative Asbestos Exposure Dose (fiber/cc years) X

18 18 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Cumulative Estimate of Brake Work in Work-Years Plaintiff worked for 1 year doing brake work 25% of the time Exposure duration =.25 (.25 x 1) Plaintiff worked for 15 years doing brake work 25% of the time Exposure duration = 3.75 (.25 x 15) Plaintiff worked for 40 years doing brake work 50% of the time Exposure duration = 20 (.5 x 20)

19 19 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Average Time Weighted Average for Mechanics =.04 f/cc Estimated and measured 8-hour TWAs for mechanics servicing automobiles and light trucks range from: Paustenbach et al. An Evaluation of the Historical Exposures of Mechanics to Asbestos in Brake Dust. Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 18: 786–804 (2003) <0.002 to 0.68 f/cc Mean of 0.04 f/cc

20 20 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Plaintiff worked for 1 year doing brake work 25% of the time Exposure duration =.25 (.25 x 1 year) Plaintiff worked for 15 years doing brake work 25% of the time Exposure duration = 3.75 (.25 x 15) Plaintiff worked for 40 years doing brake work 50% of the time Exposure duration = 20 (.5 x 40).25 x.04 =.01 f/cc years 3.75 x.04 =.15 f/cc years 20 x.04 =.80 f/cc years Example #1: Applying a 0.04 TWA

21 21 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Plaintiff worked for 1 year doing brake work 25% of the time Exposure duration =.25 (.25 x 1 year) Plaintiff worked for 15 years doing brake work 25% of the time Exposure duration = 3.75 (.25 x 15) Plaintiff worked for 40 years doing brake work 50% of the time Exposure duration = 20 (.5 x 40)..25 x 5.0 = 1.25 f/cc years 3.75 x 5.0 = f/cc years 20 x 5.0 = 100 f/cc years Example #2: TWA = 5.0 f/cc

22 22 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Plaintiff worked for 1 year doing brake work 25% of the time Exposure duration =.25 (.25 x 1 year) Plaintiff worked for 15 years doing brake work 25% of the time Exposure duration = 3.75 (.25 x 15) Plaintiff worked for 40 years doing brake work 50% of the time Exposure duration = 20 (.5 x 40)..25 x 0.68 = 0.17 f/cc years 3.75 x 0.68 = 2.55 f/cc years 20 x 0.68 = 13.6 f/cc years Example #3: TWA = 0.68 f/cc Hickish & Knight (1968)

23 23 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Worst Case Scenario Career auto mechanic does brake jobs for 4 hours each day for over 40 years 40 x.5 x.04 = 0.80 f/cc years 40 x.5 x 5 = 100 f/cc years

24 24 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Ambient Lifetime Exposure Range DEFENSE NED HOLSTEIN SUSAN RATERMAN RICHARD HATFIELD

25 25 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Comparing Ambient to Working Hours Ambient (Background): 24 hours/day X 365 days/year X 40 years Total = 350,400 hours Working Life: 40 hours/week X 50 weeks/year X 40 years Total = 80,000 hours Ambient Hours350,400 Work Hours80,000 = 4.38

26 26 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Calculating Ambient Lifetime Dose Age X Ambient Range X 4.38 Cumulative Lifetime Dose 60 X [ ] X 4.38 Range – 0.262

27 27 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Exposure Exposure Duration (work-years) Asbestos Concentration (f/cc) Cumulative Asbestos Exposure Dose (f/cc-years) LowHighLowHigh Cumulative Estimate of Vehicular Brake or Friction Work <0.25Average TWA = 0.04 <0.01 Ambient Lifetime Exposure 49-year lifetime equivalent Exposure Estimate at Current OSHA PEL Example of Friction Exposure

28 28 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Auto Mechanic With Mesothelioma Whats the true source of exposure?

29 29 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP

30 30 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Toxicity of Asbestos Hodgson and Darnton (2000) The toxicity level of the different types of asbestos is as follows: Crocidolite : Amosite : Chrysotile = 500 : 100 : 1

31 31 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Sources for Searching for Alternative Exposure Social Security Records EPA Superfund Website ASTDR Website Bankruptcy Trust Websites WR Grace Website OSHA Website Environmental Working Group Website USGS Asbestos Survey Maps FOIA Requests Local Newspaper Searches

32 32 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Example: Work At Asbestos Mill Auto mechanic alleging brake products caused his mesothelioma Through investigation, discovered plaintiff worked at Amercoat Plant, an asbestos mill in Oklahoma At site inspection, discovered raw crocidolite still located plant where plaintiff worked Cause of mesothelioma Crocidolite

33 33 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Newspaper Article: The Daily Ardmoreite The firm has grown to the extent that Amercoat is now synonymous with corrosion control… Growth plans have expanded the plants operations into four other areas- filament wound fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe, custom fabricated fiberglass reinforced plastic products, asbestos mats, and inorganic coatings

34 34 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Exposure Exposure Duration (work-years) Asbestos Concentration (f/cc) Cumulative Asbestos Exposure Dose (f/cc-years) LowHighLowHigh Cumulative Estimate of Hammer Mill Work <0.50Average TWA = 50.0 <25.0 Ambient Lifetime Exposure 49-year lifetime equivalent Exposure Estimate at Current OSHA PEL Example of Hammer Mill Exposure

35 35 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Whats the Difference in Risk? Cumulative Estimate of Brake Work Cumulative Estimate of Hammer Mill Work <0.01 f/cc X (Chrysotile) f/cc X (Crocidolite) ,500

36 36 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Case Example: Grew Up In West Bank, Louisiana Auto mechanic alleging brake products caused his mesothelioma Grew up in West Bank - identified address through deposition or discovery Admitted to playing with scraps from Johns-Manville plant at deposition Compared home addresses to EPA Remediation Documents Cause of mesothelioma Crocidolite

37 37 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP JM Plant Plaintiffs Residences Marrero, Louisiana 0.5 miles 1 mile1.5 miles

38 38 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP EPA Asbestos Removal Area – Marrero, LA Plaintiffs Residences School

39 39 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Case Example: Egypt Auto mechanic alleging brake products caused his mesothelioma Plaintiff grew up in Cairo, Egypt where several asbestos cement factories are located, including ones that used crocidolite Investigate plaintiffs prior addresses and compare to map of crocidolite factories – have plaintiff verify map at deposition Cause of mesothelioma Crocidolite

40 40 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Cairo, Egypt Plaintiff Attended elementary school and lived in North Cairo Went to University in Helwan Asbestos Factories

41 41 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Mesothelioma Epidemic in Egypt Plaintiff lived within a mile and a half of the Siegwart facility, an asbestos cement factory Epidemiological studies have shown that the closer people lived to the factory, the higher the risk of mesothelioma There were also 14 other asbestos factories within the vicinity of Plaintiffs home and school in Cairo

42 42 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Mesothelioma Epidemic in Egypt Several articles have been written about the mesothelioma epidemic in Egypt This epidemic is due, in large part, to neighborhood exposures

43 43 HAWKINS PARNELL THACKSTON & YOUNG LLP Conclusion Work with asbestos-containing brakes does not cause mesothelioma Epidemiology Industrial Hygiene Alternative Exposure


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