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Presentation on theme: "OUCH THAT HURTS…. SPORTS INJURIES"— Presentation transcript:

PSE 4U LECTURE PRESENTATION MR. D. GRAHAM Department of Health and Physical Education Westdale Secondary School

2 Sports Injuries We are living in a time when interest in sport and fitness has never been higher. Correspondingly, our knowledge about injury and illness as a result of physical activity has also increased. Sport injury  a physical hurt or damage of the body due to the participation in a physical activity

3 Ligaments Ligament  a band of fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone or cartilage to bone, supporting and strengthening a joint Joint Line  point where ligament crosses the joint Synovial fluid provides lubrication and nourishment where the ligaments join together to form a joint capsule Sprain  injury due to sudden forceful movement that damages ligament, resulting in pain, swelling and some loss of function

4 Sprains First degree  the ligaments are stretched and may be torn resulting in pain, minimum loss of function, little swelling  treat injury with ice and depending level of pain tolerance, may return to activity within in a short period Second degree  the ligaments are stretched and torn resulting in pain, moderate loss of function, swelling, instability  treat injury with ice, allow 6-10 weeks for sprain to heal completely Third degree  the ligaments are completely torn resulting in extreme pain, major loss of function, severe instability  emergency situation that will require surgery, allow weeks for sprain to heal

5 Sprains

6 Strains Tendon  a fibrous cord by which a muscle is attached to a bone; contributes to effective muscle movement Strain  an injury to muscle tendon caused by excessive stretching resulting in pain and swelling First degree  a slightly pulled muscle without tearing of tendon fibers and no loss of strength Second degree  tearing of fibers in a tendon and strength is diminished Third degree  rupture of the muscle-tendon-bone attachment with separation of fibers and requires surgery

7 Muscle Injuries Muscle tear  an injury, sometimes called a muscle pull, resulting in the rupture of muscle tissue and will limit movement  the degree of the injury depends on the depth of the tear, the location of the tear and the amount torn Muscle contusion  injury resulting from a direct blow to the surface of the body and may result in muscle haematoma (bruise)  the intensity of a contusion can range from superficial to deep tissue compression and hemorrhage  a contusion or black eye from a blow to the head while boxing can cause bleeding into the eyelids

8 Cartilage Cartilage  tough and flexible connective tissue found between bones permitting smooth movement of joints Cartilage injury  tear can be caused by a direct blow to the knee, overuse of an injured knee, or violent muscle contraction  resulting in pain (especially when bearing weight) locking of the joint, ‘giving way’ of the injured area

9 Knee Injuries Pivot twisting injuries  occur when foot is fixed resulting in an injury to the posterior or anterior cruciate ligament  for example, when foot is fixed to the ski, quickly rotating your body can result in damage to the ligament Direct contact  tearing of the medial collateral ligament, the anterior cruciate ligament and medial cartilage on direct contact  for example, taking a blow to the knee from the side with your cleats dug into the ground results in injury Deceleration injuries  when athlete decelerates in a shorted time period in comparison to acceleration phase  for example, in basketball one must accelerate and stop quickly to change directions, resulting in damage

10 Knee Injuries Fractured patella  a complete or incomplete break in the upper or lower portion of the patella Osgood-Schlatter disease  attachment of patellar tendon on the tibial tuberosity is damaged due to overuse, occurs in children Q-angle  common female injury due to a greater Q-angle or wider pelvis region, resulting in anterior cruciate ligament sprains Osgood-Schlatter disease

11 Knee Injuries Unhappy triad  tearing of the medial collateral
ligament, anterior cruciate ligament and medial cartilage Patella femoral syndrome  deterioration and softening of the articular cartilage of the kneecap, resulting in chronic knee pain Patella femoral syndrome

12 Testing for Injuries Ligament  apply force, look for displacement of joint beyond normal range of motion, checking non injured side as well Muscle  palpate, look for swelling, look for pain during muscle contraction Active  person produces movement of their own, look for full range of motion and willingness to move, compare both sides Passive  trainer moves the injured joint and checks for range of motion, checks points of discomfort, check for joint stability Resistance  look for a loss of strength, athlete may be weak and without pain suggesting damage to the nervous system

13 Phases of Injury Acute  zero to 48 hours, most important period as to flush out scar tissue, rid of swelling by applying ice to injury Sub-acute  3 to 5 days post injury, the rehabilitation phase Chronic  old or repeated injury, must complete rehabilitation for a longer length of time

14 Immediate Care  the objective of immediate care of soft-tissue injuries is to reduce inflammation and usually speeds recovery on injury Pressure  apply pressure to reduce swelling or bleeding around joint Ice  apply ice to injured area for 10 to 20 minutes, remove for 10 minutes and repeat Elevate  elevate the injured area above the level of the heart Restrict  rest or restrict movement of the injured area and do not return to activity too soon

15 Inflammation Signs  injuries to soft tissue often react by producing inflammation in the injured area Swelling  may be immediate or develop over time Heat  or increased local temperature Altered  function, such as restricted movement Redness  or discoloration of injured area Pain  determined by severity of injury

16 Concussions Concussion  sudden loss of consciousness due to a direct blow resulting in an alteration in vision and equilibrium First degree  no actual loss of consciousness, only a blurring of consciousness lasting 10 to 20 seconds Second degree  blurring or loss of consciousness lasting 20 seconds to 2 minutes, minimal symptoms are found Third degree  loss of consciousness lasting 2 minutes or more  do not have to lose consciousness to be concussed and do not have to be hit in the head to suffer a concussion

17 Concussions  the body is travelling at a rapid velocity and suddenly stops. The brain is travelling at the same velocity as the body, and when the body stops, the brain continues to move forward at the same velocity and direction. The brain hits the skull and bounces back to hit the other side of the skull. This occurs because the brain is floating in cerebral spinal fluid. When the brain strikes the skull, a portion of the brain is damaged and when enough damage is done, alterations occur, resulting in a concussion  the injured person may appear normal, but may lapse into state later on. Therefore, the person should never be left alone

18 Assessing Concussions
Grade one  remove from game, examine immediately, person may return in 48 hours Grade two  remove from game, examine abnormalities frequently, person may return after a week Grade three  seek professional medical aid immediately, neurological evaluation needed  always assume the situation is life threatening, always assume concussion has resulted in neck injury A  airway B  breathing C  circulation (pulse)

19 Signs of a Concussion  face color may be red or pale
 skin may be cool and moist  pulse may be rapid, strong, weak, slow  shallow breathing  dilated pupil, vary in size, no response to light  unbalanced stance  ‘Rabinski’ rub bottom of foot and no action  count back by 7’s from 100  headaches Brain anoxia  a state in which there is an inadequate oxygen supply to the brain tissues

20 Prevention  add more foam to helmet  purchase a strong helmet
 secure helmet with soft chin strap  use mouth guard  modify rules of game


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