2OBJECTIVES Define the terms. List & discuss common environmental hazzards.Discuss first aid & the contents of a first aid kit.List causes of accidents.
3Objectives Discuss how to prevent hazzardous situations. List & describe poisonous snakes, spiders, insects & plants.Discuss topographical hazzards.Lists things to be aware of.
4TERMSACCIDENT: any sudden or unintentional event that causes injury or property damageANTISEPTIC: a substance such as alcohol, iodine or hydrogen peroxide applied to prevent infection.
5ANESTHETIC: a substance used to stop pain or itching. LACERATION: a cut, tear or mangled place.WOUND: a hurt or injury caused by cutting, stabbing or breaking, etc.HABITAT: areas where animals & plants naturally live or grow.
6HEAT CRAMPS: caused by loss of salt resulting in muscular pains & spasms. HEAT EXHAUSTION: feel weak, dizzy, sweaty, nauseous, pale or have cramps after being in the sun.HEAT STROKE: victim has extremely high body temperature & a failure of the sweating mechanism. CAN BE LIFE THREATENING!
7SAFETY: the action or condition of being safe, free from danger, risk or injury.
9HEAT Hot temperatures causes burns, cramps, exhaustion & heat strokes. PROTECTION:Proper clothingKnowing the signsPacing yourself
10INSECTSGenerally not life threatening but annoying during spring, summer & fall.PROTECTION:Knowing the dangerous insects & how to avoid them.Dress properly.Use chemical repellents.
11WILDLIFE Most wildlife will avoid humans and most are not a threat. PROTECTION:Be alert!Stay calmWear proper clothingUse good judgement
12TOPOGRAPHIC HAZARDSUneven ground, holes, rotten limbs & dead trees. Twisted or broken ankles or backs are common occurrences.PROTECTION:Recognize dangers in the forestStay alert!Practice Safety
13FIRST AIDThe immediate, temporary care given to the victim of an accident or sudden illness until the services of a physician can be obtained.Can prevent infection, give comfort & assurance to a victim & in extreme cases can save an arm, leg or a life.
14FIRST AID KIT CONTENTS Antiseptic Adhesive bandages Gauze pads, various sizesGauze rollsTriangular bandages for large wounds & slingsScissors
15FIRST AID KIT CONTENTS Tweezers Elastic bandages for sprains Snake bite kitBurn ointmentEye wash bottleInflatable splint
16CAUSES OF ACCIDENTSMany accidents occur due to negligence of an individual or group.Not paying attention to hazardsDistraction by someone elseLack of concentration on the job at handMOSTLY BY PURE CARELESSNESS!!!
17HOW TO ELIMINATE HAZARDOUS SITUATIONS Stay alert & keep your mind on the job.Conduct yourself in a safe manner, NO HORSEPLAY!Look for potential hazards.Be aware of others & what they are doing.Use the proper tool for the job.Know the safety regulations for the tools & equipment you are using.
18Report defective tools & equipment to the instructor. ALWAYS REPORT ALL ACCIDENTS TO THE TEACHER, NO MATTER HOW SMALL OR INSIGNIFICANT IT MIGHT BE!Wear proper clothing & safety equipment in the field.
19SNAKESThe best protection against snakes is to be alert at all times & wear snake leggings or snake boots.
20POISONOUS SNAKESTimber rattler or Canebreak rattler
23SPIDER & OTHER INSECTS Seldom cause death by bites but it does occur. Prevalent in the forest of the SoutheastPrevention includes keeping alert, watching where you sit or put your hands, use repellents.
24TICKS Carry Lyme disease which can be fatal Cause Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF), Tularemia & American Q feverPROTECTION: Keep pants tucked in, use repellents (DEET), wear light colored clothing
25FIRE ANTS3 Species found in the South, 2 imported from South America & 1 native.Produce large mounds with thousands of insects.Very aggressiveAttacks usually result in several stingsPROTECTION: Keep alert and avoid disturbing mounds.
26SCORPIONS Stings can be painful Found in wooded areas, under leaves, fallen trees & stumpsSome victims have severe reaction to stingsPROTECTION: Keep alert, watch where you sit or put your hands
27Bees, wasps, yellow jackets & hornets Usually nest in hives in the ground, trees, bushes or old buildings or barnsVery aggressive with multiple stings commonCan cause allergic reactions in some victimsPROTECTION: Keep alert and watch for nests or signs of insectsYellow jacket
30SPIDERSCan cause a number of symptoms from minor to severe swelling, itching, nausea, blistering & pain but are not generally serious.Two notable exceptions are the Black Widow, considered to be the most venomous spider in the U.S. & the Brown Recluse also called the Fiddleback spider.
31BLACK WIDOWPossess a neurotoxin that effects the central nervous systemBites are extremely dangerous and should seek medical attention immediately
32BROWN RECLUSEPoison is a necrotoxin which causes the surrounding area to decayBites are extremely dangerous and should seek medical attention immediatelyAlso known as the fiddleback spider
33SADDLEBACK CATERPILLAR Found on underside of leaves of trees or bushesStings victims when touched or disturbedBurning sensation when stungPROTECTION: long sleeved shirts
34POISONOUS PLANTSPoison Ivy: usually vines found on trees but can appear as a bush; smooth margin leaves in groups of 3’s; produces berries that can cause outbreaks
35Poison Oak: usually small bushes, 3-lobed leaves
37POSIONOUS PLANTS PROTECTION: Keep skin covered & avoid plants with 3-leaf clustersWash hands with soap & water if you contact the plantDo not burn poison ivy or oak. Smoke can blister the lungs causing illness & sometimes death
38TOPOGRAPHIC HAZARDSHazards found in the forest from terrain, dead trees, streams & objects found in forest settings.The ability to recognize dangerous situations in the forest is the best safety factor.Stay alertUse cautionUse good judgement
39THINGS TO BE AWARE OF!Dead snags or limbs hung up in the canopy that could fall on you.Stump holes & old wells.Bluffs or sudden drop-offs.Deep ponds or creeks.Vines & briars that can snag you.Loose rocks or soil.Low hanging limbs.