Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4: Some Theoretical Aspects of Words?"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 4: Some Theoretical Aspects of Words? Words Skills: Language and Activities for Talking About Words
2Last ClassWe looked at classroom interactions for talking about spelling and meaning. In particular, we looked clarifying spelling and defining words with synonyms, antonyms, and appositives.
3Last ClassQuick is spelled Q-U-I-C-K. That’s K as in KING. It’s another word for fast. It’s the opposite of slow.
4Today’s ClassWe are going to look at some theoretical aspects of words. Having a clear conception of these aspects will help us when we have to explain pronunciation or phonetic rules to students.
5Consonants and Vowels: A Source of Confusion How many consonants and vowels does the word below have?THREE
6The answer depends on what you mean by consonant and what you mean by vowel. Sometimes when we say consonant we mean a consonant letter and sometimes we mean a consonant sound. Likewise for vowel.
7THREE has three consonant letters: T, H, and R. THREE has two vowel letters: E, ETHREE has two consonant sounds: /θ/, /r/THREE has one vowel sound: /i/
8Consonant LettersConsonant letters are b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, and z.The are called consonant letters because they typically make a consonant sound (but not always).
9Consonant SoundsConsonants are made by closing restricting the vocal tract in some waySome examples are the /b/ in ball, the /f/ in fish, or the /w/ in water.
10Vowel Letters The vowel letters are a, e, i, o, and u. They are called vowel letters because they typically make a vowel sound.
11Vowel Sounds Vowels are sounds made with an open vocal tract. Some examples are the /æ/ in bat and the /aɪ/ in like.
12In class task 1 Fill out table 4-1 for the following words: cat like boughtsightship
13Short VowelsVowel can be long or short. The words hat, bed, bit, dot, and sub have short vowels. They are also called CVC words. (consonant –short vowel-consonant)
14Long VowelsLong vowel words are made by adding a ‘bossy E’ which is also called a ‘silent E’ or a ‘magic E’ by teachers.Some long vowel words are bike, tape, and rope.When explaining this teachers often say that the E bosses the vowel (changes its sound).
15Other Long VowelsOther long vowels are made up of vowel digraphs such as the ee in seed, the ai in train or the oa in toad.
16Phonemes versus Graphemes This brings us to our next point what is a digraph. First we need to know what a phoneme is and what a grapheme is.
17PhonemeA phoneme is an indivisible unit of sound like the /f/ in fish.The word cat for example has three phonemes /k/, /æ/, and /t/.
18Grapheme A grapheme is a written representation of a phoneme. /k/ is represented by c/æ/ is represented by a./t/ is represented by t.
19DigraphsA digraph is a combination of letters that represent a single phoneme (sound).Some consonant digraphs are SH, CH, NG, and CK.Some vowel digraphs are EE, EA, OO, OA, and AI
20Consonant BlendsConsonant blends are combinations of consonants that do not represent a single phoneme and can be segmented into their individual sounds.The /f/ /r/ in frog is an example.
21R-controlled vowelsR-controlled vowels are combinations of vowels followed by r. The r causes the vowel pronunciation to change (hence it's called r-controlled). The ar in star, the ir in bird, and the or in storm are examples.These are notoriously difficult for Korean speakers.
22In Class Group Discussion In groups, discuss and number the following items with 1 being the first thing you would teach and 8 being the last thing you would teach.__ vowel digraphs, __ consonant blends __ long vowels (bossy E), __ consonant digraphs__consonants sounds, __ short vowels__r-controlled vowels, __ cvc words
23Words that Don’t FitSome words do not have regular phoneme-grapheme correspondences. Some example of these words are:one, two, what, does, do, word, and warUnfortunately, these are some of the most common words in the English language.
24Sight WordsPhonics can offer partial help in decoding these words, but for the most part they must be learned from sight.We call them sight words.
25Dolch Sight WordsIn 1936, Dolch compiled a list of the most common words found in children’s literature in the English language.These are the Dolch sight word list.Many of these words have irregular grapheme-phoneme correspondences.
26Syllables in a WordThis is actually not a well-defined concept and there is some controversy as to what a syllable is.One way to define a syllable is a unit of sound centered around a vowel. It may or may not include consonant sounds before or after it.
27Language Focus: Syllables Look at the way we talk about syllables in a word.Paper has two syllables.There are two syllables in paper.
28In Class Task How many syllables do the following words have? attitude everyscreeched
29Chapter 5: Pronunciation Use these expressions to ask about pronunciation.How do you pronounce (this word/this/that/it)?How is (this word/it/this/that) pronounced?How do you say (this word/this/that/it)?
30You pronounce it /word/. Use these expressions to give pronunciation:You pronounce it /word/.It's pronounced /word/.Note: the similarity with spelling.
31Letters and SoundsWhen talking about the sounds that letters make use these expressions:(The) B makes a /b/ sound.(The) S-H makes a /ʃ/ sound.Note: make and sound collocate strongly.
32Exercise 5-1 What sound do the letters in bold make? century later knightphilosophyocean
33Talking About Silent Letters Use these expressions when talking about silent letters.Lamb has a silent B.The T in watch is silent.
34Exercise 5-2 What are the silent letters in these words? debt island raspberrysignautumn
35Clarifying Pronunciation Similar to clarifying letters.That's /b/ as in boy.That's /k/ like the /k/ in catChoose a well-known noun with a well-known pronunciation.
36Exercise 5-3 Clarify the pronunciation of the letters in bold: brother peachmachinewestsawlaugh