2Definition – Adventure Ed. Actively engaging participants in authentic experiences that have benefits and consequences; focused on intra and interpersonal development
3Q&A What are some ‘synonyms’ for adventure education? Project adventure, team challenge, cooperative activitiesWhat are some examples of contrived adventure type activities?
4Related to but not: Outward Bound (loosely) Outdoor/Wilderness educationMore about recreation and education in natural settingsLess about contrived activities and personal/group growthMay incorporate some elements of adventure education (challenge by choice and personal growth but it is different)Examples: Orienteering, rock climbing, camping, kayaking, mountain biking, etc
5Generalized History of AE 4H, YMCA, YWCAKurt Hahn (Germany, Gordonstoun-Scotland)Outward BoundNOLSProject Adventure (make advantages of outward bound available to everyone)More recentAEE, ACCT, specializations
6Adventure Education Values process of participation and promotes: Cooperation (collaborative problem solving)Challenge oneself (expand horizons/abilities)Risk assessmentTrust in othersProblem solvingSelf-esteem/confidenceCommunication (speaking and listening)Tolerance for differencesExploring personal limitations
8Teacher Roles Safety enforcer Rule enforcer Encourager Teach spotting, mindful of safety ALWAYSRule enforcerKeep students on task according to the rulesEncouragerProblem presenter, NOT SOLVERBe patient, use subtle hints if necessaryModify challenge if necessaryTone setterCreate atmosphere of respect, enjoyment, trust; redirect negative or unacceptable behavior; “blind” or “mute” dominant people so other leaders might emerge.
10Experiential Learning Cycle STEPS – all are importantExplanation of the task (briefing)Usually in the form of a story or scenario (sinking ship etc)Experience or physical activity (activity)Reflecting (debriefing)Group discussionChallenge students with questions to promote affective growth for group and individualsApply or transfer learning to real-life settings
11Experiential Learning Cycle DebriefingExperience,Reflect (what happened)What does it meanNow what (application)Do’s and don’ts
12Debriefing Types: Let experience speak for itself Tell them what happened (well, improve, learned) – not recommendedQuestions that guide participants to discoveries - most commonSubtype: Tie experience back to frontload emphasisSelf facilitation – journals, pose own Q’s, create poem
13DebriefingObserve the students during the challenge, take notes if necessary. Debriefing helps groups realize what is going on – the big picture. This includes the way the group was communicating, working out conflicts, how the group made decisions, and how individuals helped or hindered the group. By gaining insights to these things, the group will pull together.From Cayuga Nature Center
14Sample Debriefing Q’s How did you feel when…? What did you do when…? What happened when…?What did the group do when…?Did everyone’s idea get heard?Was there any one leader? Who?Did everyone like the final solution?What was the biggest highlight for you?What was the biggest challenge?What was the biggest disappointment?Have you learned anything about yourself?
15Sample Debriefing Q’s What effective communication were used? How did your teammates enable you to succeed?How did everyone work together?What would you change if you could do it again?What did we learn? What helped us to do that learning?What worked well? Not so well? How could we improve our work together?Did the conversation move us closer to our goals? How?Did we actually focus on the students' work, or on other issues? (personal)Did we follow the process as we planned? If not, why? How could we improve our process?How might we build on this conversation?On what issues were individuals willing to compromise?
16Sample Debriefing Q’sHow did your team work as a group? Was there conflict in the decision making process?How did the students discern important messages from less important communications? Were certain communications automatically given priority or ignored? How does this compare with the flow of information in the real world?Who else had the same experience?Who reacted differently?What do you understand better about yourself/your group?What might we draw/pull from this experience?What does that suggest to you about [communication/conflict/etc.] in general?How does this relate to other experiences you’ve had?How could you apply/transfer that?What might you do to help/hinder yourself?How could you make it better?What modifications can you make work for you?
18Full Value Contract Social contract Student ownership Written or verbalActions toward othersStudent ownershipContracts are the guidelinesMay want to have each student sign a contract prior to participating.Example 1Example 2
19Challenge by ChoiceDefinition – participants may choose the level of learning that promotes optimal learningHonor a student’s ability to decline so long as they don’t abuse the choice.As an alternative to yes/no choice options, provide an appropriate range of options. For example, on the pamper pole, one student may choose to jump from top while another chooses to climb only 5 feet upRespect choicesStretching their potentialExample
20Possible ActivitiesHigh Elements: Group or individual challenges in the air requiring a belay for safety (pamper pole, ships crossing)Low Elements: Group or individual challenges that require spotting (nitro crossing, spider’s web…)Field Initiatives: Group or individual challenges on the ground, not spotting requiredRopes courses are typically outside, project adventure typically takes place in a gymnasium
21Levels of Difficulty Not all elements are made the same Beginning IntermediateAdvancedAll aboardWild WooseyHickory JumpThe mazeMohawk WalkThe WallWhale WatchPortholdTrust FallTP ShuffleSpiderwebFidget Ladder(Project Adventure Inc.)
22Risk – Perceived v. Actual General Perception of RiskActual Frequency of InjuryActual Potential Severity of InjuryWarm-up games and activitiesLowModerateLow challenge course elementsLow to ModerateHigh challenge course elementsHighVery LowModerate to High(Adventure Program Management Training Manual, Project Adventure Inc., 2005)
23Injury Rate Comparison ActivityInjury Rate (per million hours of exposure)Project Adventure challenge course activities4.3Backpacking192Downhill skiing724Competitive Orienteering840Basketball2,650Soccer4,500(20 Year Safety Study, Project Adventure Inc, 2005)
24PE at Chenango Forks, NY Combination of Adventure and Outdoor Ed. Indoor climbing wall in poolMountain biking at local state parkKayaking/canoeing at local pond, state park, and poolRopes course and tower in woods alongside schoolLower grades completed extensive project adventure curriculum and various low elements prior to advanced components
25Emphasis of Standards within Adventure Education 1. Demonstrates competency in motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities.Minor2. Demonstrates understanding of movement concepts, principles, strategies, and tactics as they apply to the learning and performance of physical activities.3. Participates regularly in physical activity.4. Achieves and maintains a health-enhancing level of physical fitness.5. Exhibits responsible personal and social behavior that respects self and others in physical activity settings.Major6. Values physical activity for health, enjoyment, challenge, self-expression and/or social interaction.Reference: Moving into the Future: National Standards for Physical Education, 2nd ed. (2004), p. 11
28Sample Activities Sample activities 1 Sample activities 2 Common and popularSample activities 2Over 200 activitiesDr. Cummiskey’s facilitator notebookTeam building bible
29Knot Tying You Tube Videos Figure 8 KnotFigure 8 LoopFigure 8 Follow Through (used for direct tie-ins)Super 8/Double Figure 8Butterfly Knot (aka Alpine Butterfly Knot)Double Fisherman’sPrussic knotOverall website for all of the above knots if you prefer animated tutorials
30Other Resources Sample program Websites: http://wilderdom.com/pa.htm
31Competencies Checklist Adventure programs want facilitators to have the proper training in order to promote participant success and minimize potential liability. This may involve mastering several competencies laid out in a checklist or self-assessment formatExample self assessment