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Concept Mapping: An Introduction to Structured Conceptualization William Trochim Cornell University.

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1 Concept Mapping: An Introduction to Structured Conceptualization William Trochim Cornell University

2 What is concept mapping? Focuses and helps objectify the group planning process Helps individuals think as a group......without losing their individuality Helps groups to manage complexity......without trivializing or losing detail A method that...

3 In about 4 hours of participant time a group can......Brainstorm a large set of issues... innovations in way network is delivered (investigate) corporate/structural alignment assist in the development of non-traditional partnerships (Rehab with the Medicine Community) expand investigation and knowledge of PSN'S/PSO's continue STHCS sponsored forums on public health issues (medicine managed care forum) inventory assets of all participating agencies (providers, Venn Diagrams) access additional funds for telemedicine expansion better utilization of current technological bridge continued support by STHCS to member facilities expand and encourage utilization of interface programs to strengthen the viability and to improve the health care delivery system (ie teleconference) discussion with CCHN

4 innovations in way network is delivered (investigate) corporate/structural alignment assist in the development of non-traditional partnerships (Rehab with the Medicine Community) expand investigation and knowledge of PSN'S/PSO's continue STHCS sponsored forums on public health issues (medicine managed care forum) inventory assets of all participating agencies (providers, Venn Diagrams) access additional funds for telemedicine expansion better utilization of current technological bridge continued support by STHCS to member facilities expand and encourage utilization of interface programs to strengthen the viability and to improve the health care delivery system (ie teleconference) discussion with CCHN...organize the issues... brainstorm Work quickly and effectively under pressure 49 Organize the work when directions are not specific. 39 Decide how to manage multiple tasks. 20 Manage resources effectively. 4 sort Scan a multitude of information and decide what is important Manage time effectively 2Manage resources effectively. 3Scan a multitude of information and decide what is important. 4Decide how to manage multiple tasks. 5Organize the work when directions are not specific. 1Manage time effectively Rating Sheet rate

5 innovations in way network is delivered (investigate) corporate/structural alignment assist in the development of non-traditional partnerships (Rehab with the Medicine Community) expand investigation and knowledge of PSN'S/PSO's continue STHCS sponsored forums on public health issues (medicine managed care forum) inventory assets of all participating agencies (providers, Venn Diagrams) access additional funds for telemedicine expansion better utilization of current technological bridge continued support by STHCS to member facilities expand and encourage utilization of interface programs to strengthen the viability and to improve the health care delivery system (ie teleconference) discussion with CCHN Work quickly and effectively under pressure 49 Organize the work when directions are not specific. 39 Decide how to manage multiple tasks. 20 Manage resources effectively. 4 sort Scan a multitude of information and decide what is important Manage time effectively 2Manage resources effectively. 3Scan a multitude of information and decide what is important. 4Decide how to manage multiple tasks. 5Organize the work when directions are not specific. 1Manage time effectively Rating Sheet rate brainstorm organize Management Financing Regionalization STHCS as model Community & Consumer Views Information Services Technology …”map” the issues...

6 FinancingSTHCS as model Technology Management Regionalization Community & Consumer Views Information Services better utilization of current technological bridge (8) expand and encourage utilization of interface programs to strengthen the viability and to improve the health care delivery system (ie teleconference) (10) patient information system to be shared by all members (19) the STHCS will assess the status of all participant organization interface technology development and needs (20) teleconference board meeting (21) development of interface technology (30) continued advancement of tech interface (44) assure 100% board member access to wide area network (46) utilize the televideo telecommunication, telemedicine to share resources/strengths (50) establishment of a virtual network -- as an intranet originally and eventually an internet solution (61)

7 ManagementFinancing Regionalization Mission & Ideology Community & Consumer Views Information Services Technology innovations in way network is delivered (investigate) corporate/structural alignment assist in the development of non-traditional partnerships (Rehab with the Medicine Community) expand investigation and knowledge of PSN'S/PSO's continue STHCS sponsored forums on public health issues (medicine managed care forum) inventory assets of all participating agencies (providers, Venn Diagrams) access additional funds for telemedicine expansion better utilization of current technological bridge continued support by STHCS to member facilities expand and encourage utilization of interface programs to strengthen the viability and to improve the health care delivery system (ie teleconference) discussion with CCHN Work quickly and effectively under pressure 49 Organize the work when directions are not specific. 39 Decide how to manage multiple tasks. 20 Manage resources effectively. 4 sort Scan a multitude of information and decide what is important Manage time effectively 2Manage resources effectively. 3Scan a multitude of information and decide what is important. 4Decide how to manage multiple tasks. 5Organize the work when directions are not specific. 1Manage time effectively Rating Sheet rate brainstorm organize Management Financing Regionalization STHCS as model Community & Consumer Views Information Services Technology map...prioritize the issues...

8 ManagementFinancing Regionalization Mission & Ideology Community & Consumer Views Information Services Technology innovations in way network is delivered (investigate) corporate/structural alignment assist in the development of non-traditional partnerships (Rehab with the Medicine Community) expand investigation and knowledge of PSN'S/PSO's continue STHCS sponsored forums on public health issues (medicine managed care forum) inventory assets of all participating agencies (providers, Venn Diagrams) access additional funds for telemedicine expansion better utilization of current technological bridge continued support by STHCS to member facilities expand and encourage utilization of interface programs to strengthen the viability and to improve the health care delivery system (ie teleconference) discussion with CCHN Work quickly and effectively under pressure 49 Organize the work when directions are not specific. 39 Decide how to manage multiple tasks. 20 Manage resources effectively. 4 sort Scan a multitude of information and decide what is important Manage time effectively 2Manage resources effectively. 3Scan a multitude of information and decide what is important. 4Decide how to manage multiple tasks. 5Organize the work when directions are not specific. 1Manage time effectively Rating Sheet rate brainstorm organize Management Financing Regionalization STHCS as model Community & Consumer Views Information Services Technology map r =.72 Counties 1 & 2County Community & Consumer Views Management Information Services Regionalization Technology Financing Mission & Ideology Technology Community & Consumer Views Information Services Management Regionalization Financing Mission & Ideology...examine consensus... prioritize

9 r = innovations in way network is delivered (investigate) corporate/structural alignment assist in the development of non-traditional partnerships (Rehab with the Medicine Community) expand investigation and knowledge of PSN'S/PSO's continue STHCS sponsored forums on public health issues (medicine managed care forum) inventory assets of all participating agencies (providers, Venn Diagrams) access additional funds for telemedicine expansion better utilization of current technological bridge continued support by STHCS to member facilities expand and encourage utilization of interface programs to strengthen the viability and to improve the health care delivery system (ie teleconference) discussion with CCHN Work quickly and effectively under pressure 49 Organize the work when directions are not specific. 39 Decide how to manage multiple tasks. 20 Manage resources effectively. 4 sort Scan a multitude of information and decide what is important Manage time effectively 2Manage resources effectively. 3Scan a multitude of information and decide what is important. 4Decide how to manage multiple tasks. 5Organize the work when directions are not specific. 1Manage time effectively Rating Sheet rate brainstorm organize Management Financing Regionalization STHCS as model Community & Consumer Views Information Services Technology map ManagementFinancing Regionalization Mission & Ideology Community & Consumer Views Information Services Technology prioritize Importance Feasibility …and “drill back down” to details for prioritizing action

10 CM C oncept M apping (Sorting input) To organize the issues Concept Mapping Process M M easurement (Rating input) To observe expectations and results PM P attern M atching and Go Zones To link expectations and results, importance and capacity

11 Concept Mapping to organize identify group shared vision represent group ideas pictorially encourage teamwork facilitate group decision making Uses information from individuals to:

12 ...focus 1. Prepare Project: Develop a focus “ A specific issue that is relevant to the mental health of women and girls is..." To begin…

13 Participants Contribute Knowledge and Opinion 1. Prepare Project Body image issues- (breast size, hair color/texture, nose, other physical features vs external valuation of "beauty"). (9) The development and evaluation of Internet- based interventions that can be accessed by women anywhere, anytime. (31) The impact of race, ethnicity, culture, class, sexual orientation and age on the expression of symptoms. (54) Lack of encouragement and opportunity at the elementary, middle and high school levels for career opportunities that girls can aspire to. (61) Lack of parity for mental health care coverage. (102) Body image issues- (breast size, hair color/texture, nose, other physical features vs external valuation of "beauty"). (9) The development and evaluation of Internet- based interventions that can be accessed by women anywhere, anytime. (31) The impact of race, ethnicity, culture, class, sexual orientation and age on the expression of symptoms. (54) Lack of encouragement and opportunity at the elementary, middle and high school levels for career opportunities that girls can aspire to. (61) Lack of parity for mental health care coverage. (102) 2.Generate Ideas

14 Participants Build the Conceptual Framework 1. Prepare Project sort 2.Generate Ideas 3.Structure Ideas Scan a multitude of information and decide what is important Manage time effectively 2Manage resources effectively. 3Scan a multitude of information and decide what is important. 4Decide how to manage multiple tasks. 5Organize the work when directions are not specific. 1Manage time effectively Rating Sheet Scan a multitude of information and decide what is important Manage time effectively 2Manage resources effectively. 3Scan a multitude of information and decide what is important. 4Decide how to manage multiple tasks. 5Organize the work when directions are not specific. 1Manage time effectively Rating Sheet rate Work quickly and effectively under Organize the work when directions are not specific. 39 Decide how to manage multiple tasks. 20 Manage resources effectively Scan a multitude of information and decide what is important Manage time effectively 2Manage resources effectively. 3Scan a multitude of information and decide what is important. 4Decide how to manage multiple tasks. 5Organize the work when directions are not specific. 1Manage time effectively Rating Sheet Scan a multitude of information and decide what is important Manage time effectively 2Manage resources effectively. 3Scan a multitude of information and decide what is important. 4Decide how to manage multiple tasks. 5Organize the work when directions are not specific. 1Manage time effectively Rating Sheet

15 The Process Turns Knowledge into Data 3.Structure Ideas 2.Generate Ideas 1. Prepare Project 4.Compute Maps r =.51 Area 1Area Community & Consumer Management Information Services Regionalization Technology Financing Mission & Ideology Technology Community & Consumer Information Services Management Regionalization Financing Mission & Ideology Management Financing Regionalization Mission & Ideology Community & Consumer Views Informatio n Services Technology

16 And Data Into Meaning Management Change Control Client Issues Team Issues Personal Awareness & Skill Graphical User Interface Technical Issues Processes/ Methodology Documentation 5.Interpret Maps 4.Compute Maps 3.Structure Ideas 2.Generate Ideas 1. Prepare Project

17 Meaning Into Action, Policy, and Evaluation 5.Interpret Maps 4.Compute Maps 3.Structure Ideas 2.Generate Ideas 1. Prepare Project 6.Utilize Maps r =.51 Area 1Area Community & Consumer Views Management Information Services Regionalization Technology Financing Mission & Ideology Technology Community & Consumer Views Information Services Management Regionalization Financing Mission & Ideology

18 The emerging structure… …contains all the details and provides a conceptual framework. Capacity of Community Services Gerotechnology Impairments Housing Continuum Economic Security Access to Benefits Communication Attitudes Towards Aging Special Needs & Mental Health Transportation Workforce Caregiving Engaged Lifestyle

19 The Raw Materials: –Statements –Sort Input from each participant The Tools –Aggregation of Sort Data –Similarity Matrix –Multidimensional Scaling –Hierarchical cluster analysis –Anchoring/Bridging Analysis How Did We Build These Results?

20 Binary, square similarity matrix Sort for one participant Representation Total square similarity matrix across participants

21 Multidimensional Scaling Output: An n-dimensional mapping of the entities Input: A square matrix of relationships among a set of entities

22 Multidimensional Scaling If 4 out of 5 people grouped statement 1 with 2 If 3 out of 5 people grouped statement 1 with 2 If 2 out of 5 people grouped statement 1 with 2 If 1 out of 5 people grouped statement 1 with 2 If 0 out of 5 people grouped statement 1 with 2 Similarity Matrix

23 Multidimensional Scaling Similarity Matrix

24 Multidimensional Scaling Similarity Matrix

25 Multidimensional Scaling Similarity Matrix

26 Multidimensional Scaling A map can be depicted as a coordinate matrix x y Similarity Matrix xy Coordinate Matrix

27 Multidimensional Scaling A map can be depicted as a coordinate matrix 1 x y Similarity Matrix xy Coordinate Matrix And from the coordinates we can compute the distances between all pairs of points 2 1 a b c a 2 + b 2 = c 2 a = difference between x values b = difference between y values c = distance

28 Multidimensional Scaling A map can be depicted as a coordinate matrix 1 x y Similarity Matrix xy Coordinate Matrix And can show these as a matrix of distances between points Distance Matrix And from the coordinates we can compute the distances between all pairs of points a 2 + b 2 = c 2 a = difference between x values b = difference between y values c = distance

29 Stress Is the relationship between the similarity input matrix and the distances on the map Multidimensional Scaling A map can be depicted as a coordinate matrix 1 x y Similarity Matrix xy Coordinate Matrix And can show these as a matrix of distances between points Distance Matrix And from the coordinates we can compute the distances between all pairs of points a 2 + b 2 = c 2 a = difference between x values b = difference between y values c = distance

30 Stress Is the relationship between the similarity input matrix and the distances on the map Multidimensional Scaling Similarity Matrix Distance Matrix 1,15 1,21 1,32 1,44 2,25 2,30 2,40 3,35 3,43 4,45 1,10.0 1,23.2 1,32.8 1,41.1 2,20.0 2,34.8 2,44.6 3,30.0 3,42.1 4,40.0 SimilaritiesDistances Low stress values means there is a greater correspondence between the similarities and the map

31 Multidimensional Scaling Directionality –Does MDS know North from South? Dimensionality –Why only two dimensions? Stress –How much does it really matter?

32 Cluster Analysis Hierarchical –clusters get built in a tree-like method Agglomerative –builds toward all items in one pile (divisive - all start in one and divide) Clustering criterion –the rule used to decide the next cluster merge –Ward’s algorithm Number of Clusters

33 Cluster Analysis MergePoints Merged 1

34 Cluster Analysis MergePoints Merged 1

35 Cluster Analysis MergePoints Merged 1212

36 Cluster Analysis MergePoints Merged

37 Cluster Analysis (1 + 6) + 8 MergePoints Merged

38 Cluster Analysis (1 + 6) MergePoints Merged

39 Cluster Analysis (1 + 6) (9 + 10) MergePoints Merged

40 Cluster Analysis (1 + 6) (9 + 10) ((1 + 6) + 8)) + (3 + 4) MergePoints Merged

41 Cluster Analysis (1 + 6) (9 + 10) ((1 + 6) + 8)) + (3 + 4) (5 + 7) + ((2 + (9 + 10)) MergePoints Merged

42 (1 + 6) (9 + 10) ((1 + 6) + 8)) + (3 + 4) (5 + 7) + ((2 + (9 + 10)) (((1 + 6) + 8)) + (3 + 4)) + (5 + 7) + ((2 + (9 + 10)) Cluster Analysis MergePoints Merged

43 What is the Bridging Value? tells you whether the statement was sorted with others that are close to it on the map or whether it was sorted with items that are farther away on the map.

44 The Bridging Value Helps us interpret what content is associated with specific areas of the map Statements with lower bridging values are generally better indicators of the meaning of their part of the map than statements with higher bridging values Statements with higher bridging values means statement is a bridge between different areas on map

45 Compute Bridging Values A bridging value always ranges from 0 to 1 The bridging values are computed after the map is computed. The cluster bridging value is simply the average bridging value across all statements in a cluster.

46 Bridging Value, Step 1 1.We begin by computing the proportion of sorters who put point i and j together in a pile: where s ij = number of sorters who placed point i and j together in the same pile m = total number of sorters p ij = proportion of sorters who placed point i and j together in the same pile

47 Bridging Value, Step 2 2.We compute the Euclidean Distance between all pairs of standardized points: Where x i = MDS x-coordinate for point i y i = MDS y-coordinate for point i x j = MDS x-coordinate for point j y j = MDS y-coordinate for point j d ij = standardized Euclidean Distance between points i and j

48 Bridging Value, Step 3 3. We compute the unstandardized bridging value: where b i = bridging raw value for point i p ij = proportion of sorters who placed point i and j together in the same pile d ij = standardized Euclidean Distance between points i and j

49 Bridging Value, Step 4 4. Normalize the bridging raw value: Where b i =bridging raw value for point i min(b)=minimum of the b i values max(b)=maximum of the b i values b i =standardized bridging value

50 Sort Pile Label Analysis finds the “best fitting” sort pile label for a cluster done after the map is computed based on centroid computations

51 Sort Pile Label Analysis What is a centroid? X Y

52 Sort Pile Label Analysis What is a centroid? X Y

53 Sort Pile Label Analysis What is a centroid? Average X Average Y X

54 Sort Pile Label Analysis x x Your Pile: 50, 36, 43, 3, 13, 16, Cluster Centroid Pile Centroid distance

55 Every cluster has a centroid Every sort pile has a centroid –the average x,y for all items in the pile –this is the best location on the map for the pile label –can compute the distance between this label and any other point on the map For each cluster –compare distance between its centroid and each sort pile centroid –best sort pile label is the closest one Sort Pile Label Analysis

56 Cluster Map with Labels Capacity of Community Services Gerotechnology Impairments Housing Continuum Economic Security Access to Benefits Communication Engaged Lifestyle Attitudes Towards Aging Special Needs & Mental Health Transportation Workforce Caregiving

57 Importance Layer Value to to to to to 4.46 Capacity of Community Services Gerotechnology Impairments Housing Continuum Economic Security Access to Benefits Communication Engaged Lifestyle Workforce Caregiving Transportation Special Needs & Mental Health Attitudes Towards Aging

58 Feasibility Layer Value to to to to to 3.59 Gerotechnology Impairments Housing Continuum Economic Security Access to Benefits Communication Engaged Lifestyle Caregiving Transportation Workforce Special Needs & Mental Health Capacity of Community Services Attitudes Towards Aging

59 Importance Engaged Lifestyle Gerotechnology Attitudes Towards Aging Special Needs & Mental Health Housing Continuum Communication Caregiving Impairments Capacity of Community Services Workforce Transportation Access to Benefits Economic Security Layer Value to to to to to 4.46 Capacity of Community Services Gerotechnology Impairments Housing Continuum Economic Security Access to Benefits Communication Engaged Lifestyle Workforce Caregiving Transportation Special Needs & Mental Health Attitudes Towards Aging

60 Feasibility Economic Security Access to Benefits Housing Continuum Caregiving Workforce Gerotechnology Attitudes Towards Aging Capacity of Community Services Special Needs & Mental Health Impairments Engaged Lifestyle Transportation Communication Layer Value to to to to to 3.59 Gerotechnology Impairments Housing Continuum Economic Security Access to Benefits Communication Engaged Lifestyle Caregiving Transportation Workforce Special Needs & Mental Health Capacity of Community Services Attitudes Towards Aging

61 Importance vs. Feasibility r = -.27 ImportanceFeasibility Economic Security Access to Benefits Housing Continuum Caregiving Workforce Gerotechnology Attitudes Towards Aging Capacity of Community Services Special Needs & Mental Health Impairments Engaged Lifestyle Transportation Engaged Lifestyle Gerotechnology Attitudes Towards Aging Special Needs & Mental Health Housing Continuum Communication Caregiving Impairments Capacity of Community Services Workforce Transportation Access to Benefits Economic SecurityCommunication

62 Comparing each Unique Statement on Importance and Feasibility: Go Zones the number of senior community centers in outer boroughs and their ability to handle influx (1) 1 2 homecare services during holidays and vacations (2) 3 affordable opportunities for recreation / entertainment/ socialization for seniors, including access to fitness and wellness programs (3) 4 research funding for Alzheimer's (4) Cluster mean of each scale is used to divide the matrix Feasibility Low High Importance Low High

63 Features of Concept Mapping guides project throughout life-cycle - beginning to end involves many stakeholder groups throughout the entire training life-cycle easily scalable and transferable uses state-of-the-art analytical tools to provide rigor and credibility

64 Benefits of Concept Mapping visual product is easy to understand and present identifies disconnects before significant investments are made offers significant cost savings while improving the quality of project


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