Presentation on theme: "ECE369A: Fundamentals of Computer Architecture"— Presentation transcript:
1 ECE369A: Fundamentals of Computer Architecture MWF 10:00 AM - 10:50 AM in ECE107InstructorTeaching AssistantName:Ali AkogluShuai ChangOffice:ECE 356-BECE232Phone:(520)Office Hours:Mondays, Wednesdays13:00 – 14:00 orby appointment
2 General Policies, TipsD. A. Patterson and J.L. Hennessy, Computer Organization and Design: The Hardware/Software Interface, Fifth Edition, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.Prerequisite: ECE274 & Programming in C & Programming in Veriolg/VHDLCourse involves class (3 credits) and laboratory (1 credit) activities.Class activities will involve 3 to 4 assignments, 4 examinations, and a semester long project.Laboratory activities will accompany the topics covered in the lectures with hands on programming based assignments. A coordinated sequence of lab assignments will help students design, program, debug, and evaluate specific components of a datapath using the Xilinx ISE and a FPGA board.Laboratory activities (programming and debugging) and assignments (15) will help students build the foundation for the semester long datapath-design based project.Final project will require students implement a synthesizable datapath based on a given instruction set architecture and evaluate its performance on a specific FPGA platform.
3 General Policies, Tips NO LATE ASSIGNMENTS Make-ups may be arranged prior to the scheduled activity.Inquiries about graded material => within 3 days of receiving a grade. You are encouraged to discuss the assignment specifications with your instructor, your teaching assistant, and your fellow students. However, anything you submit for grading must be unique and should NOT be a duplicate of another source.Read before the classParticipate and ask questionsManage your timeStart working on assignments early
4 Distribution of Components GradingDistribution of ComponentsGrades ScaleComponentPercentagePercentage Grade Class Exercises1090-100%ALaboratory1580-89%BExam-I870-79%CExam-II1260-69%DExam-III14Exam-IV16Project25
9 Introduction This course is all about how computers work But what do we mean by a computer?Different types: desktop, servers, embedded devicesDifferent uses: automobiles, graphics, finance, genomics…Different manufacturers: Intel, Apple, IBM, Microsoft, Sun…Different underlying technologies and different costs!
10 First Microprocessor Intel 4004, 1971 4-bit accumulator architecture8mm pMOS2,300 transistors3 x 4 mm2750kHz clock8-16 cycles/inst.
11 Team from IBM building PC prototypes in 1979 HardwareTeam from IBM building PC prototypes in 1979Motorola chosen initially, but was late8088 is 8-bit bus version of 8086 => allows cheaper systemEstimated sales of 250,000100,000,000s sold[ Personal Computing Ad, 11/81]
12 DYSEAC, first mobile computer! Carried in two tractor trailers, 12 tons + 8 tonsBuilt for US Army Signal Corps
13 End of Uniprocessors Hardware and software, ILP! Intel cancelled high performance uniprocessor, joined IBM and Sun for multiple processorsHardware based
14 Processor Technology Trends Shrinking of transistor sizes: 250nm (1997) 130nm (2002) 65nm (2007) 32nm (2010)28nm(2011, AMD GPU, Xilinx FPGA)22nm(2011, Intel Ivy Bridge, die shrink of theSandy Bridge architecture)Transistor density increases by 35% per year and die sizeincreases by 10-20% per year… more cores!
16 Power Consumption Trends Dyn power a activity x capacitance x voltage2 x frequencyCapacitance per transistor and voltage are decreasing,but number of transistors is increasing at a faster rate;hence clock frequency must be kept steadyLeakage power is also risingPower consumption is already between W inhigh-performance processors today3.3GHz Intel core i7: 130 watts
18 What you will learnHow programs are translated into the machine languageAnd how the hardware executes themHardware and Software InterfaceBoth Hardware and Software affect performance:Algorithm determines number of source-level statementsLanguage/Compiler/Architecture determine machine instructionsProcessor/Memory determine how fast instructions are executedWhat is parallel processing
19 Below Your Program Handling input/output Managing memory and storage Application softwareWritten in high-level languageSystem softwareCompiler: translates HLL code to machine codeOperating System: service codeHandling input/outputManaging memory and storageScheduling tasks & sharing resourcesHardwareProcessor, memory, I/O controllers
20 Abstraction Delving into the depths reveals more information An abstraction omits unneeded detail, helps us cope with complexity
21 Instruction Set Architecture A very important abstractioninterface between hardware and low-level softwarestandardizes instructions, machine language bit patterns, etc.advantage: different implementations of the same architecturedisadvantage: sometimes prevents using new innovationsModern instruction set architectures:IA-32, PowerPC, MIPS, SPARC, ARM, and others
23 Performance Measure, Report, and Summarize Make intelligent choices See through the marketing hypeKey to understanding underlying organizational motivation Why is some hardware better than others for different programs? What factors of system performance are hardware related? (e.g., Do we need a new machine, or a new operating system?) How does the machine's instruction set affect performance?
24 Defining PerformanceWhich airplane has the best performance?
25 Computer Performance: TIME, TIME, TIME Response Time (latency) — How long does it take for my job to run? — How long does it take to execute a job? — How long must I wait for the database query?Throughput — How many jobs can the machine run at once? — What is the average execution rate? — How much work is getting done?If we upgrade a machine with a new processor what do we increase?If we add a new machine to the lab what do we increase?
26 Execution Time Elapsed Time counts everything (disk and memory accesses, I/O , etc.)a useful number, but often not good for comparison purposesCPU timedoesn't count I/O or time spent running other programscan be broken up into system time, and user timeOur focus: user CPU timetime spent executing the lines of code that are "in" our program
27 Book's Definition of Performance For some program running on machine X, PerformanceX = 1 / Execution timeX"X is n times faster than Y" PerformanceX / PerformanceY = nProblem:machine A runs a program in 20 secondsmachine B runs the same program in 25 seconds
28 Clock CyclesInstead of reporting execution time in seconds, we often use cyclesclock rate (frequency) = cycles per second (1 Hz. = 1 cycle/sec)Clock (cycles)Data transfer and computationUpdate stateClock period
29 How to Improve Performance So, to improve performance (everything else being equal) you can either (increase or decrease?) ________ the # of required cycles for a program, or ________ the clock cycle time or, said another way, ________ the clock rate.
30 How many cycles are required for a program? Could assume that number of cycles equals number of instructions1st instruction2nd instruction3rd instruction4th5th6th...timeThis assumption is incorrect, different instructions take different amounts of time on different machines. Why? hint: remember that these are machine instructions, not lines of C code
31 Different numbers of cycles for different instructions timeMultiplication takes more time than additionFloating point operations take longer than integer onesAccessing memory takes more time than accessing registersImportant point: changing the cycle time often changes the number of cycles required for various instructions (more later)
32 ExampleOur favorite program runs in 10 seconds on computer A, which has a 4 GHz. clock. We are trying to help a computer designer build a new machine B, that will run this program in 6 seconds. The designer can use new (or perhaps more expensive) technology to substantially increase the clock rate, but has informed us that this increase will affect the rest of the CPU design, causing machine B to require 1.2 times as many clock cycles as machine A for the same program. What clock rate should we tell the designer to target?"Don't Panic, can easily work this out from basic principles
33 ExampleOur favorite program runs in 10 seconds on computer A, which has a 4 GHz. clock. We are trying to help a computer designer build a new machine B, that will run this program in 6 seconds. The designer can use new (or perhaps more expensive) technology to substantially increase the clock rate, but has informed us that this increase will affect the rest of the CPU design, causing machine B to require 1.2 times as many clock cycles as machine A for the same program. What clock rate should we tell the designer to target?"
34 Now we understand cycles A given program will requiresome number of instructions (machine instructions)some number of cyclessome number of secondsWe have a vocabulary that relates these quantities:cycle time (seconds per cycle)clock rate (cycles per second)CPI (cycles per instruction) a floating point intensive application might have a higher CPIMIPS (millions of instructions per second) this would be higher for a program using simple instructions
35 Back to the Same Formula, CPI (Cycles/Instruction)
36 CPI ExampleSuppose we have two implementations of the same instruction set architecture (ISA). For some program, Machine A has a clock cycle time of 250 ps and a CPI of 2.0 Machine B has a clock cycle time of 500 ps and a CPI of What machine is faster for this program, and by how much?
37 Let’s Complicate Things A Little bit… Which sequence will be faster? How much?A compiler designer is trying to decide between two code sequences for a particular machine. Based on the hardware implementation, there are three different classes of instructions: Class A, Class B, and Class C, and they require one, two, and three cycles (respectively).What is the CPI for each sequence?The first code sequence has 5 instructions: 2 of A, 1 of B, and 2 of CThe second sequence has 6 instructions: 4 of A, 1 of B, and 1 of C.
38 Op Frequency Cycle Count ALU 43% 1 Load 21% 1 Store 12% 2 Branch 24% 2 Scary StuffOp Frequency Cycle CountALU %Load %Store %Branch %Let’s say we were able to reduce the cycle count for “Store” operations to 1 with a cost of slowing our clock by15%. Is this new design feasible?
39 Speed up = old time/new time = (ICx oldCPI x T)/(IC x newCPI x 1.15T) Example(Contd.)Old CPI = x x2 = 1.38New CPI = x2 = 1.24Speed up = old time/new time= (ICx oldCPI x T)/(IC x newCPI x 1.15T)=0.97so, don't make this change.
45 What is MIPS? Instruction execution rate => higher is better Issues:Can not compare processors with different instruction setsVaries between programs on the same processorCan vary inversely with the performance… ?
47 Benchmarks Performance best determined by running a real application Use programs typical of expected workloadOr, typical of expected class of applications e.g., compilers/editors, scientific applications, graphics, etc.Small benchmarksnice for architects and designerseasy to standardizecan be abusedSPEC (System Performance Evaluation Cooperative)companies have agreed on a set of real program and inputsvaluable indicator of performance (and compiler technology)can still be abused
48 Benchmark GamesAn embarrassed Intel Corp. acknowledged Friday that a bug in a software program known as a compiler had led the company to overstate the speed of its microprocessor chips on an industry benchmark by 10 percent. However, industry analysts said the coding error…was a sad commentary on a common industry practice of “cheating” on standardized performance tests…The error was pointed out to Intel two days ago by a competitor, Motorola …came in a test known as SPECint92…Intel acknowledged that it had “optimized” its compiler to improve its test scores. The company had also said that it did not like the practice but felt to compelled to make the optimizations because its competitors were doing the same thing…At the heart of Intel’s problem is the practice of “tuning” compiler programs to recognize certain computing problems in the test and then substituting special handwritten pieces of code… Saturday, January 6, 1996 New York Times
50 Problems with Benchmarking Hard to evaluate real benchmarks:Machine not built yet, simulators too slowBenchmarks not portedCompilers not readyBenchmark performance is composition of hardware and software (program, input, compiler, OS) performance, which must all be specified
52 Remember Performance is specific to a particular program Total execution time is a consistent summary of performanceFor a given architecture performance increases come from:increases in clock rate (without adverse CPI affects)improvements in processor organization that lower CPIcompiler enhancements that lower CPI and/or instruction countAlgorithm/Language choices that affect instruction countPitfall: expecting improvement in one aspect of a machine’s performance to affect the total performance
55 Exercise Suppose we have made the following measurements: Frequency of FP operations = 25%Average CPI of FP operations = 4.0Average CPI of other instructions = 1.33Frequency of FPSQR = 2%CPI of FPSQR = 20Assume that the two design alternatives are:to reduce the CPI of FPSQR to 2 orto reduce the average CPI of all FP operations to 2.Compare these alternatives.
57 Amdahl's LawThe performance enhancement of an improvement is limited by how much the improved feature is used. In other words: Don’t expect an enhancement proportional to how much you enhanced something.Example: "Suppose a program runs in 100 seconds on a machine, with multiply operations responsible for 80 seconds of this time. How much do we have to improve the speed of multiplication if we want the program to run 4 times faster?" How about making it 5 times faster?
58 Amdahl’s Law1. Speed up = 42. Old execution time = 1003. New execution time = 100/4 = 254. If 80 seconds is used by the affected part =>5. Unaffected part = = 20 sec6. Execution time new = Execution time unaffected + Execution time affected / Improvement7. 25= /Improvement8. Improvement = 16
59 Example: Speed up using parallel processors Suppose an application is “almost all” parallel: 90%.What is the speedup using 10, 100, and 1000 processors?new time = old time * 10% + ( old time * 90% ) / 10Speed up (P=10) = old time / new timeSpeedup (P=10) = 5.3Speedup (P = 100 ) = 9.1Speedup ( P = 1000 ) = 9.9
61 ExampleSuppose we are considering an enhancement that runs 10times faster than the original machine but is only usable 40% of the time. What is the overall speedup gained by incorporating the enhancement?
62 ExampleImplementations of floating point square root vary significantly in performance. Suppose FP square root (FPSQR) is responsible for 20% of the execution time of a critical benchmark on am machine, One proposal is to add FPSQR hardware that will speed up this operation by a factor of 10. The other alternative is just to try to make all FP instructions run faster; FP instructions are responsible for a total of 50% of the execution time. The design team believes that they can make all FP instructions run two times faster with the same effort as required for the fast square root. Compare those two design alternatives.
63 Multiprocessors Hardware executes multiple instructions at once Multicore microprocessorsMore than one processor per chipRequires explicitly parallel programmingCompare with instruction level parallelismHardware executes multiple instructions at onceHidden from the programmerHard to doProgramming for performanceLoad balancingOptimizing communication and synchronization
64 Hardware/Software Tradeoffs Which operations are directly supported in “hardware” and which are synthesized in software?How much hardware should you employ to speed up certain functions?Hardware SoftwareAdvantages Speed, Flexibility,Consistency easier/faster designlower cost of errorsDisadvantages CostNo flexibility Slowness
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