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Organizational Behavior

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Presentation on theme: "Organizational Behavior"— Presentation transcript:

1 Organizational Behavior
13th Edition Don Hellriegel & John W. Slocum, Jr.

2 Understanding Individual Differences
Chapter 3

3 Learning Goals Explain the basic sources of personality formation
Identify a set of personality dimensions that affect performance Describe the attitudes that affect performance Explain how emotions impact employees’ performance Chapter 3: PowerPoint 3.1

4 Figure 3.1: Sources of Personality Differences
Heredity Environment Culture Family Group Membership Life Experiences Chapter 3: PowerPoint 3.3

5 Heredity As much as 50 to 55 percent of personality traits may be inherited. Chapter 3: PowerPoint 3.5

6 Influence of Culturally Based Work-Related Values
Individualism-Collectivism Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance Gender role Orientation Long-term Orientation Chapter 3: PowerPoint 3.6

7 Three Characteristics of Collectivism-Individualism
Focus on “we” versus “I” Emphasis on belonging to an organization Avoid pointing out mistakes to “save face” Non-conformists; individuals pursue own goals Emphasis on individual initiative and achievement Everybody has a right to a private life and opinion Adapted from G. Hofstede and G.J. Hofstede. Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005. Chapter 3: PowerPoint 3.7

8 Three Characteristics of Power Distance
LOW (SMALL) POWER DISTANCE HIGH (LARGE) POWER DISTANCE Inequality in society should be minimized All should have equal rights Status and titles are of less importance than knowledge Employees should be submissive to leaders Power holders are entitled to privileges and status Employees should follow chain of command Adapted from G. Hofstede and G.J. Hofstede. Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005. Chapter 3: PowerPoint 3.8

9 Three Characteristics of Uncertainty Avoidance
LOW (WEAK) UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE HIGH (STRONG) UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE The uncertainty inherent in life is accepted and each day is taken as it comes. Conflict and competition can be used constructively. Dissent is accepted. The uncertainty inherent in life is a threat. Rules and laws reduce uncertainty. Conflict and competition can and should therefore be avoided in favor of orderliness. There is need for consistency. Adapted from G. Hofstede and G.J. Hofstede. Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005. Chapter 3: PowerPoint 3.9

10 Three Characteristics of Gender Role Orientation
Masculinity Femininity Men are assertive Material success is prized and valued Work roles should be clear Men and women should be concerned with the quality of life Caring for others is prized and valued No distinction in work roles for men and women Adapted from G. Hofstede and G. J. Hofstede. Cultures and Organizations: Software of the mind. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005. Chapter 3: PowerPoint 3.10

11 Three Characteristics of Short Versus Long-Term Orientation
Short-Term Long-Term Respect for bottom line Efforts should produce quick results Leaders and employees view each other as distinct groups Respect for work ethic Perseverance, sustained efforts toward results over time are valued Willingness to subordinate oneself for a broader societal purpose Adapted from G. Hofstede and G.J. Hofstede. Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005. Chapter 3: PowerPoint 3.11

12 Other Factors that Affect Personality
Family socioeconomic level Group membership family social groups organization Life experiences Chapter 3: PowerPoint 3.12

13 Figure 3.3: The “Big Five” Personality Factors
Emotional Stability (Stable, confident, effective) (Nervous, self-doubting, moody) Agreeableness (Warm, tactful, considerate) (Independent, cold, rude) Extraversion (Gregarious, energetic, self-dramatizing) (Shy, unassertive, withdrawn) Conscientiousness (Careful, neat, dependable) (Impulsive, careless, irresponsible) Openness (Imaginative, curious, original) (Dull, unimaginative, literal-minded) Chapter 3: PowerPoint 3.14

14 Self-Esteem Characteristics
Low High Choose conventional occupations Swayed by opinions of others Set goals that they can achieve Risk takers Prioritize their work to accomplish tasks Set challenging goals Chapter 3: PowerPoint 3.15

15 Personality Trait: Locus of Control
Extent to which people believe they can control events affecting them Internal locus of control External locus of control Belief that one’s life is determined (controlled) primarily by one’s own behavior and actions. Belief that one’s own life is determined (controlled) primarily by chance, fate or other people. Chapter 3: PowerPoint 3.16

16 Job Performance and Locus of Control
Internals control their own behavior better, are more active politically and socially than externals Externals appear to prefer a more structured, directive style of supervision than internals Internals are often more achievement oriented than externals Internals and externals perform equally well when work is simple Chapter 3: PowerPoint 3.17

17 Emotional Intelligence
Self-awareness—recognizing one’s emotions, strengths & capabilities and how these affect others Social empathy—sensing what others need in order for them to develop Self-motivation—being results oriented and pursuing goals beyond what is required Social skills—the ability of a person to influence others Chapter 3: PowerPoint 3.18

18 Components of Attitudes
Affective component: feeling, sentiments, moods and emotions about someone or something Cognitive component: beliefs, opinions, knowledge or information Behavioral component: predisposition to act on a favorable or unfavorable evaluation Chapter 3: PowerPoint 3.20

19 Helping Employees to Increase Their Hope
Set clear goals so employees can track their progress Break overall, long-term goals into small subgroups or steps Helping employees figure out how to motivate themselves Chapter 3: PowerPoint 3.21

20 Why is Job Satisfaction Important?
Reduces turnover and absenteeism Attracts people to work for the organization Challenges employees to learn and grow Chapter 3: PowerPoint 3.22

21 Job Satisfaction is Enhanced When:
Work is challenging and interesting but not tiring Rewards are equitable and provide feedback Working conditions match physical needs and promote goal attainment continued Chapter 3: PowerPoint 3.23

22 Job Satisfaction is Enhanced When: (continued)
Self-esteem is high Others hold similar views and facilitate reward attainment Policies and procedures are clear, don’t conflict, and aid goal attainment Chapter 3: PowerPoint 3.24

23 Characteristics of Strong Commitment
Support and acceptance of the organization’s goals and values Willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization Desire to remain with the organization Chapter 3: PowerPoint 3.26

24 Figure 3.5: Positive and Negative Emotions
Positive Emotions Anger Happiness/ Joy Fright/Anxiety Pride Guilt/Shame Love/Affection Sadness Envy/Jealousy Disgust Relief Chapter 3: PowerPoint 3.28

25 Anticipatory emotions
Figure 3.6: Role of Emotions in Performance Outcome emotions Goal Anticipatory emotions Behaviors Goal attainment Chapter 3: PowerPoint 3.29


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