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1 Applied Behavior Analysis for Educational Settings Christopher Ewing, MS Behavior Intervention Consultant Arkansas Department of Education.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Applied Behavior Analysis for Educational Settings Christopher Ewing, MS Behavior Intervention Consultant Arkansas Department of Education."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Applied Behavior Analysis for Educational Settings Christopher Ewing, MS Behavior Intervention Consultant Arkansas Department of Education

2 2 Training Overview Stages of Learning Errorless Learning –Prompting and Prompt Fading Discrete Trial Training Precision Teaching & Fluency Training Verbal Behavior Incidental Teaching Chaining Shaping

3 3 Stages of Learning Acquisition Mastery/Fluency Generalization Maintenance

4 4 Errorless Learning A procedure that reduces the chance of incorrect responses Makes use of prompts and prompt fading to reduce incorrect responses Reduces potential of learning incorrect responses

5 5 Prompts Prompts increase the effectiveness of teaching by decreasing the likelihood of incorrect responses. Types of Prompts –Physical Prompts –Visual Prompts –Verbal Prompts

6 6 Physical Prompts Physically guiding the student Hand-over-hand Use the least force needed to ensure correct response Never physically force the childs movement Effective for teaching motor skills

7 7 Visual Prompts Visual cues to ensure correct response 4 types of visual prompts –Gestural –Picture –Model –Positional

8 8 Verbal Prompts Verbal instructions Words or phrases Can include sign language

9 9 Prompt Fading General Guidelines Determine how the prompt will be faded before you start fading. Must be done in an orderly manner. Begin fading when correct responding averages 80% correct. Delay prompt 2-3 consecutive incorrect responses return to the last prompt level that the student was successful

10 10 Prompt Fading Physical Prompts Reduce the force of grip Light touch Shadowing or change position of prompt

11 11 Prompt Fading Visual Prompts

12 12 Prompt Fading Visual Prompts

13 13 Prompt Fading Visual Prompts cat dogcar

14 14 Prompt Fading Visual Prompts cat dogcar

15 15 Prompt Fading Visual Prompts cat dogcar

16 16 Prompt Fading Visual Prompts cat dogcar

17 17 Prompt Fading Visual Prompts cat dogcar

18 18 Prompt Fading Gestural Prompts Trainer Student

19 19 Prompt Fading Gestural Prompts Trainer Student

20 20 Prompt Fading Gestural Prompts Trainer Student

21 21 Prompt Fading Gestural Prompts Trainer Student

22 22 Prompt Fading Positional Prompts Trainer Student

23 23 Prompt Fading Positional Prompts Trainer Student

24 24 Prompt Fading Positional Prompts Trainer Student

25 25 Prompt Fading Positional Prompts Trainer Student

26 26 Selection-Based Imitation Used to teach receptive language Sequence of Implementation –Linear configuration Ensure attending –Field expansion Strengthen scanning and increase field size –Linear configuration/different positions Solidify scanning and prevent positional responding –Two steps Increase flexible scanning and increase attention –Transfer to receptive labeling Do this. is changed the label of the item Gestural prompt is gradually faded Response comes under control of verbal label of item

27 27 Selection-Based Imitation Linear Configuration Trainer Do this. Student

28 28 Selection-Based Imitation Field Expansion Trainer Do this. Student

29 29 Selection-Based Imitation Linear Configuration/Different Positions Trainer Do this. Student

30 30 Selection-Based Imitation Linear Configuration/Different Positions Field Expansion Trainer Do this. Student

31 31 Selection-Based Imitation Non-Linear Configuration Trainer Do this. Student

32 32 Prompt Fading Verbal Prompts Shorten the instruction Shorten the word –Give beginning sounds

33 33 Discrete Trial Training A structured way of teaching Each trial has a clear beginning and ending Trials are distinct and succinct A trial is one set of instructions InstructionResponseConsequence

34 34 Discrete Trial Training Components Presentation of Materials Instructions Prompting Delivery of Consequences

35 35 Discrete Trial Training Presenting the Materials Materials are ready and organized Unnecessary items are removed from area Materials and reinforcers are accessible to trainer Items must be randomized each trial

36 36 Discrete Trial Training Randomization of Items Trainer Student

37 37 Discrete Trial Training Randomization of Items Trainer Student

38 38 Discrete Trial Training Randomization of Items Trainer Student

39 39 Discrete Trial Training 5 Components of Effective Instructions Clear and easily identifiable Appropriate for the task Consistent for new tasks Uninterrupted Gain students attention

40 40 Delivering Consequences Correct Responses Initially reinforce all correct responses Once prompts are faded, use praise only to signal correct prompted responses

41 41 Delivering Consequences Incorrect Responses Do not use No, no prompt Remove materials If prompt has been faded, do not prompt after first incorrect response Present materials and instruction Reinstate last successful prompt after 2 incorrect responses

42 42 Discrete Trial Training Practice

43 43 Precision Teaching A fluency based set of methods and practice procedures which adjust curricula for each student to maximize learning

44 44 Precision Teaching Examples of Success Students at Malcom X College made 2 grade level gains in 16 hours of instruction (Johnson & Layng 1994) Sacajawea Elementary students gained percentage points within 3 yrs. on standard achievement tests (Beck & Clement 1991) Morningside Academy offers 2 money back guarantee for program Students will progress 2 grade levels each year Time on task will increase from 1-3 min. to 20 or more minutes (Johnson & Layng 1994) Have not refunded any monies to date

45 45 Precision Teaching Key Features The learner knows best Uses frequency for measurement Daily charting on the Standard Celeration Chart Focused instruction and practice on directly observable behavior

46 46 Precision Teaching Benefits Frequency of response is the basic unit of measurement Free operant responding Emphasizes teaching sequentially Instructional decisions are data based Multiple instructional techniques can be utilized

47 47 Precision Teaching 5 Steps Select a Task Set an Aim Count and Teach Develop a Learning Picture Decide What to Do

48 48 Precision Teaching Select a Task Countable –The movement must be observable and measurable Counting Period –Consistent –At least 8-10 movements Correct/Incorrect Pair –Define correct and incorrect movements –Count both correct and incorrect movements for each counting period Learning Channel –Input and Output –Multiple learning channel sets for each skill Hard-To-Do –Goal is to teach a new skill

49 49 Precision Teaching Learning Channels INPUT SeeHearTouchThink OUTPUT SayWriteTouchSign ReachPressMarkPoint Match

50 50 Precision Teaching Learning Channels Sample Learning Channel Sets See/WriteSee/Say Think/DoHear/Write Think/WriteHear/Sign See/MatchSeeHear/Touch

51 51 Precision Teaching Set an Aim Strategy 1 –Use component skill frequencies 1.5 to 2.0 times greater than composite skill Ex. Writes digits/minute –Aim for multiplication facts = 80/mintue Strategy 2 –Ratio between teacher and student Adult Skill Rate = Student Skill Rate Adult Tool Rate Student Tool Rate 80 = X = 40/minute –Ratio between fluent student and student

52 52 Precision Teaching Aims Words/Minute See/SayReading 125 Letter/Minute See/WriteHandwriting Words/Minute Hear/WriteSpelling Digits/Minute See/WriteMath Frequency Learning Channel Set Movement

53 53 Precision Teaching Fluency for Children with Autism ** * 35-50See ** * 35-50Hear TouchWriteSayDo *Syllables per minute **Digits/letters per minute Frabizio/Moors Consulting

54 54 Precision Teaching Count and Teach Count correct and incorrect movements Teach –Materials –Prompting –Consequences for correct and incorrect movements –Practice

55 55 Precision Teaching Develop a Learning Picture Daily charting Draw expected celeration line (minimum celeration line) 3 consecutive days below line change teaching strategy

56 56 Precision Teaching Decide What to Do Slice Back –A smaller movement of the original movement –Error rate is higher than correct rate Step Back –A movement that is easier than the original movement –Error rate is higher than correct rate Change the Counting Period –When endurance is an issue –Duration should equal real life Change the Aim –Set a temporary aim lower than the final aim –Gradually increase the aim as each temporary aim is met

57 57 Precision Teaching Standard Celeration Chart Standard charting conventions Multiply/Divide –Advantages of multiply/divide 1 response/1000 minutes 1000 responses/minute

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59 59 Record Floor equals 1/Number of Minutes –1 Minute Timing = 1 –5 Minute Timing = 1/5 = 0.2 –10 Second = 6 –60/10 = 0.17 –1/0.17 = 6 SCC Calculating the Record Floor 1 Number of Minutes Record Floor =

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61 61 SCC Minimum Celeration Line Draw aim star Complete three days of baseline Draw start mark –Draw mark at day two at the median frequency for the three days Draw line If frequency falls below minimum celeration line for 3 consecutive days, change programming or set new aim with new minimum celeration line.

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64 64 SCC Charting Data Count the number of correct and incorrect responses per given timing A pass or skip is counted as an incorrect Self corrected responses are counted as a correct and an incorrect response Draw the record floor Chart data

65 65 SCC Charting Data PRACTICE 1-minute timing 5 correct and 3 incorrect 10 correct and 1 incorrect 15 correct and 0 incorrect 18 correct and 0 incorrect 25 correct and 1 incorrect

66 1-Minute Record Floor 3 Incorrect 5 Correct

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68 20 Per Minute35

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70

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72 72 SCC Charting Data PRACTICE 30-second timing 5 correct and 3 incorrect 10 correct and 1 incorrect 15 correct and 0 incorrect 18 correct and 0 incorrect 25 correct and 1 incorrect

73 Record Floor = 1/time in minutes Record Floor = 1/0.5 = 2

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75 3 Per Minute x

76 5 Per Minute x

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79 3 Per Minute

80 5 Per Minute

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84 1 Minute Record Floor 5 Minute Record Floor 30 Second Record Floor

85 85 SCC Drawing Celeration Lines Quarter Intersect Method 1. Divide the frequencies into four equal sections. 2. Find the median frequency for each half. 3. Mark where the median frequencies for each half crosses the 1 st and 3 rd quarter intersect lines. 4. Draw a line connecting the marks on the 1 st and 3 rd intersect lines.

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87 87 SCC Celeration Values Draw celeration line Mark where celeration line crosses a Sunday line Draw a dashed line from Sunday mark to the next Sunday mark Measure celeration using rate finder

88 Draw Celeration Line

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91 91 Precision Teaching Sample SCC See/Write Addition Think/Write Name

92 29

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94 94 Fluency The fluid combination of speed and accuracy that characterizes competency, mastery, and expert performance (Binder, 1988).

95 95 Fluency Training Benefits REAPS –Retention –Endurance –Application –Performance Standards –Stability Over Time

96 15

97 97 Mean Averages for Retention Checks Participant Fluency Training 1386Accuracy-Only Duration (Seconds) % Correct

98 98 Mean Averages for Retention Checks Participant Fluency Training 1176Accuracy-Only Duration (Seconds) % Correct

99 99 Fluency Training Big 6+6 Big 6 ReachGraspTouch PointReleasePlace Big 6+6 PullSqueezeShake PushTapTwist Fluency Aims –In isolation movements/minute –As a compound movements/minute

100 100 Verbal Behavior Topographic Response –Spoken –Sign Selection Response –PECS

101 101 Verbal Behavior Mand –A request for a reinforcer Tact –Verbal response to non-verbal stimulus RFFC –Receptive by Function, Feature, and Class –Classification

102 102 Incidental Teaching Promotes generalization Teaching in the natural environment Must be programmed

103 103 Chaining Backward Chaining Forward Chaining Whole Task Chaining

104 104 Shaping Successive approximation towards a terminal behavior.


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