Presentation on theme: "The Egg Story. What do we know? EGGSCHICKENS Vocabulary – PICK 15 AND DEFINE lay brood fowl class hatch embryo poultry breed pip egg tooth rooster variety."— Presentation transcript:
The Egg Story
What do we know? EGGSCHICKENS
Vocabulary – PICK 15 AND DEFINE lay brood fowl class hatch embryo poultry breed pip egg tooth rooster variety egg development chicken bantam beak fertilized hen comb yolk chick down shanks white Nest feathers wattles Shell clutch wings
Activities – pick one with a partner and complete Using the vocabulary you just learned, make a collage with pictures you find in magazines or the internet to describe the words. Using the vocabulary you just learned, write a song, poem or rap
Incubation Eggs have been incubated by artificial means for thousands of years. Both the Chinese and the Egyptians are credited with originating artificial incubation procedures. The Chinese developed a method in which they burned charcoal to supply the heat. They also used the hot-bed method in which decomposing manure furnished the heat. The Egyptians constructed large brick incubators which they heated with fires right in the rooms where the eggs were incubated.
Incubation continued… Over the years incubators have been refined and developed to the point where they are almost completely automatic. The greatest development has occurred in the 20th century. Modern commercial incubators are heated by electricity, have automatic egg turning devices, and are equipped with automatic controls to maintain the proper levels of heat, humidity, and air exchange. Present-day commercial incubators vary in capacity from a few thousand to many thousands of eggs, and they have made possible the development of modern hatcheries which produce almost 100 percent of all the chickens grown in this country.
What is an egg? vocabulary Shell porous membranes air cell albumen vitelline membrane yolk germinal disc or blastoderm chalaza
What is an egg? Once you draw and label the above drawing in your notes, please go to the following website: and click on the egg industry link, watch the following videos: -The Egg - The Hen -Egg Farm -Egg Processing Also be sure to take notes during each video!
Reproductive tract of a hen The egg is formed by a reproductive system composed of an ovary and an oviduct. An ovary looks like a cluster of grapes and may contain up to 4,000 small eggs or ova (singular ovum) which can develop into yolks. Each ovum is attached to the ovary by a thin membrane sac or follicle. The oviduct is a large, coiled tube located in the left side of the hens abdomen. In this oviduct all parts of the egg, except the yolk, are formed. It is divided into 5 distinct regions: - infundibulum - magnum - isthmus - uterus - vagina
Chick Development DAY 1 18 hours – the digestive system starts to appear 20 hours – the vertebral column starts to appear 21 hours – the nervous system and brain begin to form 22 hours – the head begins to form 23 hours – the extraembryonic blood systems begin to form 24 hours – the eyes begin to form DAY 2 25 hours – the heart begins to form 35 hours – the ear pits begin to form 37 hours – the amnion starts to appear 42 hours – the heart starts to beat 46 hours – the throat begins to form
Extra Embryonic Blood System The yolk sac surrounds the yolk and draws food from it for the embryo. The amnion is a transparent sac filled with a colorless fluid in which the embryo floats that protects it from shocks and prevents it from drying out. Respiration is made possible by the allantois. As it grows with the chick, the allantois is pressed against the egg shell where it can easily absorb oxygen passing through the pores of the egg shell in exchange for carbon dioxide. The allantois also stores waste, absorbs albumen used as food by the embryo and absorbs calcium from the shell for bone construction. For the first 10 days the chick can absorb a sufficient amount of calcium from the yolk but as the formation of bones begins to accelerate the chick must take calcium from the egg shell. There are two distinct extraembryonic blood systems: Blood vessels in the allantois called allantoic vessels which bring oxygen to the embryo and take carbon dioxide away. The other blood system made of vitelline vessels brings nutrients from the yolk to the embryo. During the first 3 days of its life, the chick relies on the vitelline vessels to also absorb oxygen but by the 4th day the chick needs more oxygen than can be supplied by only the vitelline system and begins to rely on the allantois which will soon take over respiration.
Heart and Circulatory System average body temp. is 98.6 F 4 chambers cardiac muscle valves higher metabolic rate average body temp. is 106 – 113 F Pulse rate 400 beats/minute Smoother chambers of the heart
Chick Development DAY 3 50 hours – the amnion begins to form 60 hours – the nose begins to form 62 hours – the legs start to appear 64 hours – the wings start to appear 70 hours – the allantois begins to form Day 4 The tongue begins to form The tail appears The toes begin to form Extra-embryonic circulation is fully functional DAY 5 - The crop begins to form - The bones of the legs begin to form - The sex of the chick is determined and its reproductive organs begin to form(ovary & oviduct for the female as studied in Part III)
Chick Development Day 6 The beak and egg-tooth begin to form The ribs start to appear The gizzard begins to form Voluntary movement begins Day 7 The wings bend at the elbow and the leg at the knee The toes are visible The abdomen is bigger as the intestine starts to loop
Chick Development Day 8 The feathers begin to form The eye lids begins to form Day 9 The mouth opening appears The claws begin to form
Chick Development Day 10 The beak starts to harden The comb is visible The flight feathers develop Day 11 The toe claws begin to curve downwards The bottom of the feet become padded The chick begins to take calcium from the eggshell
Chick Development Day 12 Scales appear on the lower legs The chick continues to grow and move Day 13 Body fairly well covered with feathers The left and right collar bones join to form the wishbone
Chick Development Day 14 The embryo turns its head towards the large end of the egg The skull and ribs have begun to ossify Day 15 The scales, claws and beak are becoming firm
Bones and the skeleton Bones are made of minerals, mostly calcium and phosphate. There are 3 types of bone cells: osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts. Osteoblasts are responsible for making the structure and then laying in the minerals. Osteocytes are responsible for feeding the bone and osteoclasts help shape the bones as they grow. New bone is first created randomly and then reshaped in concentric layers like the rings of a tree. Bone can be either compact or spongy. Compact bone on the outside provides strength, support and protection. Spongy bone on the inside allow the bone to be lightweight and provide a space in which bone marrow can grow. Bone marrow makes blood cells.
Bones and the skeleton What is cartilage? Cartilage is a strong but flexible material like hard rubber. In the embryo, most of the skeleton is first made of cartilage. As the embryo grows, the cartilage is replaced by bone. This is called ossification. How are bones different in birds? Bird bones contain air sacs and are said to be pneumatized. When a bird takes off for flight the exaggerated movement of the wings creates an air current which fills the air sacs within the bones and makes the bird light enough to fly. The bones do not become pneumatized until after the bird hatches.
Chick Development Day 16 The chick is fully covered with feathers The albumen is nearly gone and the yolk is increasingly important as nourishment Day 17 The chick turns its beak towards the air cell and begins preparation for hatching
Chick Development Day 18 The growth of the embryo is nearly complete The amnion which protects the chick begins to disappear Day 19 The yolk sac begins to enter the body The chick occupies all the space in the egg except the air cell
Respiratory System The lungs are not used for respiration until just before the chick hatches. In the meantime we have seen that the chick uses the allantois to breathe. The amount of oxygen supplied through the egg shell is enough until the chick starts the exhausting process of hatching. During incubation, the water which evaporates from the egg is replaced by air which is stored in the air cell. By the time the chick begins to hatch, the air cell has grown to fill about 25% of the egg. The chicks first hatching movements are to break the shell membranes covering the air cell and take its first breaths with its lungs. The oxygen stored in the air cell is enough to allow the chick to break through the eggshell.
How birds breathe The birds lungs are relatively small in proportion to its body size compared to humans; they are only half the size. Human lungs are made up of millions of tiny balloons called alveoli which expand and contract as we breathe. A birds lungs are not elastic, they do not change in size when the bird breathes. Specialized elastic structures called air sacs are connected to the lungs and draw air through the lungs. As air passes through the lungs oxygen in the air is exchanged for carbon dioxide in the blood.
How Birds Breathe Birds have two sets of air sacs: - caudal air sacs - cranial air sacs The caudal air sacs include the abdominal and the caudal thoracic air sacs. The cranial air sacs include the cervical, clavicular and the cranial thoracic air sacs. As we know air sacs even extend into the bones. Air sacs inflate or deflate when the size of the birds chest changes. The bird controls this by moving its muscles. The largest of the air sacs, the abdominal air sac surrounds the abdominal organs and is largely responsible for breathing while the bird is at rest. As a bird becomes more active, it needs more oxygen. Increased movement forces its chest to expand and compress more which in turn inflates and deflates more of its air sacs. This forces more air through the lungs and makes the bird less dense. When a bird flies all its air sacs are filled including those in its bones and makes it light enough to fly. A bird can also use its air sacs to sing by forcing air through its vocal organs like a bagpipe. Some birds can sing while they fly because they are able to sing when they breathe in as well as breathe out. Constant airflow supplies birds with more oxygen than humans. This is necessary to maintain their high metabolic rate and for flying. The lungs of the chick begin to form early to be ready when it hatches. Air sacs continue to develop long after the chick has hatched.
Chick Development Day 20 The yolk sac is completely drawn into the body The beak breaks through the inner shell membrane The lungs begin to function and to use the air cell for breathing The allantois ceases to function and starts to dry up Day 21 The neck begins to jerk The egg tooth pips through the shell The chick hatches!
How the chick hatches Using its egg tooth (a tiny sharp horn on the top of its beak) the chick pecks at the shell thousands of times. Finally it pips through the shell and begins to breathe air directly from the outside. After it has made a hole in the shell, the chick stops piping for a few hours and rests while its lungs are getting used to the outside atmosphere. There is a high level of carbon dioxide in the egg compared with the outside environment. This actually causes the neck muscles of the chick to jerk and allow him to peck through the eggshell. After resting the chick continues to pip by beginning to turn slowly inside the egg. As it turns, usually counter-clockwise, the egg tooth continues to ship away. In about 5 hours, the chick has made about three quarters of a turn inside the egg. As the chick moves around the shell it begins pushing on the egg cap. Squirming and struggling the chick pushes the cap for about one hour. Finally it breaks free from the shell,still wet and panting.
How the chick hatches When the chick is completely out of the shell it lies still. It is extremely tired. After a rest it begins to rise to its feet and gain coordination. Within a few days the egg tooth will disappear.
Common Breeds of Chicken Ancona Araucana Australorp Brahma Bantam Campine Cochin Frizzle Houdan Leghorn Minorca New Hampshire Red Orpington Plymouth Rock Polish Rhode Island Red Rosecomb Sicilian Buttercup Silkie Sultan Sumatra Sussex Transylvanian Naked Neck Wyandotte