Presentation on theme: "Autor materiálu: Mgr. Tereza Kufová Datum vytvoření: listopad 2012 Vzdělávací oblast: Jazyk a jazyková komunikace Vyučovací předmět: Anglický jazyk Ročník:"— Presentation transcript:
Autor materiálu: Mgr. Tereza Kufová Datum vytvoření: listopad 2012 Vzdělávací oblast: Jazyk a jazyková komunikace Vyučovací předmět: Anglický jazyk Ročník: 3.,4. Téma: Global environmental issues Druh materiálu: prezentace, pracovní list Klíčová slova: environment, global warming, ozone layer, pollution, species Anotace: Seznámení studentů s problematikou globálních ekologických jevů pomocí prezentace učitele, úkolů pro studenty, práce s internetem, zapojení receptivních a produktivních dovedností. VY_32_INOVACE_1.3.AJ3,4.19/Kf Autorem materiálu a všech jeho částí, není-li uvedeno jinak, je Mgr. Tereza Kufová CZ.1.07/1.5.00/34.0501
Autorem materiálu a všech jeho částí, není-li uvedeno jinak, je Mgr. Tereza Kufová CZ.1.07/1.5.00/34.0501 VY_32_INOVACE_1.3.AJ3,4.19/Kf Metodický list: List 1-3 (stránky 3-5) – Úvod; prezentace, výklad učitele (podklady umístěny na konci prezentace, stránky…)– žáci se seznámí s fakty týkajícími se globálního oteplování, jeho příčinami a následky, s pomocí učitele pojmenovávají jevy na obrázcích. (5 min.) List 4-5 (stránky 6-7) - výklad učitele – žáci se seznámí s fakty týkajícími se ozónové vrstvy – proč vznikají ozónové díry? Co je způsobuje? Proč jsou nebezpečné?; s pomocí učitele pojmenovávají jevy na obrázcích (5 min.) List 5-6 (stránky 8-9) – výklad učitele, žáci se seznámí s fakty týkajícími se odlesňování, jeho příčinami i následky (5 min.) List 7 (stránka 10) – výklad učitele, žáci se seznámí s problematikou ohrožených druhů a jevy spojenými s tímto tématem (5 min.) List 8 (stránka 11) – pracovní list. Studenti hledají na internetu odpovědi na dané otázky. Odpovědi zapisují do sešitů nebo souboru v předem určené složce. Pokud nestihnou vše v hodině, dokončí za domácí úkol.(Odpovědi na otázky a poznámky pro učitele jsou umístěny na konci prezentace.) (25 min.)
Autorem materiálu a všech jeho částí, není-li uvedeno jinak, je Mgr. Tereza Kufová CZ.1.07/1.5.00/34.0501 VY_32_INOVACE_1.3.AJ3,4.19/Kf Global environmental issues
Autorem materiálu a všech jeho částí, není-li uvedeno jinak, je Mgr. Tereza Kufová CZ.1.07/1.5.00/34.0501 VY_32_INOVACE_1.3.AJ3,4.19/Kf Global warming
Autorem materiálu a všech jeho částí, není-li uvedeno jinak, je Mgr. Tereza Kufová CZ.1.07/1.5.00/34.0501 VY_32_INOVACE_1.3.AJ3,4.19/Kf - created by GRENNHOUSE EFFECT (caused by too much carbon in the air) - greenhouse gases (released from factories, power plants ), burning of fossil fuels in cars, planes and households and deforestation contribute to global warming possible consequences : → droughts → floods ( ice at the poles begins to melt, sea levels rise) → dying out of some species of animals
Autorem materiálu a všech jeho částí, není-li uvedeno jinak, je Mgr. Tereza Kufová CZ.1.07/1.5.00/34.0501 VY_32_INOVACE_1.3.AJ3,4.19/Kf The ozone layer -a layer of gas high above the surface of the earth (a part of the stratosphere) characterized by the presence of ozone (the oxygen atoms with three molecules) -captures the harmful ultraviolet radiations coming from the Sun -UV rays damage our skin and can cause cancer, they have the potency to destroy the lifeforms on the planet
Autorem materiálu a všech jeho částí, není-li uvedeno jinak, je Mgr. Tereza Kufová CZ.1.07/1.5.00/34.0501 VY_32_INOVACE_1.3.AJ3,4.19/Kf Holes in the ozone layer - depletion of the ozone layer is caused by substances called CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) – used in refrigerators, aerosol cans;
Autorem materiálu a všech jeho částí, není-li uvedeno jinak, je Mgr. Tereza Kufová CZ.1.07/1.5.00/34.0501 VY_32_INOVACE_1.3.AJ3,4.19/Kf Deforestation Rainforests: -produce oxygen which is essential for life -help to control global warming because they absorb carbon dioxide -are the homes of many insects, plants and animals -help catch water and give it back to the Earth in the form of clouds - keep water and soil in place
Autorem materiálu a všech jeho částí, není-li uvedeno jinak, je Mgr. Tereza Kufová CZ.1.07/1.5.00/34.0501 VY_32_INOVACE_1.3.AJ3,4.19/Kf Destroying the rainforests -large areas are cut down for wood or burned to clear the land for farming, pastures, roads, urban areas -Loss of Biodiversity – many plants and animals lose their habitat and are pushed to extinction -Climate change - burning releases large amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere (20% of world greenhouse gases emissions) -Disruption of the Water Cycle - the water cycle is affected – deforestation reduces the content of water in the soil and groundwater as well as atmospheric moisture - the area may turn to desert -Flooding and Drought - forests are able to absorb and store great amounts of water, by deforestation the regulation of the flow of water is disrupted, which leads to alternating periods of flood and then drought in the affected area -Reduction of soil cohesion - the soil is washed away in the tropical rains (erosions, landslides)
Autorem materiálu a všech jeho částí, není-li uvedeno jinak, je Mgr. Tereza Kufová CZ.1.07/1.5.00/34.0501 VY_32_INOVACE_1.3.AJ3,4.19/Kf Endangered species -the balance of species of plants and animals has been affected by human activities -many animals are either endangered or threatened and some of them are protected by law Problems: Pollution and climate changes Poaching - the illegal taking of wild plants or animals Overfishing - fish stocks are depleted to unacceptable levels Commercial whaling - hunting of whales mainly for meat and oil Killing animals for commercial purposes – elephants are killed for their tusks, rhinos for their horns, crocodiles for their skin etc.) Destroying animals´natural habitat
Autorem materiálu a všech jeho částí, není-li uvedeno jinak, je Mgr. Tereza Kufová CZ.1.07/1.5.00/34.0501 VY_32_INOVACE_1.3.AJ3,4.19/Kf Worksheet : Use the internet and find out: 1.Which are the Greenhouse Gases? 2.How is ocean acidification related to global warming? 3.Where was the largest ozone hole detected in recent years? 4.Which are the countries with the highest deforestation? 5.Are these animals according to Conservation status - Extinct (EX), Extinct in the wild (EW), Critically Endangered (CE), Endangered (EN) or Vulnerable (VU)? - Dingo, North African elephant, Siberian Tiger, Polar Bear, Wyoming toad, Mountain Gorilla, Golden toad, Kakapo, Barbary lion, Giant Panda 6. What are some of the endangered species in the Czech Republic?
Autorem materiálu a všech jeho částí, není-li uvedeno jinak, je Mgr. Tereza Kufová CZ.1.07/1.5.00/34.0501 VY_32_INOVACE_1.3.AJ3,4.19/Kf Teacher´s notes – Podklady pro učitele: Listy 1-3. Global warming: scientists say the temperature of the earth could rise by 3ºC over the next 50 years. This may cause drought in some parts of the world and floods in others, as ice at the North and South Poles begins to melt and sea levels rise. Global warming is caused by the greenhouse effect. Normally, heat from he sun warms the earth and then escapes back into space. But carbon dioxide and other gases (from factories, electricity plants, cars) in the atmosphere trap the sun´s heat, and this is slowly making the earth warmer. It is expected that most ecosystems will be affected by higher atmospheric CO 2 levels, combined with higher global temperatures. Overall, it is expected that climate change will result in the extinction of many species and reduced diversity of ecosystems. Climate change is likely to affect hundreds of millions of people through increased coastal flooding, reductions in water supplies, increased malnutrition and increased health problems. Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with the continuing retreat of glaciers and sea ice. Other likely effects of the warming include a more frequent occurrence of extreme-weather events including heat waves, droughts and heavy rainfall, ocean acidification and species extinctions due to shifting temperature regimes. Effects significant to humans include the threat to food security from decreasing crop yields and the loss of habitat from inundation. Listy 4-5. Holes in the ozone layer: Ozone is almost identical to oxygen. The only difference in ozone and oxygen is that oxygen molecules contain two oxygen atoms. Ozone has three atoms of oxygen. Ozone blocks the UV radiation by absorbing it. The ozone layer is a layer of gas high above the surface of the earth that helps to protect it from the sun´s ultraviolet radiation, which can damage our skins and cause cancer. Scientifists have recently discovered holes in the ozone layer, caused by substances called CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons). CFCs are used in refrigerators, aerosol cans and in the manufacture of some plastic products. Some companies now make aerosols that do not contain CFCs, and these are often marked „ozone-friendly“. Rocket launches emissions – another factor causing ozone layer depletion. There are a number of gases that either directly cause the damage or change a gas into something that does. Chlorine and bromine, Methane, released by cattle, fuels and paddy fields; nitrous oxides, mainly from fertilizers; and a few manufactured chemicals, particularly aerosols directly effect the ozone layer. The ozone layer hole is basically an area of the ozone layer, above the continent of Antarctica, which is subjected to seasonal depletion on a large scale. Ozone depletion can be basically divided into two parts - the first deals with a depletion of around four percent per decade in the stratosphere and the second deals with the rapid depletion of the stratospheric ozone at the poles. The phenomenon triggered by the emission of harmful compounds, such as the chlorofluorocarbons, halons and carbon tetrachloride, has been going on since 1970s, and caused a considerable amount of damage to the ozone layer, especially at the poles.
Autorem materiálu a všech jeho částí, není-li uvedeno jinak, je Mgr. Tereza Kufová CZ.1.07/1.5.00/34.0501 VY_32_INOVACE_1.3.AJ3,4.19/Kf Listy 6-7. Deforestation Tropical forests of all varieties are disappearing rapidly as humans clear the natural landscape to make room for farms and pastures, to harvest timber for construction and fuel, and to build roads and urban areas. Although deforestation meets some human needs, it also has profound, sometimes devastating, consequences, including social conflict, extinction of plants and animals, and climate change—challenges that aren’t just local, but global. Deforestation has increased across the globe. In Washington, the need for lumber is the driving force behind deforestation. In Asia it is the need for space, and in South America it is the need for food. To compound this global trend the deforestation is increasing every year. Our use of forests are comparable to that of our use of oil but, unlike oil, we do know how much forest we have left and our current rate of consumption is far beyond our reserves. According to the World Commission on Forests, forests have virtually disappeared in 25 countries of the world, 18 countries have lost more than 95 per cent, and another 11 countries have lost about 90 per cent. Along with anthropogenic deforestation is that which is caused by global warming. The forests are being forced to move due to the increase of heat and resulting lack of water. What are the effects/consequences of deforestation? Erosion of Soil When forest areas are cleared, it results in exposing the soil to the sun, making it very dry and eventually, infertile. In addition, when there is rainfall, it washes away the rest of the nutrients, which flow with the rainwater into waterways. Because of this, merely replanting trees may not help in solving the problems caused by deforestation, for by the time the trees mature, the soil will be totally devoid of essential nutrients. Ultimately, cultivation in this land will also become impossible, resulting in the land becoming useless. Large tracts of land will be rendered permanently impoverished due to soil erosion. Disruption of the Water Cycle Trees contribute in a large way in maintaining the water cycle. They draw up water via their roots, which is then released into the atmosphere. A large part of the water that circulates in the ecosystem of rainforests, for instance, remains inside the plants. When these trees are cut down it results in the climate getting drier in that area. The groundwater tables are affected and soon get depleted. The trees help in prevention of running off of water and help the soil absorb the flowing water. When there are no trees, water just runs off, leaving no chance for the groundwater tables to absorb more water. Thus, ultimately leading to reduction in water resources. Loss of Biodiversity The unique biodiversity of various geographical areas is being lost on a scale that is quite unprecedented. Even though tropical rainforest make up just 6 percent of the surface area of the Earth, about 80-90 percent of the entire species of the world exist here. Due to massive felling of trees, about 50 to 100 species of animals are being lost each day. The outcome of which is the extinction of animals and plants on a massive scale. The effects on animals is very heartbreaking. They not only lose their habitat and protective cover, they are pushed to extinction. Many beautiful creatures, both plants and animals have vanished from the face of the earth.
Autorem materiálu a všech jeho částí, není-li uvedeno jinak, je Mgr. Tereza Kufová CZ.1.07/1.5.00/34.0501 VY_32_INOVACE_1.3.AJ3,4.19/Kf Flooding and Drought One of the vital functions of forests is to absorb and store great amounts of water quickly when there are heavy rains. When forests are cut down, this regulation of the flow of water is disrupted, which leads to alternating periods of flood and then drought in the affected area. Thus, leading to disruption of human settlements and loss of life in thousands. Climate Change It is well-known that global warming is being caused largely due to emissions of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. However, what is not known quite as well is that deforestation has a direction association with carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. Trees act as a major storage depot for carbon, since they absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, which is then used to produce carbohydrates, fats, and proteins that make up trees. When deforestation occurs, many of the trees are burnt or they are allowed to rot, which results in releasing the carbon that is stored in them as carbon dioxide. This, in turn, leads to greater concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. List 8. Endangered species Endangered species are animals or plants that are soon to die out. This means that once they become extinct, they will never be seen on Earth again. Many animals and plants become endangered or extinct each year. Recently, however, the rate of them dying out increased dramatically. It is estimated that 27,000 species become extinct each year, about 3 an hour. Since 1996, scientists calculated that 124 types of amphibians, 1,108 types of birds, 734 types of fish, 1,096 types of mammals, and 253 types of reptiles became endangered. This statistics also apply to plants. There are many reasons that can cause a species of animals or plants to become endangered, or even extinct. First of all, the human population has exploded since the last few decades. To accommodate the oversized human population more and more lands are taken away from these animals or plants. The natural habitats are snatched away from these species, leaving them only a small portion of the land, which they once roamed freely. With the little amount of land these animals or plants have, the food source become scarce. They have to fight among themselves in order to remain alive. They also don't have enough room to live. Sometimes animals or plants don't adapt to the limited space they now have, and die. Animals and plants also become endangered because of the chemicals people use. When people use pesticides to kill off insects and other pests, they are also endangering the lives of other species around them. These chemicals may get into the river or other water sources. Fish live in the water. They consume it. Then when birds come along and prey on them, these birds are also contaminated with the dangerous chemicals. The eagle, our national symbol, also experienced this deadly scenario. DDT, a type of pesticide, caused the eggshells to become fragile. When the female tries to incubate, sit on them, the shells just collapse. The population of eagles had gone down rapidly with the use of DDT. When scientists and environmentalists learn of this danger, they quickly ban the use of DDT. Now the eagle population is rebuilding.
Autorem materiálu a všech jeho částí, není-li uvedeno jinak, je Mgr. Tereza Kufová CZ.1.07/1.5.00/34.0501 VY_32_INOVACE_1.3.AJ3,4.19/Kf Hunting and trading are other reasons that threaten the lives of many innocent living creatures on Earth. Thousands of years, people kill animals or plants just for the fun of it, or for trading. Many of them do it illegally, or poaching. People kill animals for their fur, oil, body parts, and many other things in order to fatten their wallet. These things then, are turned into fur coat, cosmetics, perfume, oil for lamps, and traditional medicines. The tiger has been overly hunted for its bone because some people think that the bone has some magical healing power. Now the worldwide population of tiger is not doing so well. Some exotic birds are dying out because of trading. They get shipped around the world. While they are being sent, some die. Others don't adjust to the new environment also die. An example of people hunting animals just for sport and excitement was the American bison. There were more than 60 million bison living in North America a few hundred years ago. However, when the new settlers came over they hunted them for food and clothing. Later the bison was just killed for the enjoyment of the hunters. Millions of them die in just a short time. Now, there are only handfuls of them remaining. Lastly, pollution is another huge factor causing these animals or plants to become endangered. By dirtying our environment, we don't only hurt ourselves, but other living creatures around us. They too need a clean habitat to survive. By innocently eating our garbage they might get poisoned or choked to death. Many incidences have been reported where birds got choked or entangled in six-packs bottle holders. Fish and birds get entangled in our fishing lines and die. Toxic waste in the water system also has caused a large number of fish to die out. By polluting our planet, other innocent creatures also suffer. The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that endangered species becoming extinct. Many factors are taken into account when assessing the conservation status of a species, including statistics such as the number remaining, the overall increase or decrease in the population over time, breeding success rates, known threats, and so on.The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is the best-known worldwide conservation status listing and ranking system. IUCN categories include: Extinct, Extinct in the wild, Critically endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable, Near threatened, Least concern.
Autorem materiálu a všech jeho částí, není-li uvedeno jinak, je Mgr. Tereza Kufová CZ.1.07/1.5.00/34.0501 VY_32_INOVACE_1.3.AJ3,4.19/Kf Answers to the questions on the student´s worksheet: 1.The primary greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere are water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. 2. Ocean acidification refers to the over all decrease in pH level of the oceans. This is caused by carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the atmosphere that are absorbed into the ocean. Ocean acidification is a natural process that occurs regularly and is a self-sustaining process, once it starts it is difficult to stop. Rising carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the atmosphere are in direct correlation to the rising Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the oceans. Carbon dioxide and hydrogen bond together to form carbonic acid. Carbonic acid is a weak acid, though in large quantities it becomes increasingly dangerous to our oceanic ecosystem. CO2 dramatically affects species of clams, oysters, urchins, and shallow water coral. These organisms have shown that with an abundance of CO2 formation of shells have decreased, which has put them at risk. Once shelled organisms are at risk, the entire food chain may be as well. About 50% of all coral reefs have been destroyed. Many believe that global warming has something to do with ocean acidification. Greenhouse gases are making the earth hotter as the decades go by. Ocean acidification has affected both the North and South polar ice caps. We can see the affect of the melting ice caps as water levels increase. Studies have shown that over the past decade water levels have risen 4–8 inches.4 Acidification is an on going problem for the entire planet, and projected numbers show that it can only get worse. 3.Reductions of up to 70% in the ozone column observed in the austral (southern hemispheric) spring over Antarctica and first reported in 1985 are continuing. Through the 1990s, total column ozone in September and October have continued to be 40–50% lower than pre-ozone-hole values. In the Arctic the amount lost is more variable year-to-year than in the Antarctic. The greatest declines, up to 30%, are in the winter and spring, when the stratosphere is colder.
Autorem materiálu a všech jeho částí, není-li uvedeno jinak, je Mgr. Tereza Kufová CZ.1.07/1.5.00/34.0501 VY_32_INOVACE_1.3.AJ3,4.19/Kf 4. World Top Ten Countries With Highest Deforestation Country(SQ MILES): Brazil 8,915, Indonesia 5,065, Sudan 3,702, Zambia 3,286, Mexico 2,436, Dem. Rep. of Congo 2,054, Myanmar 1,996, Nigeria 1,537, Zimbabwe 1,235, Argentina 1,100 5. Dingo(VU), North African elephant(EX), Siberian Tiger(EN), Polar Bear (VU), Wyoming toad (EW), Mountain Gorilla (CE), Golden toad (EX), Kakapo (CE), Barbary lion (EW), Giant Panda (EN) 4. Open answers – e.g. lynx, bear, woolf, cock of the wood (tetřev), crayfish, stork
Autorem materiálu a všech jeho částí, není-li uvedeno jinak, je Mgr. Tereza Kufová CZ.1.07/1.5.00/34.0501 VY_32_INOVACE_1.3.AJ3,4.19/Kf Obrázky: http://www.scenicreflections.com/ithumbs/Global%20environment%20Wallpaper__yvt2.jpg http://www.bionomicfuel.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/10/global-warming-negative-and-positive-effects_2.jpg http://vtm.e15.cz/files/imagecache/dust_filerenderer_normal/upload/aktuality/konec_m_tu_o_konci_glob_ln_ho_oteplov_n_ _4f7c2e6aa4.jpg http://www.bionomicfuel.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/top-5-natural-causes-of-global-warming_1.jpg http://www.youthmagz.com/artikel-149-Facts-and-Information-about-Global-Warming-for-Kids.html http://www.ecoblog.co.za/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/Global-Warming.jpg http://www.buzzle.com/img/articleImages/397608-18831-47.jpg http://www.ust.hk/~webpepa/pepa/ways_of_protection/ozone_decay_process.gif http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/ozone-layer-2.jpg http://greatwesternpainting.com/ECO%20Painting%2040.jpg http://www.globalwarmingandu.com/images/What-Are-The-Causes-Of-Ozone-Depletion.jpg http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/02195/carExhaust_2195976b.jpg http://www.stri.si.edu/sites/rainforest/images/rainforest/Rainforest2002-0202.jpg http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-To49sp21P4g/TZR2X09-zxI/AAAAAAAAML4/kb0uL4kZw1Q/s1600/endangered_species.jpg Zdroje: CHUDÁ, Jana a Tomáš CHUDÝ. Topics for English conversation: we get ready for the graduation exam. 2. vyd. Havlíčkův Brod: Fragment, 1996, 87 s. ISBN 80-720-0051-9. EL-HMOUDOVÁ, Dagmar. Angličtina pro střední školy. 1. vyd. Třebíč: Petra Velanová, 2006, 223 s. Maturita (Petra Velanová). ISBN 80-868-7302-1. Global warming. In: Wikipedia: the free encyclopedia [online]. San Francisco (CA): Wikimedia Foundation, 2001- [cit. 2012-11-21]. Dostupné z: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_warminghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_warming Ozone depletion. In: Wikipedia: the free encyclopedia [online]. San Francisco (CA): Wikimedia Foundation, 2001- [cit. 2012-11-21]. Dostupné z: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ozone_layer_depletionhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ozone_layer_depletion Effects of deforestation. In: Http://ccaverinaxaveria.wordpress.com [online]. 2012 [cit. 2012-11-21]. Dostupné z: http://ccaverinaxaveria.wordpress.com/2012/08/17/biology-assessment-task-3-effects-of-deforestation/ http://ccaverinaxaveria.wordpress.com/2012/08/17/biology-assessment-task-3-effects-of-deforestation/ Endangered species. In: Wikipedia: the free encyclopedia [online]. San Francisco (CA): Wikimedia Foundation, 2001- [cit. 2012-11-21]. Dostupné z: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endangered_specieshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endangered_species Conservation status. In: Wikipedia: the free encyclopedia [online]. San Francisco (CA): Wikimedia Foundation, 2001- [cit. 2012-11-21]. Dostupné z: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conservation_statushttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conservation_status Endangered species. In: Library.thinkquest.org [online]. 2012 [cit. 2012-11-22]. Dostupné z: http://library.thinkquest.org/19689/data/esframe.html http://library.thinkquest.org/19689/data/esframe.html