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Innovative Chemical Solutions for MEMS and Microelectronics Electrodeposited Photoresists for Wafer Applications.

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Presentation on theme: "Innovative Chemical Solutions for MEMS and Microelectronics Electrodeposited Photoresists for Wafer Applications."— Presentation transcript:

1 Innovative Chemical Solutions for MEMS and Microelectronics Electrodeposited Photoresists for Wafer Applications

2 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Nature of ED Resists ED stands for electrodeposited ED paint used by Ford since 1960 Emulsion of photoresist Micelles in water - 50 – 150 microns - Micelles contain the resist components resist components - Micelles have a + or - charge + or - charge Photoresist Micelle Polymer Photo Active Compound Solvents Dye

3 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Conformation on 3-D Structures Deposits on all conductive surfaces Intervia 3D-P over thick plated copper

4 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Dow Electronic Materials ED Resists Intervia 3D-N Negative tone image / cathodic wafer (wafer has negative charge) Intervia 3D-P Positive-tone image / anodic wafer (wafer has positive charge )

5 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Intervia 3D-N Coating Process Conductive Wafer (Cathode) Inert Anode NR NR 3 + H2O H2H2 O2O2 NR 3 + RCO 2 - NR 3 + RCO 2 - Micelles migrate to cathodic substrate

6 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Self Limiting Behavior resist

7 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Deposition Current Profile 30s Self Limiting Behavior Near Zero Current Deposition Current vs. Time Time Deposition Current

8 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Intervia 3D-P Application Process Resist Coating -Coating Cycle V DC.10 ASF peak.Potential applied for seconds -Thickness Control.Temperature.Solvent Exposure nm

9 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Thickness vs. Temperature Temperature (ºC) Thickness (microns)

10 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Deposit Uniformity Thickness Uniformity Position Thickness (microns)

11 © 2011 MicroChem Corp ED Resist Comparison Intervia 3D-NIntervia 3D-N –Negative working –6 – 100 µm final thickness – mJ/cm –Organic acid develop / strip –Acid and alkaline etches –Resistant to many plating chemistries

12 © 2011 MicroChem Corp ED Resist Comparison Intervia 3D-N –Negative working – µm final thickness – mJ/cm –Organic acid develop / strip –Acid and alkaline etches –Resistant to many plating chemistries Intervia 3D-P –Positive working –6 µm target final thickness – mJ/cm – - CO 3, - OH or TMAH develop –Plating and acid etching –Hydroxide or organic solvents

13 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Tools Semitool ED Cell ED Resist Coater for R&D and Low Volume Production

14 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Problems with Spin-on Resists 100µm feature spin coated with 6.0 µm of photoresist. Little or no coverage on outside corners Very thick coverage in inside corners and at bottom of the feature Image of 25µm lines patterned over the top of 45µm wide features

15 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Coated Wafer Structures Source: Semitool SEM image of 6µm of electrophoretic photoresist deposited over a series of 92µm tall features. SEM image showing 5µm of electrophoretic photoresist deposited over a 300µm deep trench.

16 © 2011 MicroChem Corp16 Examples of Wafer Processes Using Intervia ED Resists

17 © 2011 MicroChem Corp source: Meco Basic 3-D Test Structures Sketch of proposed technology for wafer-through hole interconnects Set of 10, 20, 30 & 40 µm wide test slits reproduced at 150µm deep cavity SEM Source: Meco

18 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Ni Plated Structures on Polyimide Source: Dow Electronic Materials SEM photomicrographics of conformally electroplated Ni lines across polyimide grooves using Intervia 3D-P electrodeposition

19 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Dow ED Products Negative ED photoresist Developer Remover ShellCase Process ShellOP for Image Sensors and Light Detection Devices

20 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Etching Conductive Vias with ED Resists a) Photolithography on thick resist b) Through-wafer etching (HDLP RIE) c) Thermal oxidation and polysilicon deposition (LPCVD) d) CVD metallization (W or Cu) and electro-plating (Cu only) e) Electrodeposited resist deposition f) Resist patterning by photo lithography g) Metal and polysilicon etching h) Photoresist removal Source: Quate Group, Stanford University a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h)

21 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Backside Contacts Source: Lindedre, Baltes, Gnaednger SEM micrograph of final through-wafer vias

22 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Backside Contacts Source: Lindedre, Baltes, Gnaednger through-hole sidewall SEM micrograph showing metallization on {111} sidewalls for elimination of uncontrolled light reflections.

23 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Philips Thru Via Imaging

24 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Philips Thru Via Imaging Quadruple leads in a single through-wafer hole and a toroid structure

25 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Exposure Using Phase Gratings Schematic view of 3-D exposure using phase gratings Source: Philips UV light photomask side view substrate phase grating cross section top view

26 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Plated Coils

27 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Infineon ELASTec ® Wafer Level Bumping Finished Bump Intervia 3D-P Resist

28 © 2011 MicroChem Corp ELASTec ® Process Steps 3 Resist Strip Seedlayer Etch 2 Reroute Plating (Cu, Ni, Au) 1 Bump Print & Cure Seedlayer Sputter (Ti/Cu)

29 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Elastic ®

30 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Silicon Optical Bench Source: Banerjee, Drayton 2-D Diagram of SiOB-I. Number 1, 2 & 3 indicate the regions where cross sections are taken for the fabrication diagrams. Design II Interconnect: Partially shielded microstrip. (All dimensions are in microns) 2. Vias

31 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Impact of Resist Tone on Printed Defects

32 © 2011 MicroChem Corp32 Intervia 3D-N Typical Application Process

33 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Chemical Clean –Preposit Cleaner 742 Sulfuric acid based soak cleaner Removes fingerprints & soils degrees C minutes Intervia 3D-N Application Process

34 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Chemical Clean –Preposit Etch 748 Monopersulfate etchant Micro roughens copper ( µm) 30°C minutes Intervia 3D-N Application Process Intervia 3D-N Application Process

35 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Resist Coating –Resist is sparged upon entry to fully wet the part –Vibration of parts may be used in some applications to release air bubbles –Part to be coated is the cathode –Stainless steel anodes Intervia 3D-N Application Process

36 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Conductive Wafer (Cathode) Inert Anode NR NR 3 + H2O H2H2 O2O2 NR 3 + RCO 2 - NR 3 + RCO 2 - Intervia 3D-N Coating Cycle

37 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Intervia 3D-N Coating Cell SS Anode Part to be Coated Spargers Vibrator

38 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Intervia 3D-N Application Process Resist Coating –Coating Cycle V DC 10 ASF peak Potential applied for seconds –Thickness Control Temperature Coating Time Voltage

39 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Typical Tmin Curve for Intervia 3D-N

40 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Intervia 3D-N Application Process Conservation Rinse –Reclaims resist drag-out –Conservation resist is ultrafiltered to reclaim solids D.I. Final Rinse

41 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Intervia 3D-N Topcoat Contains cellulose-based material in water –Reduces tack of coating –Reduces edge recession –Dissolves quickly during development step

42 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Intervia 3D-N Application Process Air knives –Remove bulk moisture –Promotes uniform drying Convection Dry –105°C –10 minutes

43 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Exposure –300 mJ/cm 2 required at 5 micron resist thickness –365 nm peak –Intensity affects required dose Subject to Low Intensity Reciprocity Law Failure (LIRLF) 10 mW/cm 2 minimum recommended Intervia 3D-N Application Process Intervia 3D-N Application Process

44 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Development –Intervia 3D-N Developer – °C –Clear time seconds –50% breakpoint Intervia 3D-N Application Process Intervia 3D-N Application Process

45 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Intervia 3D-N Application Process Plating –Cupronal BP (copper) –Auronal BP (gold) –Solderon BP ( tin lead, lead free, low alpha lead) –Nikal BP (nickel) Etching –Cupric Chloride –Ferric Chloride

46 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Stripping – Intervia 3D-N Remover – °C Intervia 3D-N Application Process Intervia 3D-N Application Process

47 © 2011 MicroChem Corp Microfabrication Capabilities Etched features with 0.2 um tolerances Deep (through-wafer) etching Contoured plated features (photoresists and metals) Submicron multilayer feature-to-feature alignment Submicron die bonding Conformal AR coatings

48 © 2011 MicroChem Corp48 MicroChem would like to thank Dow Electronic Materials for providing these materials… …and thank you for your time and attention.


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