6 Communications challenges faced by engineering teams Two main types of comms challenges: Presentations to team members and others with engineering backgrounds. Presentations to non-engineers. Engineer/presenter typically aims to: "Sell" the project or key concepts. Provide engineering input for high-level presentations by senior project managers to clients, investors, authorities, etc.
7 First critical steps Assess the importance of each presentation or writing task Tailor response to the challenge: – The more critical the task, the more effective the document or presentation should be, and the bigger the communication effort. A major effort will involve applying the lessons learned today and more …
Technical communication: Basic concepts
9 Technical communication: Basic concepts: Sender/receiver model Audience-centred communication
13 Presentation skills – Body language Posture, eyes, etc.:55% – Voice Tone, inflection, etc.:38% – Content: 7% – Language skills & accent Not included in this study. – Study by Prof. Albert Mehrabian, University of Ca., STC "Technical Communication", Nov. 2000, p605
14 Audience Communication is easiest between: people with similar backgrounds and training people who are used to working together.
15 Audience It is more difficult: between departments (design, marketing, etc.) between people with different backgrounds, languages, etc. for multidisciplinary, multi-department and engineering project teams.
16 Audience-centred communication Focus on what your audience wants to know and questions they want answered, _not_ what you want to tell them. Tell them what you're going to say, say it (no more than three main points), then tell them what you've just said. Use rhetorical devices, including parallel structures and repetition.
17 Reader-centred writing Focus on what readers want to know and questions they want answered, _not_ what you want to tell them. Provide navigation devices. Consider "Information Mapping": – courses now available in Portugal.
18 Focus on: – Readers’ information needs – Readers’ technical knowledge – Readers’ language skills – Readers’ attitudes – The time they are likely to spend reading your document.
19 Unlearning … Unlearning … things you thought you knew and others you learnt at school/university. Reader-centred writing is radically different from: explaining to teachers, who already know writing at least X pages showing that you know how to use sophisticated language avoiding (at all cost) repetition of words.
20 Answer readers’ likely questions Start by playing devil’s advocate: – Why should I read this? – Where does this information come from? – Which are the most important parts? – What am I expected to do next? – What does the competition have to say? What details or facts are your readers hoping to learn?
22 Making lists Lists are: – shorter than running text – easier to write and understand, especially if you use parallel structure. Use parallel structure, i.e., begin with: – verb (infinitive or conjugated; imperative, other) – gerund – noun (less powerful). (See also : saywhatyoumean.com/html/readingroom21.html)saywhatyoumean.com/html/readingroom21.html
23 Keep It Short and Simple (KISS) Aim for an average sentence length of words But vary the pattern: medium, long, short, short, medium, short, long, medium, short, medium Maximum: 30 words, except in lists
24 KISS Remove unnecessary prepositions – in the region of --> about – as a means to --> to Remove other unnecessary words – complete monopoly – rectangular in shape –... the dusting problem... – these instruments have a marked tendency to drift
25 KISS: short, simple words Prefer Anglo-Saxon to Latinate words: – accelerate-->speed up – fabricate-->make – frequently-->often – principal-->main – utilize--> use – should it prove to be the case that -->if
26 KISS: Action in verbs Put the action into a verb – we made an application --> we applied – it provides a summary of --> it summarizes –... the addition of talc is done in two steps --> Talc is added in two steps – We have a lot of knowledge of... --> We know a lot about...
27 KISS: Examples – Commence inspection of the facility upon completion of the final stage --> Inspect the building after the final stage – A reduction in the quantity of the data by a factor of two results in a corresponding enhancement of the capabilities of the system --> Halving the amount of data makes the program run twice as fast
28 In recent years the traditional brick sector has adopted new technologies that have resulted in higher productivity levels and are better able to meet the requirements of modern architecture in terms of product quality and diversity. --> In the traditional brick sector, new technologies have increased productivity, product quality and architectural variety.
29 Ladder of abstraction Anglo-Saxons often prefer words low on the ladder of abstraction Latins often prefer words higher up the ladder.
Writing PowerPoint slides
31 Steps and tips 1.Select a plain, easy-to-read template 2.Go to Options/Edit: Deselect "Auto-fit text to text placeholders" 3.Consider using Word in Outline mode, then importing Word Outline into PPT 4.Follow advice of Office Assistant 5.Apply 6x6 rule: 6 lines, 6 words each 6.Use bulleted points with parallel construction.
32 PowerPoint: Limitations Be aware, however, that PowerPoint also has severe limitations. As Edward Tufte says: "The problem with bullet points is that they can only represent the simplest relationships between things. They're good for making laundry lists or describing step-by-step procedures. The problem is that information is usually much more complex." More at: saywhatyoumean.com/html/readingroom25.htmlsaywhatyoumean.com/html/readingroom25.html
Communications failures and responses
34 Communications failures Who's responsible? – Sender: Virtually every time – Receiver: Hardly ever!!... and even if he/she is responsible, what point would there be to saying so?
35 Responses to failure: Review presentation with: carefully selected member of audience someone from outside your organization someone unfamiliar with the subject.
36 Review resources and strategies: Choose a different presenter Call in an outside specialist Learn how to speak better in public
37 Repeated challenges Team facing repeated communication challenges should consider: developing standard procedures possibly even standard forms, templates, etc. studying how others handle these challenges: – internet searches – external consultants
38 Is the problem cross-cultural? Did communication failure involve: more than one nationality? different cultural or sociocultural groups? several corporate cultures? If so, research cross-cultural communication issues or call in a specialist. Jody Jakob is one such specialist based in
40 Culture: What is it? “The collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category from those of another.” – Geert Hofstede “A learned, shared, compelling, interrelated set of symbols whose meanings provide a set of orientations for members of society.” – Terpstra & David
41 Characteristics: What all have in common All cultural traits are: Prescriptive, i.e. they define what a particular group considers to be acceptable Learned, not genetic Dynamic: Interactive relationship between behaviour and culture Subjective: Meanings vary by culture
42 Cultural differences _do_ exist! Cultural studies and their impact on good business are also increasingly popular, witness these TV advertisements by anglo- Asian banking group HSBC.
45 Geert Hofstede's model 1. Power distance 2. Individualism vs. collectivism 3. Femininity vs. masculinity 4. Uncertainty avoidance 5. Long-term vs. short-term orientation
46 Power distance The extent to which the less powerful members of an organization (in a given culture) expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.
47 Individualism vs. collectivism Individualism = degree to which individuals are integrated into groups. An individualistic society has loose ties between individuals, i.e. everyone is expected to look after him/herself and his/her family. Collectivistic society has in-groups (with strong, cohesive ties between individuals from birth) which protect their members in exchange for unquestioning loyalty.
48 Masculinity vs. femininity Masculinity = assertiveness Femininity = caring – Masculinity/femininity refers to the distribution of roles between the genders, a fundamental issue for any society. Women in 'feminine' countries have about the same modest, caring values as the men. Women in 'masculine' countries are somewhat assertive and competitive, but not as much as the men (hence a gap between men's values and women's values).
49 Uncertainty avoidance Uncertainty avoidance deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity; it ultimately refers to man's search for Truth.
50 Long- vs. short-term orientation Deals with Virtue regardless of Truth. Values associated with long-term orientation are thrift and perseverance Values associated with short-term orientation are respect for tradition, fulfilling social obligations, and protecting one's 'face'.
51 Low- vs. high-context cultures Individualism/collectivism is related to Edward T. Hall’s idea of low- and high-context cultures: Individualist cultures tend to be low-context Collectivist cultures tend to be high-context.
52 Low-context communication: the mass of information is explicit. High-context communication: little has to be said or written because most of the information is in the physical environment or within the person.
53 Examples of impact on writing More formal style expected in high power distance cultures More explicit information expected in low- context, individualist cultures Inductive + deductive mix often suitable in low power distance, individualist cultures.
"Localization" problem (Internet catalogues, etc.) Terminology for web sites
58 Internet catalogues English-language section needs to be indexed using at least: lemon squeezer, orange squeezer, orange juicer, citrus juicer, citrus press,... Question is: How?
59 META tags How can one add synonyms, variants, etc. to Internet catalogues, etc.? Solution: HTML META tags... containing invisible keywords, that are recognized and indexed by certain search engines. Same applies to typos. (Think about spelling of destinations offered by a travel agency.)
Information Mapping® What is it?
61 Information Mapping Information Mapping® is a methodology for analysing, organizing, and presenting information based on the audience's needs and the purpose of the information. All information is presented in specially formatted "maps" comprising "chunks".
62 Information Mapping – Information Mapping (in Portuguese) by Formedia – Information Mapping in Europe
63 On-line resources: General Online writing course (in English): Online diploma course in technical writing (in English): STC (Society for Technical Communication)
64 On-line resources: writing, etc. Writing resources for engineers, etc.: On-line English grammar: Writing mission statements: – "The Mission Primer, Four Steps to an Effective Mission Statement"
66 On-line resources Tips on presentation skills: – Tips on using PowerPoint: –
67 On-line resources PowerPoint Is Evil or Power corrupts. PowerPoint corrupts absolutely. at An alternative view by Edward Tufte, Professor Emeritus of Political Science, Computer Science and Statistics, and Graphic Design at Yale, and author of "The Cognitive Style of PowerPoint". See