6Communications challenges faced by engineering teams Two main types of comms challenges:Presentations to team members and others with engineering backgrounds.Presentations to non-engineers.Engineer/presenter typically aims to:"Sell" the project or key concepts.Provide engineering input for high-level presentations by senior project managers to clients, investors, authorities, etc.
7First critical stepsAssess the importance of each presentation or writing taskTailor response to the challenge:The more critical the task, the more effective the document or presentation should be, and the bigger the communication effort.A major effort will involve applying the lessons learned today and more …
11Message encoding/decoding sends informationsenderreceiverexperience,feelings,history,expectations,fearsfeelings,experience,history,Example: Portugal now has many migrants from Eastern Europe, particularly Ukraine.Migrants from former Soviet Block countries have radically different perceptions, attitudes, beliefs, values, etc. from the Portuguese.Thus, Ukrainian workers may pose a communications challenge for Portuguese engineers and managers wishing to increase motivation, improve quality awareness, etc.expectations,fears
12Maybe he's considering telling a joke before moving on to discuss the graphs. That may work with some audiences, but not all.Many Asians think Anglo-Saxon style joke telling during presentations is most inappropriate!Joke about the Australian-Chinese interpreter who coerced audience into gales of laughter ...
13Presentation skills Body language Voice Content: 7% Posture, eyes, etc.: 55%VoiceTone, inflection, etc.: 38%Content: 7%Language skills & accentNot included in this study.Study by Prof. Albert Mehrabian, University of Ca., STC "Technical Communication", Nov. 2000, p605
14Audience Communication is easiest between: people with similar backgrounds and trainingpeople who are used to working together.
15Audience It is more difficult: between departments (design, marketing, etc.)between people with different backgrounds, languages, etc.for multidisciplinary, multi-department and engineering project teams.
16Audience-centred communication Focus on what your audience wants to know and questions they want answered, _not_ what you want to tell them.Tell them what you're going to say, say it (no more than three main points), then tell them what you've just said.Use rhetorical devices, including parallel structures and repetition.All Latins, including the Portuguese, love speaking.Most presentations I hear by Portuguese speakers contain too much information, too many points.This talk also attempts to make too many points, but then I am assuming that I have a very smart audience!Make fewer points and repeat your main points two or three times to ensure people come away remembering some of the content in addition to an overall impression.
17Reader-centred writing Focus on what readers want to know and questions they want answered, _not_ what you want to tell them.Provide navigation devices.Consider "Information Mapping":courses now available in Portugal.
18Focus on: Readers’ information needs Readers’ technical knowledge Readers’ language skillsReaders’ attitudesThe time they are likely to spend reading your document.
19Unlearning …Unlearning … things you thought you knew and others you learnt at school/university.Reader-centred writing is radically different from:explaining to teachers, who already knowwriting at least X pagesshowing that you know how to use sophisticated languageavoiding (at all cost) repetition of words.
20Answer readers’ likely questions Start by playing devil’s advocate:Why should I read this?Where does this information come from?Which are the most important parts?What am I expected to do next?What does the competition have to say?What details or facts are your readers hoping to learn?
22Making lists Lists are: Use parallel structure, i.e., begin with: shorter than running texteasier to write and understand, especially if you use parallel structure.Use parallel structure, i.e., begin with:verb (infinitive or conjugated; imperative, other)gerundnoun (less powerful).(See also : saywhatyoumean.com/html/readingroom21.html)
23Keep It Short and Simple (KISS) Aim for an average sentence length of wordsBut vary the pattern: medium, long, short, short, medium, short, long, medium, short, mediumMaximum: 30 words, except in lists
24KISS Remove unnecessary prepositions Remove other unnecessary words in the region of --> aboutas a means to --> toRemove other unnecessary wordscomplete monopolyrectangular in shape. . . the dusting problem . . .these instruments have a marked tendency to drift
25KISS: short, simple words Prefer Anglo-Saxon to Latinate words:accelerate --> speed upfabricate --> makefrequently --> oftenprincipal --> mainutilize --> useshould it prove to be the case that --> if
26KISS: Action in verbs Put the action into a verb we made an application --> we appliedit provides a summary of --> it summarizes. . . the addition of talc is done in two steps--> Talc is added in two stepsWe have a lot of knowledge of . . .--> We know a lot about . . .
27KISS: ExamplesCommence inspection of the facility upon completion of the final stage -->Inspect the building after the final stageA reduction in the quantity of the data by a factor of two results in a corresponding enhancement of the capabilities of the system -->Halving the amount of data makes the program run twice as fast
28In recent years the traditional brick sector has adopted new technologies that have resulted in higher productivity levels and are better able to meet the requirements of modern architecture in terms of product quality and diversity.--> In the traditional brick sector, new technologies have increased productivity, product quality and architectural variety.
29Ladder of abstractionAnglo-Saxons often prefer words low on the ladder of abstractionLatins often prefer words higher up the ladder.
31Steps and tips Select a plain, easy-to-read template Go to Options/Edit: Deselect "Auto-fit text to text placeholders"Consider using Word in Outline mode, then importing Word Outline into PPTFollow advice of Office AssistantApply 6x6 rule: 6 lines, 6 words eachUse bulleted points with parallel construction.
32PowerPoint: Limitations Be aware, however, that PowerPoint also has severe limitations.As Edward Tufte says:"The problem with bullet points is that they can only represent the simplest relationships between things. They're good for making laundry lists or describing step-by-step procedures. The problem is that information is usually much more complex." More at: saywhatyoumean.com/html/readingroom25.html
34Communications failures Who's responsible?Sender:Virtually every timeReceiver:Hardly ever!! ... and even if he/she is responsible, what point would there be to saying so?
35Responses to failure: Review presentation with: carefully selected member of audiencesomeone from outside your organizationsomeone unfamiliar with the subject.
36Review resources and strategies: Choose a different presenterCall in an outside specialistLearn how to speak better in public
37Repeated challengesTeam facing repeated communication challenges should consider:developing standard procedurespossibly even standard forms, templates, etc.studying how others handle these challenges:internet searchesexternal consultants
38Is the problem cross-cultural? Did communication failure involve:more than one nationality?different cultural or sociocultural groups?several corporate cultures?If so, research cross-cultural communication issues or call in a specialist.Jody Jakob is one such specialist based in Portugal.
39Cultural differencesI will not say much about culture and cultural differences because it is not really my subject.You should, however, be aware of two things:a) We sometimes fail to communicate successfully because of unidentified cultural differences between the message sender and receiver, between the presenter and his/her audience, and so forth.b) If you or one of your team suspects that this may be the reason for a communication failure, be aware that much useful information is available on the internet and, if necessary, you can attend a course or hire a consultant to help you overcome your problem.Below I would simply like to introduce the concept of culture, give some definitions, mentions some names, and very, very briefly introduce some of the concepts developed by Geert Hofstede.
40Culture: What is it?“The collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category from those of another.”Geert Hofstede“A learned, shared, compelling, interrelated set of symbols whose meanings provide a set of orientations for members of society.”Terpstra & David
41Characteristics: What all have in common All cultural traits are:Prescriptive, i.e. they define what a particular group considers to be acceptableLearned, not geneticDynamic: Interactive relationship between behaviour and cultureSubjective: Meanings vary by culture
42Cultural differences _do_ exist! Cultural studies and their impact on good business are also increasingly popular, witness these TV advertisements by anglo-Asian banking group HSBC.
43In England, presents are given to the bride and groom to set them up in their new life … whereas, in Malta, guests can expect a present as a momento of the day.
44The English believe it's a slur on your host's food if you don't clear your plate … whereas the Chinese feel that you are questioning their generosity if you do …
45Geert Hofstede's model Power distance Individualism vs. collectivism Femininity vs. masculinityUncertainty avoidanceLong-term vs. short-term orientationThese ideas were first based on a large research project into national cultures across IBM subsidiaries in 64 countries. The original research was conducted in the 1970s (TBC).Subsequent studies by others covered:students in 23 countries,elites in 19 countries,commercial airline pilots in 23 countries,up-market consumers in 15 countries, andcivil service managers in 14 countries.These studies together identified and validated five independent dimensions of national culture differences:Power distanceIndividualism vs. collectivismFemininity vs. masculinityUncertainty avoidanceLong-term vs. short-term orientation
46Power distanceThe extent to which the less powerful members of an organization (in a given culture) expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.The extent to which the less powerful members of organizations (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. This represents inequality (more vs. less), but defined from below, not from above. It suggests that a society's level of inequality is endorsed by the followers as much as by the leaders. Power and inequality, of course, are extremely fundamental facts of any society and anybody with some international experience will be aware that 'all societies are unequal, but some are more unequal than others'.
47Individualism vs. collectivism Individualism = degree to which individuals are integrated into groups.An individualistic society has loose ties between individuals, i.e. everyone is expected to look after him/herself and his/her family.Collectivistic society has in-groups (with strong, cohesive ties between individuals from birth) which protect their members in exchange for unquestioning loyalty.
48Masculinity vs. femininity Masculinity = assertivenessFemininity = caringMasculinity/femininity refers to the distribution of roles between the genders, a fundamental issue for any society.Women in 'feminine' countries have about the same modest, caring values as the men.Women in 'masculine' countries are somewhat assertive and competitive, but not as much as the men (hence a gap between men's values and women's values).The IBM studies revealed that(a) women's values differ less among societies than men's values;(b) men's values from one country to another contain a dimension from very assertive and competitive and maximally different from women's values on the one side, to modest and caring and similar to women's values on the other.
49Uncertainty avoidance Uncertainty avoidance deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity; it ultimately refers to man's search for Truth.UA indicates to what extent a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations. Unstructured situations are novel, unknown, surprising, different from usual. Uncertainty avoiding cultures try to minimize the possibility of such situations by strict laws and rules, safety and security measures, and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute Truth; 'there can only be one Truth and we have it'.People in uncertainty avoiding countries are also more emotional, and motivated by inner nervous energy. The opposite type, uncertainty accepting cultures, are more tolerant of opinions different from what they are used to; they try to have as few rules as possible, and on the philosophical and religious level they are relativist and allow many currents to flow side by side.People within these cultures are more phlegmatic and contemplative, and not expected by their environment to express emotions.
50Long- vs. short-term orientation Deals with Virtue regardless of Truth.Values associated with long-term orientation are thrift and perseveranceValues associated with short-term orientation are respect for tradition, fulfilling social obligations, and protecting one's 'face'.Long-term vs. short-term orientation: this fifth dimension was found in a study among students in 23 countries around the world, using a questionnaire designed by Chinese scholars.Both the positively and the negatively rated values of this dimension are found in the teachings of Confucius, the most influential Chinese philosopher who lived around 500 B.C.; however, the dimension also applies to countries without a Confucian heritage.
51Low- vs. high-context cultures Individualism/collectivism is related to Edward T. Hall’s idea of low- and high-context cultures:Individualist cultures tend to be low-contextCollectivist cultures tend to be high-context.
52Low-context communication: the mass of information is explicit. High-context communication: little has to be said or written because most of the information is in the physical environment or within the person.
53Examples of impact on writing More formal style expected in high power distance culturesMore explicit information expected in low-context, individualist culturesInductive + deductive mix often suitable in low power distance, individualist cultures.
54"Localization" problem (Internet catalogues, etc.) Terminology for web sites
58Internet cataloguesEnglish-language section needs to be indexed using at least: lemon squeezer, orange squeezer, orange juicer, citrus juicer, citrus press, ...Question is: How?
59META tagsHow can one add synonyms, variants, etc. to Internet catalogues, etc.?Solution: HTML META tags ... containing invisible keywords, that are recognized and indexed by certain search engines.Same applies to typos. (Think about spelling of destinations offered by a travel agency.)
61Information MappingInformation Mapping® is a methodology for analysing, organizing, and presenting information based on the audience's needs and the purpose of the information.All information is presented in specially formatted "maps" comprising "chunks".
62Information Mapping Information Mapping (in Portuguese) by Formedia Information Mapping in Europe
63On-line resources: General Online writing course (in English):Online diploma course in technical writing (in English):STC (Society for Technical Communication)
64On-line resources: writing, etc. Writing resources for engineers, etc.:On-line English grammar:Writing mission statements:"The Mission Primer, Four Steps to an Effective Mission Statement"
66On-line resources Tips on presentation skills: Tips on using PowerPoint:
67On-line resources PowerPoint Is Evil or Power corrupts. PowerPoint corrupts absolutely.atAn alternative view by Edward Tufte, Professor Emeritus of Political Science, Computer Science and Statistics, and Graphic Design at Yale, and author of "The Cognitive Style of PowerPoint".See
68Roundup Communication in engineering projects Communications-critical phasesTechnical communication: Basic conceptsSender/receiver modelAudience-centred communicationTips (writing, PowerPoint, etc.)Communications failures + responsesLocalization & catalogues