2What is Manganese?MANGANESE (Mn) is a hard but very brittle silver-gray metallic elementIts atomic number is 25.
3HistoryThe Swedish scientist Johann Gahn discovered manganese in 1774, while heating the mineral pyrolusite (MnO2, manganese dioxide) in a charcoal fireManganese is now known to have many uses for the human body and for industry
4What are the Health Uses of Manganese? It is an essential element in people's daily food consumptionIt makes bones strong yet flexibleIt aids the body in absorbing Vitamin B1It is an important activator for the body to use enzymes
5How is Manganese used in Industry? Industry uses most manganese in the form of alloys (metal mixtures) and compoundsSteel alloys Magnesium dioxideAluminum alloys - Magnesium sulfateCopper alloys - Potassium permanganate
6Industrial Uses of Manganese as Alloy It is an essential ingredient in the production of steelIt is used in steel alloys to increase many favorable characteristics such as strength, hardness and durabilityIt has similar applications when alloyed with aluminum and copper
7Other uses of manganese as alloy… Manganese metal is also used:as a brick and ceramic colorantas a chemical oxidizer and catalyst
8Industrial Uses of Manganese Compounds Manganese dioxide (MnO2) is used to:manufacture ferroalloysmanufacture dry cell batteries"decolorize" glassprepare some chemicals, like oxygen & chlorinedry black paints
9Industrial Use: Manganese Compounds Manganese sulfate (MnSO4) is used as:a chemical intermediatea micronutrient in animal feeds and plant fertilizersPotassium permanganate (KMnO4) is used as:a bactericide and algicide in water and wastewater treatmentan oxidant in organic chemical synthesis
10Sources of ManganeseIn the Earth, manganese is found in a number of minerals of different chemical and physical properties, but is never found as a free metal in nature.The most important mineral is pyrolusite, because it is the main ore mineral for manganese.
11The mining of manganese ores is usually done in open pits
12Manganese MiningSome ores are upgraded by washing, and undersized ores can be agglomerated by sinteringSeveral processes have been developed for mining seafloor nodules, but they cannot compete economically with the ready exploitation of high-grade terrestrial deposits
13Other sources of manganese Some manganese is recovered through the reprocessing of scrap metals and steel slag, or the materials left over from the steel-making process
14Source CountriesOver 80% of the known world manganese resources are found in South Africa and UkraineOther important manganese deposits are in China, Australia, Brazil, Gabon, India, and Mexico
15Sources of Manganese in the U.S. The United States imports manganese ore because the manganese resources in the U.S. are relatively low in manganese content per ton of ore.Importing these ores is presently more economic than mining them locally.
16Price in US$The Price of Manganese for the past five years averages at about USD 2.50 per kg (fob) and is also the current year average.
17ECONOMICS The price of Manganese is USD 2.50/kg at FOB terms. This means that the cost of Shipment from the source port, and other attendant costs, such as, import taxes, will still be added to the price to determine the total landed cost of the material.
18EconomicsIt is imperative to consider the source of the material – whether import or local, due to the cost of shipping and handling, and the comparative duties and taxes that will be imposed.However, mining of manganese does not entail very high investment compared to coal and phosphates as mining operations is mostly by Open Pit Mining.
20What is Phosphate?In mineralogy and geology, phosphate refers to a rock or ore containing phosphate ions.Phosphates are the naturally occurring form of the element phosphorus, found in many phosphate minerals
21What is Phosphate rock?It is the product obtained from the mining and the metallurgical processing of phosphorus-bearing oresIt is the trade name of about 300 phosphates of different qualities in the worldIt can be used either as raw materials in the industrial manufacture of fertilizers or as phosphorus sources for direct application in agriculture
22Phosphates & Phosphorus Inorganic phosphates are mined to obtain phosphorus for use in agriculture and industry
23Industrial Uses of Phosphates Phosphoric acid-based chemical polishes are used primarily to polish (brighten) aluminum and aluminum alloysMany phosphorus-containing materials are used as flame-retardants for textiles, plastics, coatings, paper, sealants and mastics
24Industrial Uses of Phosphates Phosphates and phosphoric acid have many uses in the treatment of potable (drinking) waterCleaning solutions with phosphates help clean mildew and stubborn stains on vinyl siding
25Agricultural Uses of Phosphorus Fertilization of crops comprises the largestproportion of phosphorus (P) used in agricultureThe importance of P to crop production systems is illustrated by the amount of fertilizer-P used during the last 35 years, which has doubled since 1960, stabilizing at slightly under two million tons/year over the last 10 years.
26Geochemistry of Phosphates Phoshorite mines are primarily found inNorth America: USAAfrica: Morocco, Senegal, Togo, Tunisia, Egypt, Western SaharaMiddle East: Israel, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, IraqOceania: Australia, Makatea, Nauru,Ocean Island
27Phosphate sites in the U.S. The largest phosphorite deposits in North America lie in the Bone Valley region of central Florida, the Soda Springs region of Idaho, and the coast of North CarolinaSmaller deposits are located in Montana, Tennessee, Georgia and South Carolina
28Phosphates: Status of Supply In 2007, at the current rate of consumption, the supply of phosphorus was estimated to run out in 345 years.However, scientists are now claiming that a "Peak Phosphorus" will occur in 30 years and that "At current rates, reserves will be depleted in the next 50 to 100 years."
29Ecology of phosphatesOnce used, phosphate is often a limiting nutrient in freshwater environments (its availability may govern the rate of growth of organisms)Addition of high levels of phosphate to environments and to micro-environments in which it is typically rare can have significant ecological consequencesIn the context of pollution, phosphates are one component of total dissolved solids, a major indicator of water quality
30Ecology of Phosphates… Phosphate deposits can contain significant amounts of naturally occurring heavy metalsMining operations processing phosphate rock can leave tailings piles containing elevated levels of cadmiun, lead, nickel, copper, chromium, and uranium
31Ecology of Phosphates… These waste products, if not carefully managed, can leach heavy metals into groundwater or nearby estuaries.Uptake of these substances by plants and marine life can lead to concentration of toxic heavy metals in food products
32Phosphate Ecology …Fertilizing crops with a blend of high-nitrogen fertilizer and chicken litter increases crop yields and reduces the potential for phosphorus runoff
33Phosphate Mining in Florida Phosphate deposits in Florida are among the richest and most accessible in the worldPhosphate ore is found from 15 to 50 feet below the ground
34Huge cranes remove the top layer of soil, and scoop up the phosphate matrix
35The "beneficiation" process separates the sand and clay from the phosphate rock Waste clay is pumped to a settling pond.Sand and sand-sized phosphate particles (flotation feed) are put through a hydro-chemical-physical process to separate the sand and phosphate.Remaining sand is pumped back to the mine where it will be used to restore the site when mining is complete.
36Phosphate ore must be mixed with sulfuric acid to create phosphoric acid that is used in fertilizer There are a billion tons of phosphogypsum, the slightly radioactive byproduct, stacked across the state of Florida and 30 million more tons are generated yearly.Federal regulations ban its use. However, pilot programs show that it may be a cost-effective alternative to fill material used for building roads.
37Reclamation efforts developed over the past 30 years have been successful Thousands of acres have been donated to local governments for parksResearchers have identified 348 species of animals using reclaimed phosphate mines
38Florida provides 75 percent of the phosphorous used by U. S Florida provides 75 percent of the phosphorous used by U.S. farmers and 25 percent of world production.Critical for root and flower development in all plants, phosphorous is quickly depleted in soils and must be replenished regularly if fields are to remain fertile.
39Economics of Phosphate mining federal revenues from phosphate-related activity in Caribou County, Idaho, on federal leases for fiscal year 2001 were almost $9.34 million
41What is coal?Coal is a readily combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock normally occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal bedsThe harder forms can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure
42COAL : compositionCoal is composed primarily of carbon (C) along with variable quantities of other elements, chiefly sulfur (S), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), and nitrogen (N)
43Uses of CoalCoal is primarily used as a solid fuel to produce electricity and heat through combustion Coal can also be converted by several different processes (liquefaction) into liquid fuels such as gasoline or dieselo
44World coal reservescoal has the most widely distributed reserves of the three fossil fuelscoal is mined in over 100 countries, and on all continents except AntarcticaThe largest coal reserves are found in the USA, Russia, Australia, China, India and South Africa
45The United States has the world's largest coal reserves. A coal minein Wyoming
46Coal ReservesThe United States Energy Information Administration gives world reserves as 930 billion short tons as of At the current extraction rate, this would last 132 years.However, the rate of coal consumption is annually increasing at 2-3% per year and, setting the growth rate to 2.5% yields an exponential depletion time of 56 years (in 2065)
47Production trendsIn 2006, China was the top producer of coal with 38% share followed by the USA and India, according to the British Geological Survey.
49Environmental Effects of Coal There are a number of adverse environmental effects of coal mining and burning, specially in power stations
50Coal-fired power plants… are one of the largest sources of human-caused background radiation exposureemit mercury, selenium, and arsenic which are harmful to human health and the environmentshorten nearly 24,000 lives a year in the U.S., including 2,800 from lung cancer
51Environmental effects of coal burning Millions of tons of waste products that contain mercury, uranium, thorium, arsenic, and other heavy metalsAcid rain (from high sulfur coal)Interference with groundwater and water table levelsContamination of land and waterways and destruction of homes from fly ash spillsImpact of water use on flows of riversDust nuisance
52Economics of CoalThe price of coal increased from around $30.00 per short ton in 2000 to around $ per short ton as of September 2008.As of October 2008, the price per short ton had declined to $111.50
53Economics of Coal…Coal liquefaction is one of the backstop technologies that could potentially limit escalation of oil prices and mitigate the effects of transportation energy shortage.Estimates of the cost of producing liquid fuels from coal suggest that domestic U.S. production of fuel from coal becomes cost-competitive with oil priced at around $35 per barrel,(break-even cost)..
54Economics of coal…With oil prices as low as around $40 per barrel in the U.S. as of December 2008, liquid coal lost some of its economic allure in the U.S., but will probably be re-vitalized, similar to oil sand projects, with an oil price around $70 per barrel.