Presentation on theme: "Objectives Vocabulary"— Presentation transcript:
1Objectives Vocabulary What are igneous rocks?ObjectivesCompare and contrast intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks.Describe the composition of magma.Discuss the factors that affect how rocks melt and crystallize.Vocabularyigneous rocklavaextrusiveintrusivepartial meltingfractional crystallizationBowen’s reaction series
2What are igneous rocks?What are igneous rocks?Igneous rocks are rocks that are formed from the crystallization of magma.Lava is magma that flows out onto Earth’s surface.
3What are igneous rocks?Types of Igneous RocksExtrusive igneous rocks are fine-grained igneous rocks that cool quickly on Earth’s surface.Intrusive igneous rocks are coarse-grained igneous rocks that cool slowly beneath Earth’s surface.Granite is the most common intrusive igneous rock.
4What are igneous rocks?Types of Igneous RocksCareful study of granite rock formations revealed that they cut across other rock formations.These cross-cutting relationships are evidence that the granite was intruded, or forced into, existing rocks.Magma cools slowly beneath Earth’s surface and forms course-grained igneous rocks such as granite.
5What are igneous rocks?Composition of MagmaMagma is often a slushy mix of molten rock, gases, and mineral crystals.The elements found in magma are the same major elements found in Earth’s crust: oxygen (O), silicon (Si), aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), and sodium (Na).
6What are igneous rocks?Composition of MagmaMagmas are classified as basaltic, andesitic, and rhyolitic, based on the amount of SiO2 they contain.Of all the compounds found in magma, silica (SiO2) is the most abundant and has the greatest effect on magma characteristics.Silica content affects melting temperature and also impacts how quickly magma flows.
7What are igneous rocks?Origins of MagmaIn the laboratory, most rocks must be heated to temperatures of 800°C to 1200°C before they melt.These temperatures are found in the upper mantle and lower crust.Scientists theorize that the remaining energy from Earth’s molten formation and the heat generated from the decay of radioactive elements are the sources of Earth’s thermal energy.
8Origins of Magma Factors That Affect Magma Formation What are igneous rocks?Origins of MagmaFactors That Affect Magma FormationThe main factors involved in the formation of magma are temperature, pressure, water content, and mineral composition.Temperature generally increases with depth in Earth’s crust, a phenomenon known as the geothermal gradient.
9Origins of Magma Factors That Affect Magma Formation What are igneous rocks?Origins of MagmaFactors That Affect Magma FormationPressure increases with depth as a result of the weight of overlying rock.As pressure on a rock increases, its melting point increases.Rocks and minerals often contain small percentages of water.As water content increases, the melting point decreases.
10Origins of Magma Factors That Affect Magma Formation What are igneous rocks?Origins of MagmaFactors That Affect Magma FormationMineral content also impacts how magma is formed as different minerals have different melting points.In general, oceanic crust is rich in iron and magnesium and therefore melts at higher temperatures than continental crust, which contains higher levels of silicon and aluminum.For rocks to melt, the right combination of temperature, pressure, and composition must be present.
11Origins of Magma Factors That Affect Magma Formation What are igneous rocks?Origins of MagmaFactors That Affect Magma FormationGranite’s higher water content and mineral composition cause it to melt at a lower temperature than basalt.
12How Rocks Melt Partial Melting What are igneous rocks?How Rocks MeltPartial MeltingBecause different minerals have different melting points, not all parts of a rock melt at the same time.Partial melting is the process whereby some minerals melt at low temperatures while other minerals remain solid.
13How Rocks Melt Partial Melting What are igneous rocks?How Rocks MeltPartial MeltingIf temperatures are not great enough to melt the entire rock, the resulting magma will have a different chemistry from that of the original rock.This is one way in which different types of igneous rocks form.
14How Rocks Melt Fractional Crystallization What are igneous rocks?How Rocks MeltFractional CrystallizationWhen magma cools, it crystallizes in the reverse order of partial melting—the first minerals to crystallize from magma are the last minerals to melt during partial melting.Fractional crystallization is the process wherein different minerals form at different temperatures.
15Bowen’s Reaction Series What are igneous rocks?Bowen’s Reaction SeriesBowen’s reaction series illustrates the relationship between cooling magma and mineral formation.Bowen discovered two main patterns, or branches, of crystallization.The first pattern is characterized by a continuous, gradual change of mineral compositions in the feldspar group.The second pattern is characterized by an abrupt change of mineral type in the iron- magnesium groups.
16Bowen’s Reaction Series What are igneous rocks?Bowen’s Reaction Series
17Bowen’s Reaction Series What are igneous rocks?Bowen’s Reaction SeriesFeldsparsIn Bowen’s reaction series, the right branch represents the feldspar minerals, which undergo a continuous change of composition.As magma cools, the first feldspars to form are rich in calcium.As cooling continues, their calcium-rich compositions change to sodium-rich compositions.
18Bowen’s Reaction Series What are igneous rocks?Bowen’s Reaction SeriesFeldsparsIn some instances, as when magma cools rapidly, the calcium-rich cores are unable to react completely with the magma.The result is a zoned crystal that has sodium-rich outer layers and calcium-rich cores.
19Bowen’s Reaction Series What are igneous rocks?Bowen’s Reaction SeriesIron-Rich MineralsThe left branch of Bowen’s reaction series represents the iron-rich minerals.These minerals undergo abrupt changes during fractional crystallization.
20Bowen’s Reaction Series What are igneous rocks?Bowen’s Reaction SeriesIron-Rich MineralsAs minerals form in the order shown in Bowen’s reaction series, elements are removed from the magma.Silica and oxygen are left over at the end of the reaction series.When the remaining melt, enriched with silica and oxygen, finally crystallizes, quartz is formed.
21Bowen’s Reaction Series What are igneous rocks?Bowen’s Reaction SeriesCrystal SeparationGeologists hypothesize that under certain conditions, newly formed crystals can be separated from magma.This stops the chemical reactions between the magma and the minerals.Crystal separation can occur when crystals settle to the bottom of the magma body, and when liquid magma is squeezed from the crystal mush to form two distinct igneous bodies with different compositions.
22Bowen’s Reaction Series What are igneous rocks?Bowen’s Reaction SeriesLayered IntrusionsIn some magma bodies, the minerals form into distinct bands in the order shown in Bowen’s reaction series resulting in a layered intrusion.Geologists are uncertain how these layers form.
23Bowen’s Reaction Series What are igneous rocks?Bowen’s Reaction SeriesLayered IntrusionsLayered igneous intrusions can be valuable sources of rare metals.Some have very high concentrations of elements such as platinum, chromium, nickel, or gold.
24What are igneous rocks?Section Assessment1. Match the following terms with their definitions.___ extrusive___ intrusive___ lava___ fractional crystallizationA. coarse-grained igneous rocks that cool slowly beneath Earth’s surfaceB. magma that flows out onto Earth’s surfaceC. fine-grained igneous rocks that cool quickly on Earth’s surfaceD. the process wherein different minerals form at different temperatures
25Section Assessment 2. Describe partial melting. What are igneous rocks?Section Assessment2. Describe partial melting.
26What are igneous rocks?Section Assessment3. Identify whether the following statements are true or false.________ In Bowen’s reaction series feldspars undergo abrupt changes.________ The melting point of basalt is higher than granite.________ Increased pressure decreases the melting point of rock.________ Quartz is the last mineral to crystallize.
28Objectives Vocabulary Classifying Igneous RocksObjectivesClassify different types and textures of igneous rocks.Recognize the effects of cooling rates on the grain sizes of igneous rocks.Describe some uses of igneous rocks.Vocabularyfelsicmaficultramaficporphyriticpegmatitekimberlite
29Classifying Igneous Rocks Igneous rocks are broadly classified as intrusive or extrusive.Igneous rocks are further classified by their mineral compositions.Physical properties such as grain size and texture serve as clues for the identification of various igneous rocks.
30Classifying Igneous Rocks Mineral CompositionThe three main groups of igneous rocks—felsic, mafic, and intermediate—are classified according to their mineral compositions.Felsic rocks, such as granite, are light-colored and have high silica contents.Mafic rocks, such as gabbro, are dark-colored, have lower silica contents, and are rich in iron and magnesium.Intermediate rocks, such as diorite, have some characteristics of both felsic and mafic rocks.
32Mineral Composition Ultramafic Rocks Classifying Igneous RocksMineral CompositionUltramafic RocksUltramafic rocks are unusual in that they have low silica contents and very high levels of iron and magnesium.Some scientists theorize ultramafic rocks are formed by the fractional crystallization of olivine and pyroxene.Another hypothesis is that ultramafic rocks represent pieces of the upper mantle that have been brought close to Earth’s surface.
33Classifying Igneous Rocks Grain SizeIn addition to differences in their mineral compositions, igneous rocks differ in the sizes of their grains.Cooling RatesWhen lava flows on Earth’s surface, it cools quickly and there is not enough time for large crystals to form.Extrusive igneous rocks have no visible mineral grains.When magma cools slowly beneath Earth’s surface, there is sufficient time for large crystals to form.Intrusive igneous rocks may have crystals larger than 1 cm.
34Classifying Igneous Rocks TextureOften, it’s easier to observe the sizes of mineral grains than it is to observe their shapes.Many mineral grains have interlocking edges.As the grains crystallize from magma, they grow together and form irregular edges.During fractional crystallization, the minerals that form early in the process float in a liquid and have space in which to grow distinct crystal shapes.
35Texture Porphyritic Texture Classifying Igneous RocksTexturePorphyritic TextureA rock that has a porphyritic texture is characterized by large, well-formed crystals surrounded by finer-grained crystals of the same mineral or different minerals.Porphyritic textures indicate a complex cooling history wherein a slowly cooling magma suddenly began cooling rapidly.
36Igneous Rocks as Resources Classifying Igneous RocksIgneous Rocks as ResourcesIgneous rocks have several characteristics that make them especially useful as building materials.The interlocking grain textures of igneous rocks help to give them strength.Many of the minerals found in igneous rocks are resistant to weathering.
37Classifying Igneous Rocks Ore DepositsOres are minerals that contain a useful substance that can be mined at a profit.Valuable ore deposits are often associated with igneous intrusions.These deposits sometimes occur as veins.
38Classifying Igneous Rocks Ore DepositsVeinsSome important metallic elements that are not included in common minerals are gold, silver, lead, and copper.These elements, along with the dissolved silica, are released at the end of magma crystallization in a hot, mineral-rich fluid that fills cracks and voids in the surrounding rock.This fluid solidifies to form metal-rich quartz veins, such as the gold-bearing veins.
39Ore Deposits Pegmatites Classifying Igneous RocksOre DepositsPegmatitesVein deposits may contain other valuable resources in addition to metals.Pegmatites are veins of extremely large-grained minerals.Ores of rare elements, such as lithium and beryllium, are found in pegmatites.Because these veins fill cavities and fractures in rock, minerals grow into voids and retain their shapes.
40Ore Deposits Kimberlites Classifying Igneous RocksOre DepositsKimberlitesDiamond is a valuable mineral found in rare, ultramafic rocks known as kimberlites.Kimberlites are a variety of peridotite and likely form deep in the crust at depths of 150 to 300 km or in the mantle.Minerals found in kimberlites can form only under very high pressures.Geologists hypothesize that kimberlite magma is intruded rapidly upwards towards Earth’s surface, where it forms long, narrow, pipelike structures.
41Classifying Igneous Rocks Section Assessment1. Match the following terms with their definitions.___ felsic___ mafic___ ultramafic___ porphyriticA. igneous rocks that have low silica content and very high levels of iron and magnesiumB. igneous rocks that are light-colored, have high silica contents, and contain quartz and feldsparsC. texture characterized by well-formed crystals surrounded by finer-grained crystalsD. igneous rocks that are dark-colored, have lower silica contents, and are rich in iron and magnesium
42Classifying Igneous Rocks Section Assessment2. What characteristic would indicate that kimberlites are formed deep within the crust or in the mantle?
43Classifying Igneous Rocks Section Assessment3. Why are some of the world’s most beautiful crystals found in pegmatites?
45Section 5.1 Study GuideSection 5.1 Main IdeasIgneous rocks are formed by the cooling and crystallization of magma. Intrusive rocks form inside Earth’s crust, and extrusive rocks form on Earth’s surface. Extrusive rocks, which cool more rapidly than intrusive rocks, are generally more fine grained.Magma is a slushy mix of molten rock, gases, and mineral crystals. The elements found in magma are the same major elements found in Earth’s crust: oxygen (O), silicon (Si), aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), and sodium (Na).
46Section 5.1 Study GuideSection 5.1 Main IdeasSilica (SiO2) is the most abundant compound in magma. Magmas are classified as basaltic, andesitic, and rhyolitic, based on the amount of SiO2 they contain.Different minerals melt and crystallize at different temperatures in the processes of partial melting and fractional crystallization. Minerals crystallize from magma in a sequential pattern known as Bowen’s reaction series.
47Section 5.2 Study GuideSection 5.2 Main IdeasIgneous rocks are classified as felsic, mafic, intermediate, and ultramafic, depending upon their mineral compositions. Felsic rocks such as granite are light-colored, have high silica contents, and contain quartz and feldspars. Mafic rocks such as gabbro are dark-colored, have lower silica contents, and are rich in iron and magnesium. Intermediate rocks have moderate silica levels. Ultramafic rocks have low silica contents and very high levels of iron and magnesium. Igneous groups can be further identified by crystal size and texture.Early forming minerals may have well-shaped crystals, while later-forming minerals have irregular shapes. Porphyritic textures contain both large and small crystals.
48Section 5.2 Study GuideSection 5.2 Main IdeasIgneous rocks such as granite are often used as building materials because of their strength, durability, and beauty.Valuable ore deposits and gems are often associated with igneous intrusions. Ores of rare elements such as lithium and beryllium are found in veins of extremely large-grained minerals called pegmatites. Diamonds are found in rare types of igneous intrusions known as kimberlites.
49Chapter AssessmentMultiple Choice1. The process wherein different minerals form at different temperatures is called ____.a. partial meltingb. Bowen’s reaction seriesc. fractional crystallizationd. crystal separationPartial melting is when some minerals melt at low temperatures while others remain solid. Bowen’s reaction series describes in what order minerals form. Crystal separation is a hypothesis that answers questions about Bowen’s reaction series.
50Multiple Choice 2. Andesitic magma’s SiO2 concentration is ____. Chapter AssessmentMultiple Choice2. Andesitic magma’s SiO2 concentration is ____.a. 30 percent c. 60 percentb. 45 percent d. 70 percentBasaltic magma has an SiO2 concentration of 50 percent. Rhyolitic magma has an SiO2 concentration of 70 percent.
51Chapter AssessmentMultiple Choice3. What minerals are associated with the left branch of Bowen’s reaction series?a. iron-magnesium c. intrusiveb. feldspars d. felsicFeldspars are represented on the right branch of Bowen’s reaction series. Intrusive describes igneous rocks that cool slowly beneath Earth’s surface. Felsic rocks are one classification of igneous rocks.
52Multiple Choice 4. What is the texture of ultramafic rocks? Chapter AssessmentMultiple Choice4. What is the texture of ultramafic rocks?a. glassy c. coarse-grainedb. fine-grained d. very coarse-grainedUltramafic rocks include peridotite and dunite which both have a coarse grain.
53Chapter AssessmentMultiple Choice5. Extrusive igneous rocks generally have small mineral grains because ____.a. they cool slowly.b. the minerals in extrusive rocks do not form crystals under any condition.c. they cool quickly.d. there is too much water in the magma.By quickly cooling, the minerals in extrusive igneous rocks do not have enough time to form large crystals.
54Chapter AssessmentShort Answer6. What characteristics make igneous rocks useful as building materials?
55Chapter AssessmentShort Answer7. What causes a porphyritic texture to form in certain rocks?
56Chapter AssessmentTrue or False8. Identify whether the following statements are true or false.______ Diamonds are found in kimberlites.______ Fe-Mg minerals undergo a continuous change according to Bowen’s reaction series.______ Silica is the most common compound in magma.______ A rock that melts at 1000ºC on the surface of Earth may not melt until 1200ºC at a depth of 100 km.______ Fractional crystallization occurs in the reverse order of partial melting.