3“It is unreasonable to use vital water resources to receive pollutants and then expect those resources to continue to provide us with their usual bounty of goods and services.”
4Key Topics Discussed this Chapter: Sewage Management and Treatment Water PollutionEutrophicationSewage Management and TreatmentPublic Policy
517.1: Water PollutionPollution: “The presence of a substance in the environment that because of its chemical composition or quantity prevents the functioning of natural processes and produces undesirable environmental and health effects.”
7Categories of Pollution Acid-forming compounds AirParticulatesAcid-forming compoundsPhotochemical smogCO2CFC’s
8Pollution Essentials: Not deliberate; mostly the result of an essential activity like crop production, transportation, energy productionPollution problems have gotten worse due to the rapid population increase and the greater demands for energyMore materials are now non-biodegradable making them resistant to the breakdown by detritus feeders
9Undesirable Environmental Alterations Caused By Pollution:AestheticLocal to GlobalHuman HealthBiological
10Problems caused by Pollution: -Hazy Air-litter-impact on ecosystems (death)-contaminated water supplies-impacts on human health (cancer & other illnesses)-ozone depletion
15Water Pollution:Point Sources: Involve the discharge of substances from factories, sewage systems, power plants and underground coal mines and oil wells*Easier to identify, monitor and regulate than non-point sources*
16Non-Point Pollution: agricultural run-off, storm water drainage, atmospheric deposition *Harder to identify because they are poorly defined and scattered over broad areas*
204 Basic Types of Water Pollutants: Pathogens (disease causing viruses, bacteria & other parasitic organisms, protozoans)*Even after symptoms of the disease disappear, an infected person or animal can still harbor populations of the organism thus acting as a carrier*Giardia ProtistV. Cholera bacteriumRoundworms
21Public Health is at RISK! The Ganges River in India—Used for drinking, washing, sewage disposal
22Sanitation=Good Medicine Building a Pit Latrine in NepalSquat Toilet or Pit Latrine in Gambia
23Public Health Measures Needed to Prevent Disease: 1. Disinfection of public water supplies2. Improving hygiene and sanitation3. Sanitary collection of wastes and treatment of sewage
24Poor Sanitation and Waste Disposal Plague Bangladesh
252. Organic Wastes (human and animal wastes, leaves, grass clippings , food scraps, etc) Decomposition of organic matter can lower the amount of oxygen in the water thus killing organisms. (ie Dead Zone)
26Chemical PollutantsInorganic Chemicals: heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium, nickel, etc); acids from mine drainage (sulfuric acid) and acid precipitation (sulfuric and nitric acids); road salts (sodium and calcium chlorides)Organic Chemicals: Examples-petroleum products , pesticides, PCBs, cleaning solvents and detergents
27Sediments (soil and silt) from erosion -smother the eggs of fish -Material, such as clay, can settle and smother animals by clogging gills and feeding structures-smother the eggs of fish-bed load of silt and sand is gradually washed along the bottom, burying and smother bottom dwellers; prevent the reestablishment of aquatic plants
29Six Major Points of Soil Erosion and Sediment Overgrazed Rangelands CroplandsDeforested AreasOvergrazed RangelandsConstruction SitesSurface MiningGulley Erosion
30Water Quality Standards When is water considered polluted?The concentration of the pollutant must be the primary concern.
31National Recommended Water Quality Criteria : Established the critical maximum concentration (CMC) Safe Water Drinking Act: Established the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs)National Pollution Discharge Elimination System: Issues permits that regulate discharges from wastewater treatment plantsTotal Maximum Daily Load: Evaluate all sources of pollutants entering a body of water
3244%Of our rivers, lakes and estuaries are not meeting water quality standards!!
337.2 Eutrophication Creates hypoxic zones devoid of oxygen! Trophic means ‘feeding’; eutrophic means ‘well nourished’This process has NEGATIVE results on aquatic ecosystems!
35Different Kinds of Aquatic Plants Benthic plants: grow attached to, or are rooted in, the bottom of a body of water (ex: common aquarium plants, sea grasses) SAV (submerged aquatic vegetation; light must penetrate for the plants to flourish; get nutrients from the bottom
36Phytoplankton: consist of numerous species of photosynthetic algae, protists, and cyanobacteria. They live suspended in water and are found wherever light and nutrients are available. As nutrient levels increase phytoplankton can grow more prolifically making the water more turbid, thus shading the SAV.Factoid! Phytoplankton are the base of aquatic food chains!!
38Oligotrophic bodies of water have lower nutrient levels Oligotrophic bodies of water have lower nutrient levels. As an oligotrophic body of water becomes enriched with nutrients numerous changes begin to take place and eutrophication can take place.
39Oligotrophic Characteristics: 1. high dissolved oxygen2. low bacterial decomp3. high light penetration4. lots of benthic plants5. lower numbers of phytoplankton6. lower water temp7. lower water turbidity8. lower nutrient concentrations9. higher species diversity10. good aesthetic qualities (pretty)11. good for recreation12. lower BOD (biological oxygen demand)13. less decomposition14. less sediments (clear)
41An abundance of phytoplankton begin to flourish and shade the SAV An abundance of phytoplankton begin to flourish and shade the SAV. Excess algae dies and the shaded SAV decays.Decomposition depletes the dissolved oxygen suffocating other aquatic life thus creating a hypoxic zone.
42Combating Eutrophication! Attack the symptoms!Get at the Root Cause!
43Four Methods used to combat eutrophication & problems caused Method Problems CausedHerbicide treatments Phytoplankton resistanceAeration ExpenseHarvesting algae Expense/grows back quicklyDrawing water down Kills rooted aquatic plants*Key is to reduce long term flow of nutrients and sediments and to identify major non-point and point sources***
44Where do the excess nutrients and sediments come from??? 1. Agriculture/forestry2. Urban/Suburban run-off3. Sewage effluents
457 Best Management Practices for Controlling Eutrophication: Banning of phosphate detergentsUpgrade sewage treatment plantsControl agriculture and urban run-offControl sediments from construction and mining sitesControl stream erosionProtect wetlandsControl air pollutionStream Erosion
46Collecting Animal Wastes in a Pond and recycling them is a good way to prevent Eutrophication!
48Before the late 1800’s the general means of disposing of human excrement was the outdoor privy. Seepage contaminated drinking water & caused disease.London Cholera OutbreakBefore Louis Pasteur discovered sanitation practices and germ theory was widely accepted, people thought that diseases were caused by the odors!
49The First Sewage Treatment Plants in the US were built around 1900 The First Sewage Treatment Plants in the US were built around They were constructed to treat the outflow before it entered the receiving waterway.Storm Drains: collects and drains run-off from precipitationSanitary Sewer Line: receives waste water from sinks, toilets and tubs
50The Pollutants in RAW SEWAGE Raw Sewage is being dumped into a river in Bangkok.
51What is RAW SEWAGE?Flushings from toiletsCollection of wastewater from all other drains in homes and buildingsMost of what goes down the sewer drains is waterRaw Sewage is about 1,000 parts water for every 1 part waste – 99.9% water to 0.1% wasteCommunities of 10,000 persons will produce 1.5 – 2.0 million gallons of wastewater every day
52What is in Raw Sewage 1. Debris and grit 2. Particulate organic matter 3. Colloidal and dissolved organic matter 4. Dissolved inorganic matter 5. Pathogens 6. Heavy metals, pesticides, and various other t toxic compounds
53Four Major Categories of Pollutants in Raw Sewage and an Example of Each: Category ExampleDebris & Grit plastic bagsParticulate organic material food wasteColloidal or organic material fecesDissolved inorganic materials nitrogen
54Most of the developing world is still plagued by lack of sanitary water and sewage treatment facilities thus causing high infectious disease rates.An African Village
55Removing Pollutants from Sewage Preliminary Treatment: removal of debris and grit; screen out debris and settle the grit; raw sewage flows through a bar screen and debris will be mechanically raked from the screen and taken to an incinerator. After passing through the screen, the water flows through the grit chamber in which the velocity is slowed to permit the grit to settleFig A Raw sewage moves from the grit chamber to primary treatment, where sludge is removed and the clarified water then proceeds to secondary treatment (here shown as activated sludge treatment).
562. Primary Treatment - particulate organic matter removed by primary clarifiers; the flow is slow; organic material settles to the bottom and the fatty or oily material floats to the top where it is skimmed off the surface. All the material that is removed is referred to raw sludge and must be treated separately.See page 481 text figure
57primaryFig B In primary treatment sludge is removed and the clarified water then proceeds to secondary treatment. Raw sewage moves from the grit chamber to primary treatment, where sludge is removed and the clarified water then proceeds to secondary treatment.
583. Secondary Treatments - colloidal and dissolved inorganic matter removed by trickling filter systems or activated sludge systems (also called the biological treatment because it uses organisms that are natural decomposers)Fig C Raw sewage moves from the grit chamber to primary treatment, where sludge is removed and the clarified water then proceeds to secondary treatment (here shown as activated sludge treatment).
59The Activated Sludge System is the most common secondary-treatment (activated sludge is a mixture of detritus-feeding organisms)Fig The secondary treatment, activated sludge process may be modified to remove nitrogen and phosphate while at the same time breaking down organic matter.
60BNR: Biological Nutrient Removal (removal of dissolved inorganic material)Uses parts of the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles.
614. Biological Nutrient Removal - dissolved inorganic matter removed by bacterial denitrification and bacterial uptake of phosphorus a. Can also be done inorganically by using chemical processes·Lime causes phosphate to precipitate as insoluble calcium phosphate ·Ferric chloride causes phosphate to precipitate as insoluble ferric phosphate b. Removal of the dissolved inorganic matter is not standard treatment though it is becoming more common
62What Do We Do with the Sludge that Remains? 1. Most sludge is disposed of in landfills or spread on land a. These practices are diminishing (but need more public pressure to continue) · Sludge is difficult to handle in landfills · Spreading can result in water pollution, and · Sludge is nutrient rich organic material that can be used as organic fertilizer·
63Treatment of Sludge:Sludge is about 98% water; 2% organic materialThree Sludge treatment methods are: anaerobic digestion, composting, and pasteurizationDewatering treated sludge: Sludge which is 98% water may be dewatered by means of belt presses, as shown in figure a. The liquid sludge is run between rollers so that much of the water is pressed out. The resulting ‘sludge cake’ is a semisolid humus-like material that may be used as organic fertilizer.
64Milwaukee, Wisconsin has a rich sludge that results from the brewing industry. The city bags and sells the pellets throughout the country as organic fertilizer.
65Alternative methods for extracting wastewater nutrients: *septic systems*using effluents for irrigation* Reconstructing wetlandsRural homes may lie outside of the municipal system therefore, on-site treatment systems are required.Septic tanks must be pumped out every 3-5 yrs
66Many on-site systems fail causing sewage to back up into homes! Septic System Failure destroys homes and can be traced to groundwater pollution!
67How to prevent septic system back-up: Routine cleanings (3-5 yrs) Do not dispose of items down the drain (i.e coffee grounds, cat litter, diapers, grease, feminine hygiene products, pesticides, paint, gasoline, household chemicals)Maintain your system with regular inspectionsKeep heavy equipment & vehicles off your system and leeching fieldIf you have a garbage disposal system, disable it because the added materials will shorten the lifespan of the system!
68Public Policy:1899—Rivers and Harbors Act1948—Water Pollution Control Act1972—Clean Water Act1972—Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act1974—Safe Water Drinking Act1977—Clean Water Act Amendments1987—Water Quality Act1996—Safe Water Drinking Act Amendments**see table pg 487