61What is equinox and what are the dates of the 2 equinoxes What are the dates of the solistices
62SeasonsThe Earth's orbit is in the shape of an ellipse (a stretched out circle), so that sometimes the Earth is closer to the Sun than at other timesThe Earth is a very special planet in many ways. Just as Earth's unique atmosphere and its distance from the Sun work together to make Earth the right temperature to support life, Earth's orbit and its rotation work together to create the seasons.
64WATER is the substance that can exist as a solid, liquid, and a gas in the Earth’s atmosphere.
65Humidity: the amount of water vapor or moisture in the air
66Dew Point is the temperature to which air must cool to become saturated Before it can condense water vapor must have a surface to condense on.
67Saturated air = 100% relative humidity – it can hold no more water vapor!
68PrecipitationPrecipitation is water (liquid or solid) that falls from the air to the Earth.
69CloudA cloud is a collection of millions of tiny water droplets or ice crystals.A cloud is NOT made up of water vapor!
70Clouds http://glencoe.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0078617006/student_view0/ cirrus - Thin, wispy, curly-shaped clouds. cumulo-nimbus- Large, dense, towering clouds that cause rain and thunderstorms. cumulus - Puffy clouds. fog - Ground-hugging clouds. stratus - Layered, horizontal clouds with a flat base.
71Joshua and Jennifer Mosser, Briar Woods High School CloudsIn order for clouds to form, air must be at its dew point (temperature at which air is saturated). Water vapor condenses on small particles called condensation nuclei.Cirrus—light, thin, feathery (fair weather clouds)Cumulus—puffy white cloudsStratus—low gray cloudsJoshua and Jennifer Mosser, Briar Woods High School
74Joshua and Jennifer Mosser, Briar Woods High School The AtmosphereEarth’s atmosphere is 21% oxygen and 78% nitrogenHuman activities (cars, factories, burning land, coal) have increased carbon dioxide levels, causing a slight greenhouse effectWater vapor and carbon dioxide help the Earth to retain heat and make it warmerBurning fossil fuels also causes smog and contributes to acid rainVenus has an extreme greenhouse effect due to carbon dioxideEnergy transfer in the atmosphere involves convection, radiation and conductionJoshua and Jennifer Mosser, Briar Woods High School
88Radiation = the movement of energy through space Conduction = movement of heat by direct contact; by touchExample: metal pan on a hot stoveConvection = movement of heat through a liquid or gas
89Areas near the equator receive more of the sun’s energy per unit area than nearer the poles. 3/25/2017
90Convection Is a Current that is set up when hot less dense material rises, cools, becomes denser and sinks.Hot stuff rises cold stuff sinks3/25/2017
91Convection runs oceans, atmosphere and Earths interior Convection runs oceans, atmosphere and Earths interior.Plate tectonics is driven by convection in the Earth’s mantle.Some ocean currents are convection currents3/25/2017
92Convection is the major mechanism of energy transfer in the oceans, atmosphere, and Earth’s interior.Convection in the atmosphere is a major cause of weather.
97Earth’s atmosphere is 21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen and 1% trace gases. 3/25/2017
98Human activities have increased the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere. 3/25/2017
99Volcanic activity and meteorite impacts can inject large quantities of dust and gases into the atmosphere.3/25/2017
100The ability of the Earth’s atmosphere to absorb and retain heat is affected by the presence of gases like water vapor and carbon dioxide.3/25/2017
101Earth’s atmosphereThe oxygen so characteristic of our atmosphere was almost all produced by plants (cyan bacteria or, more colloquially, blue-green algae). Thus, the present composition of the atmosphere is 79% nitrogen, 20% oxygen, and 1% other gases.Auroras (North/South Polar Lights; or aurorae, sing.: aurora) are natural colored light displays, which are usually observed in the night sky, particularly in the polar zone. Some scientists call them "polar auroras" (or "aurorae polares"). In northern latitudes, it is known as the aurora borealis (or the northern lights), named after the Roman goddess of dawn, Aurora, and the Greek name for north wind, Boreas. It often appears as a greenish glow or sometimes a faint red, as if the sun was rising from an unusual direction. The aurora borealis is also called the northern polar lights, as it is only visible in the North sky from the Northern Hemisphere. The aurora borealis most often occurs from September to October and from March to April.
102The greenhouse effect is the rise in temperature that the Earth experiences because certain gases in the atmosphere (water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane, for example) trap energy from the sun. Without these gases, heat would escape back into space and Earth’s average temperature would be about 60ºF colder. Because of how they warm our world, these gases are referred to as greenhouse gases.The composition of the atmosphere can change due to human, biologic, and geologic activity.
103The atmosphere of Venus is mostly carbon dioxide and very dense. 3/25/2017
104The Martian atmosphere is very thin and mostly Carbon Dioxide. 3/25/2017