Presentation on theme: "Study Guide Atmosphere, Humidity and Seasons Why doesnt water vapor rise above other gases to a higher level of the atmosphere?"— Presentation transcript:
Study Guide Atmosphere, Humidity and Seasons
Why doesnt water vapor rise above other gases to a higher level of the atmosphere?
Water vapor condenses and falls back to Earth
What type of cloud is associated with thunderstorms
Which element in Earths atmosphere is essential for human life
Hot air rising and cold air sinking causes
How do clouds form
Why does ground fog form in the low areas?
Cool, descending air meets moist air in the low areas
Cloudy nights can be warmer than clear nights because clouds trap
When moist air is cooled below its dew point water
What process is primarily responsible for the transfer of energy by air currents within the Earths atmosphere
By which process does sunlight travel through space
What type of cloud is associated with steady rain
The ozone layer protects life on Earth from
Conduction is heat transfer by
Direct contact between particles
Most clouds form in the troposphere because
Thats where most of moisture is
Clouds are made of
Water/ Ice crystals
Describe how convection currents form
What is the % of Nitrogen in the atmosphere__________________; % oxygen ___________ What is the % of Nitrogen in the atmosphere__________________; % oxygen ___________
Name the layers of the atmosphere in order from the earth upwards
How was the early atmosphere formed
Volcanic eruptions of gases Cyanobacteria takes in CO 2 in photosynthesis and produces O 2 Volcanic eruptions of gases Cyanobacteria takes in CO 2 in photosynthesis and produces O 2
The ability of Earths atmosphere to absorb and retain heat is affected by the presence of two gases:
Water vapor Mainly CO 2 Water vapor Mainly CO 2
When dew point and temperature are close then the chance of precipitation is:
Which atmosphere layer contains the ozone layer
The ozone layer is being destroyed by chemical reactions with sunlight and the following
The layers of the Earths atmosphere are divided based on
Incoming solar radiation
Where (location) is insolation the greatest on earth
As the altitude increases in the troposphere the temperature-
Earths axis of rotation is tilted 23.5° relative to the plane of its orbit, which helps to cause
What is the date? Equinox: equal Day and night Equinox: equal Day and night
Summer: northern hemisphere
Winter northern hemisphere
What is equinox and what are the dates of the 2 equinoxes What are the dates of the solistices
Seasons The Earth's orbit is in the shape of an ellipse (a stretched out circle), so that sometimes the Earth is closer to the Sun than at other times The Earth is a very special planet in many ways. Just as Earth's unique atmosphere and its distance from the Sun work together to make Earth the right temperature to support life, Earth's orbit and its rotation work together to create the seasons.Earth's orbit and its rotation
Clouds and Humidity
WATER is the substance that can exist as a solid, liquid, and a gas in the Earths atmosphere.
Humidity: the amount of water vapor or moisture in the air
Dew Point is the temperature to which air must cool to become saturated Before it can condense water vapor must have a surface to condense on.
Saturated air = 100% relative humidity – it can hold no more water vapor!
Precipitation Precipitation is water (liquid or solid) that falls from the air to the Earth.
Cloud A cloud is a collection of millions of tiny water droplets or ice crystals. A cloud is NOT made up of water vapor! A cloud is a collection of millions of tiny water droplets or ice crystals. A cloud is NOT made up of water vapor!
Clouds cirrus - Thin, wispy, curly-shaped clouds. cumulo-nimbus- Large, dense, towering clouds that cause rain and thunderstorms. cumulus - Puffy clouds. fog - Ground-hugging clouds. stratus - Layered, horizontal clouds with a flat base.
Joshua and Jennifer Mosser, Briar Woods High School Clouds In order for clouds to form, air must be at its dew point (temperature at which air is saturated). Water vapor condenses on small particles called condensation nuclei. Cirruslight, thin, feathery (fair weather clouds) Cumuluspuffy white clouds Stratuslow gray clouds
Cumulonimbus Clouds that produce thunderstorms
Layers of Atmosphere
Joshua and Jennifer Mosser, Briar Woods High School The Atmosphere Earths atmosphere is 21% oxygen and 78% nitrogen Human activities (cars, factories, burning land, coal) have increased carbon dioxide levels, causing a slight greenhouse effect Water vapor and carbon dioxide help the Earth to retain heat and make it warmer Burning fossil fuels also causes smog and contributes to acid rain Venus has an extreme greenhouse effect due to carbon dioxide Energy transfer in the atmosphere involves convection, radiation and conduction
Layers of the Atmosphere
A meteorologist studies and forecasts the WEATHER.
Layers in order Thermosphere Mesosphere Stratosphere Troposphere Thermosphere Mesosphere Stratosphere Troposphere
Layer of the atmosphere closest to Earth and has weather = TROPOSPHERE
Layer where the air pressure is the greatest = TROPOSPHERE
Layer of the atmosphere that contains the ozone layer = STRATOSPHERE
Ozone layer disappearing would lead to more cases of skin cancer
12/31/ Man-made chemicals have decreased the ozone concentration in the upper atmosphere.
CFCs are destroying the ozone layer. The chlorine atoms destroy ozone molecules.
What does temperature do in the troposphere as altitude increases? Temperature DECREASES What does temperature do in the troposphere as altitude increases? Temperature DECREASES
In which layer is the temperature the lowest? MESOSPHERE In which layer is the temperature the lowest? MESOSPHERE
Cold air is more dense than warm air; therefore it has GREATER pressure.
Radiation = the movement of energy through space Conduction = movement of heat by direct contact; by touch Example: metal pan on a hot stove Convection = movement of heat through a liquid or gas Radiation = the movement of energy through space Conduction = movement of heat by direct contact; by touch Example: metal pan on a hot stove Convection = movement of heat through a liquid or gas
12/31/ Areas near the equator receive more of the suns energy per unit area than nearer the poles.
12/31/ Convection Is a Current that is set up when hot less dense material rises, cools, becomes denser and sinks. Hot stuff rises cold stuff sinks
12/31/ Convection runs oceans, atmosphere and Earths interior.Plate tectonics is driven by convection in the Earths mantle.Some ocean currents are convection currents
Convection is the major mechanism of energy transfer in the oceans, atmosphere, and Earths interior. Convection in the atmosphere is a major cause of weather.
Early Atmosphere 12/31/201393
12/31/ The early atmosphere contained little oxygen and more carbon dioxide than the modern atmosphere.
12/31/ Early photosynthetic life (blue green algae) generated oxygen and consumed carbon dioxide. It was only after early photosynthetic life generated oxygen that animal life become possible.
Atmosphere Today 12/31/201396
12/31/ Earths atmosphere is 21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen and 1% trace gases.
12/31/ Human activities have increased the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere.
12/31/ Volcanic activity and meteorite impacts can inject large quantities of dust and gases into the atmosphere.
12/31/ The ability of the Earths atmosphere to absorb and retain heat is affected by the presence of gases like water vapor and carbon dioxide.
Earths atmosphere The oxygen so characteristic of our atmosphere was almost all produced by plants (cyan bacteria or, more colloquially, blue-green algae). Thus, the present composition of the atmosphere is 79% nitrogen, 20% oxygen, and 1% other gases. Auroras (North/South Polar Lights; or aurorae, sing.: aurora) are natural colored light displays, which are usually observed in the night sky, particularly in the polar zone. Some scientists call them "polar auroras" (or "aurorae polares"). In northern latitudes, it is known as the aurora borealis (or the northern lights), named after the Roman goddess of dawn, Aurora, and the Greek name for north wind, Boreas. It often appears as a greenish glow or sometimes a faint red, as if the sun was rising from an unusual direction. The aurora borealis is also called the northern polar lights, as it is only visible in the North sky from the Northern Hemisphere. The aurora borealis most often occurs from September to October and from March to April.sing.night skypolar zonelatitudesRomangoddessdawnAuroraGreekwindBoreaspolarNorthern Hemisphere
The composition of the atmosphere can change due to human, biologic, and geologic activity. The greenhouse effect is the rise in temperature that the Earth experiences because certain gases in the atmosphere (water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane, for example) trap energy from the sun. Without these gases, heat would escape back into space and Earths average temperature would be about 60ºF colder. Because of how they warm our world, these gases are referred to as greenhouse gases.
12/31/ The atmosphere of Venus is mostly carbon dioxide and very dense.
12/31/ The Martian atmosphere is very thin and mostly Carbon Dioxide.