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Ecosystems: Components, Energy Flow, and Matter Cycling Chapter 3 The Earth as a System Ecosystems Food Webs and Energy Flow Productivity in Ecosystems.

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Presentation on theme: "Ecosystems: Components, Energy Flow, and Matter Cycling Chapter 3 The Earth as a System Ecosystems Food Webs and Energy Flow Productivity in Ecosystems."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ecosystems: Components, Energy Flow, and Matter Cycling Chapter 3 The Earth as a System Ecosystems Food Webs and Energy Flow Productivity in Ecosystems Cycling of Matter Chapter 3 The Earth as a System Ecosystems Food Webs and Energy Flow Productivity in Ecosystems Cycling of Matter

2 U Choose Describe one specific ecosystem. What are its major components; name some biotic and abiotic factors that affect it. Cite one population and how it lives within its Law of Tolerance. Draw, label and define all terms related to the Law of tolerance. Describe one specific ecosystem. What are its major components; name some biotic and abiotic factors that affect it. Cite one population and how it lives within its Law of Tolerance. Draw, label and define all terms related to the Law of tolerance. How is energy used in an ecosystem? What happens to it as it is used (or not used)? What are the tyes of energy and how is cellular respiration and photosynthesis related to the flow of energy? How is energy used in an ecosystem? What happens to it as it is used (or not used)? What are the tyes of energy and how is cellular respiration and photosynthesis related to the flow of energy? A bumper sticker reads, Have you thanked a green plant today? Give two reasons for appreciating a green plant. Then trace the sources of the materials that make up the bumper sticker, and decide whether the sticker itself is a sound application of the slogan. A bumper sticker reads, Have you thanked a green plant today? Give two reasons for appreciating a green plant. Then trace the sources of the materials that make up the bumper sticker, and decide whether the sticker itself is a sound application of the slogan.

3 Key Concepts Basic ecological principles Major components of ecosystems Matter cycles and energy flow Ecosystem studies Ecological services

4 Natural Capitol: How do humans affect these? Biodiversity Genetic Diversity of organisms Population dispersal Ecosystem Health Energy Flow Nutrient Cycling?

5 Eukaryotic Cells: have organelles, nucleus, multicellular, derived. Prokaryotic Cells : no nucleus, ancient, single celled Organism: any life form Types of Cells Nucleus

6 The Nature of Ecology Ecology- the study of how organisms interact with each other and their abiotic componants of their environment Oikos: house logos: study of Organisms- any life form –Cells –Cells- the basic unit of life; come in two flavors Prokaryote- cells with no defined nucleus; bacteria Eukaryote- cells with a defined nucleus that contains DNA; most familiar organisms and multicellular organisms Species- groups of organisms that share similar DNA; look similar, have similar behavior, etc. –Asexual Reproduction-cellular division to produce identical offspring (clones) –Sexual Reproduction- production of offspring by combining sex cells (gametes) to create progeny that are a combination of each of the parents characteristics

7 Levels of organization within an organism Atom Molecule Cell Tissue Organ Systems

8 Levels of organization out of organism Biosphere Biomes Ecosystems Communities Populations Organism Chpt4.1

9

10 Chapter 1 What is Life? What are the Characteristics of Life?

11 Populations Population- all of the organisms within a species that interact in a specific area and at a specific time –Genetic Diversity- similar but different due to DNA –Affected by: Size Age distribution Density Genetic composition health

12 Ecosystems Ecology An ecosystem is a self-sustaining community of organisms and the non-living environment with which they interact. And range in size. An ecosystem is the fundamental unit of ecology.

13 What about biodiversity?

14 BIODIVERSITY The many measures of biodiversity: The variety or chemicial processes, genetic material, species diversity, and ecosystems found on earth. The many measures of biodiversity: The variety or chemicial processes, genetic material, species diversity, and ecosystems found on earth.

15 Biodiversity Leads to Better productivity… Organisms are Genetically adapted to survive more diverse conditions Have more stable populations because their range of tolerance is wider

16 Why worry about biodiversity and stability?

17 BIODIVERSITY AND STABILITY Because this understanding is essential for knowing how many species and what types can be lost before a community collapses entirely

18 How rapid is the current rate of extinction? The numbers hard to pin down, but generally accepted estimates put it at times the rate before extensive human–induced environmental modifications. For example, in the U.S. ~ 225 vascular plant species have become extinct in the past 50 years and about 650 of the remaining 20,000 species are threatened. Biodiversity is Being Lost Rapidly Through Extinction

19 Dire News Not all agree that were seeing a mass extinction, but its clear species loss has accelerated sharply above background.

20 Biodiversity Varies Naturally There is a trend towards more species in warmer, wetter areas and fewer in colder and drier areas. Warmer Moister areas: Rainforest Dryer Areas: Deserts - Taigas Numbers of bird species occupying areas of North America.

21 There are Biodiversity Hotspots Less than 1% of Earths surface supports 20% of known plant species and probably a greater portion of animal species. Biodiversity hotspots for tropical rain forest and chaparral ecosystems. Biodiversity hotspots are significant for conservation plans.

22 Species Distributions Are Now Changing in Response to Global Warming This map shows projections, but many dramatic shifts in species distribution have already been documented.

23 Formula shows health of ecosystem in question # of specific species found ______________________ = BI # of species found What is the biodiversity Index of trees at JCHS? What contributes to the Index here? Biodiversity Index

24 Biodiversity Index Example # of black spiders # of all spider species = BI

25 Lets see……. Can you match these? Functional Diversity Genetic Diversity Ecological Diversity Species Diversity Differing DNA material within a single species Variety or terrestrial/ aquatic ecosystems in one area Number of species present in different habitats Biological and Chemical processes needed for survival of species, communities,ecosystems Differing DNA material within a single species Variety or terrestrial/ aquatic ecosystems in one area Number of species present in different habitats Biological and Chemical processes needed for survival of species, communities,ecosystems

26 Biodiversity Species Diversity- the variety among the species or distinct types of living organisms found in different habitats of the planet Ecological Diversity- the variety of different biomes around the world; all biological communities Functional Diversity- biological and chemical processes or functions such as energy flow and matter cycling needed for the survival of species and biological communities

27 Species Diversity Types Species Richness A large number of species with only a few members of each species present. This is related to species biodiversity How rich are the species in your area? Species Evenness – A few species but an even number of members per species How even is the diversity? Species Evenness – A few species but an even number of members per species How even is the diversity? Rainforest, coral reef, deep sea, large tropical lakes have high species diversity but low species evenness ( few members in each) IF: Species A = 56 members Species B = 55 members Species C = 52 Then: species evenness is good but diversity is low!

28 NICHE: Realized Niche Fundamental Niche

29 Principles of Ecological Factors Fig p. 73; Refer to Fig p. 73 Range of Tolerance- any variation in the physical or chemical environment that an organism can withstand before it is killed/harmed The Law of Tolerance states that the existence, abundance, and distribution of a species in an ecosystem are determined by whether the levels of one or more physical or chemical factors fall within the range tolerated by that species.

30 The Earths Life-Support Systems

31 31 Biosphere:5 miles up and 5 miles down

32 Productivity of Producers Ecosystems use solar energy to produce and use biomass at differing rates

33 GPP and NPP GPP Gross Primary Production: Rate at which producers convert solar energy to biomass NPP(Net Primary Productivity): The amount of biomass left after producers have used what they need for cellular functions such as cellular respiration.

34 Ecosystem examples High NPP Low NPP estuaries Open ocean Swamps and marshes Tundra Tropical rain forests Desert

35 Net Primary Productivity The earths net primary productivity is the upper limit determining the planets carrying capacity for all consumer species. Our Share of Earths NPP 1) We use, waste or destroy about 27% of earths NPP 2) We use, waste or destroy about 40% of the NPP of terrestrial ecosystems Produces are the source of diversity

36 Carrying Capacity

37 Sustaining Life of Earth One-Way Energy Flow: All energy on earth comes from the sun and eventually escapes earth. It perpetuates the cycles as well.

38 There are two types of energy High quality energy: is concentrated and has ability to do useful work. Sun, electricity,coal, oil, gasoline, nucleii of uranium –Moves through organisms by feeding interactions –Becomes low quality energy and radiates as heat is concentrated and has ability to do useful work. Sun, electricity,coal, oil, gasoline, nucleii of uranium –Moves through organisms by feeding interactions –Becomes low quality energy and radiates as heat Low quality energy: is dispersed has little ability to do useful work. Low temp heat. Can keep each other warm in the cold for short periods of time - Is typically given off after a reaction of high quality energy - Escapes into atmosphere and space is dispersed has little ability to do useful work. Low temp heat. Can keep each other warm in the cold for short periods of time - Is typically given off after a reaction of high quality energy - Escapes into atmosphere and space

39 The Sun also initiates all biogeochemical cycles with its heat contributing to the abiotic factors of an ecosystem. Nutrients are cycled through the biosphere for use by food chains, webs, and the biosphere itself in many forms Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus are main elements

40 The Carbon Cycle Understanding of the carbon cycle is critical for global climate change, yet it remains incomplete.

41 The Carbon and oxygen Cycles: Carbon and Oxygen The continuous movement of carbon and oxygen from non-living into living organisms CO2 in atmosphere build organic molecules Plants use CO2 to produce O2 This exchange of CO2 for O2 is called Respiration (cellular respiration) Combustion or burning releases carbon Burning trees, fossil fuels: oil and coal

42 Life On a Changing Planet Science (2006) 311:1698

43 Human impacts on the Carbon Cycle 1. Clear trees and other plants that absorb carbon dioxide by photosynthesis destroying the carbon sinks.Sinks are areas of storage for any element. 2. Burning of fossil fuels and wood which add large amounts of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere contributing to global warming. 3. Results in loss of biodiversity,collapse of ecosystems, change in species distribution, degradation and collapse of human societies

44 Example of such activities are the build-up of Greenhouse Gases contributing to Global Warming. Which is when gases absorb heat, the heat is trapped, the earth warms.

45 Graph shows as human population numbers have increased so have temperatures increased. It also shows a correlation o=to the amount of CO2 that had been available. A Warming World

46 The Nitrogen Cycle Note the key role of mutualism between nitrogen-fixing bacteria and their plant hosts. Nitrogen fixation is the fixing of unuseable nitrogen into useable nitrogen for plants

47 47 Root nodules on Cassia fasciculata

48 Fig. 4.32, p. 96 GUANO FERTILIZER ROCKS LAND FOOD WEBS DISSOLVED IN OCEAN WATER MARINE FOOD WEBS MARINE SEDIMENTS weathering agriculture uptake by autotrophs death, decomposition sedimentation settling out leaching, runoff weathering DISSOLVED IN SOILWATER, LAKES, RIVERS uptake by autotrophs death, decomposition uplifting over geolgic time mining excretion

49 Fig. 4.30, p. 94 NO 3 - IN SOIL NITROGEN FIXATION by industry for agriculture FERTILIZERS FOOD WEBS ON LAND NH 3, NH 4 + IN SOIL 1. NITRIFICATION bacteria convert NH 4 + to nitrate (NO 2 - ) loss by leaching uptake by autotrophs excretion, death, decomposition uptake by autotrophs NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria convert to ammonia (NH 3 + ) ; this dissolves to form ammonium (NH 4 + ) loss by leaching AMMONIFICATION bacteria, fungi convert the residues to NH 3, this dissolves to form NH NITRIFICATION bacteria convert NO 2 - to nitrate (NO 3 - ) DENTRIFICATION by bacteria NITROGENOUS WASTES, REMAINS IN SOIL GASEOUS NITROGEN (N 2 ) IN ATMOSPHERE NO 2 - IN SOIL Nitrogen Cycle (atmospheric cycle)

50 Human Impact on the Nitrogen Cycle 1) Adding Nitric Oxide gas to the atmosphere when we burn fuel yields Acid Precipitation 2) Adding Nitrous Oxide Gas to the atmosphere through anaerobic bacterias action on livestock waste and commercial waste leads to ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect. 3) Removing nitrogen from earths crust and soil through mining activities leaves plants devastated. 4) Removing nitrogen from topsoil by over farming leaves soil without nitrogen a. harvesting nitrogen rich crops b. irrigating crops c. burning or clearing grasslands and forests before planting crops 5)

51 Human Impact continued: 5)Adding nitrogen to aquatic through run-off ecosystems - depletes dissolved oxygen killing some aerobic aquatic organisms a. agricultural runoff b. municipal sewage

52 A real time example of excessive amounts of Nitrogen Fertilizer Harming an Ecosystems A seasonal dead zone where virtually all marine life is killed stretches off the Mississippi Delta. Why? About 1.5 million metric tons of nitrogen from fertilizer runoff promotes algal and bacterial blooms that deplete oxygen from the water.

53 The Water Cycle Only about 40% of precipitation on land comes from water evaporated over oceans; roughly 60% comes from transpiration of water through plants.

54 Fig. 4.28, p. 90 Precipitation to ocean Evaporation From ocean Surface runoff (rapid) Ocean storage Condensation Transpiration Rain clouds Infiltration and Percolation Transpiration from plants Groundwater movement (slow) Runoff Surface runoff (rapid) Precipitation

55 The Percentage of Available Global Freshwater is Very Small

56 Freshwater Is a Precious and Often Scarce Resource

57 Human Activities and the Hydrologic Cycle 1. Over-consumption of surface and groundwater lead to groundwater depletion and saltwater intrusion into groundwater supplies. 2. Clearing vegetation from land leads to increased runoff, decreased infiltration to replenish groundwater, increases risk of floods, and accelerates soil erosion and landslides. 3. Adding nutrients and pollutants to water diminishes the ability of humans and other species to use it and interferes with natural purification.

58 The Phosphorus Cycle

59 Phosphorus Cycle: Phosphorus An important ingredient in DNA and RNA and all proteins Flows in organism in different chemical forms into the surroundings and back into organisms Doesnt enter atmosphere In soil and rock. Dissolves and is used by plants Plants are eaten by animals, animals die, cycle begins again

60 Phosphorus Cycle (sedimentary cycle) Human impacts on the Phosphorus Cycle 1. Mining large quantities of phosphate rock depletes resources a. inorganic fertilizers b.. detergents 2. Reducing available phosphate in tropical forests through slash and burn agriculture depletes it. a. phosphate is washed away by heavy rains. 3. Adding excess phosphate to aquatic ecosystems depletes dissolved oxygen and disrupts aquatic ecosystems a. runoff from animal wastes b. runoff of commercial inorganic fertilizers from cropland c. discharge of municipal sewage

61 Fig. 4.33, p. 97 Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) + Water (H 2 O) Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and Sulfur trioxide (SO 3 ) Dimethl (DMS) Industries Sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) Oceans + Ammonia (NH 2 ) + Oxygen (O 2 ) Ammonium sulfate [(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 ] Animals Plants Sulfate salts (SO 4 2- ) Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) Decaying organisms Sulfur (S) Fog and precipitation (rain, snow) Aerobic conditions in soil and water Anaerobic conditions in soil and water Volcanoes and hot springs Atmosphere Sulfur Cycle (atmospheric cycle and land)

62 Sulfur Cycle (atmospheric cycle) (figure 4-33) Human Impacts on the Sulfur Cycle 1. Burning sulfur containing coal and oil to produce electric power a. produces sulfur dioxide>>acid rain 2. refining petroleum>>sulfur dioxide>>acid rain 3. smelting to convert sulfur compounds of metallic minerals into free metals such as copper, lead and zinc. a. produces sulfur dioxide and trioxide>>acid rain

63 Were in the Drivers Seat - Human Activities Dominate Many Biogeochemical Cycles

64 Sustaining Life of Earth One-Way Energy Flow: All energy on earth comes from the sun and eventually escapes earth. Perpetuates the cycles.

65 65 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C6H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Photosynthesis Chemical reaction where green plants use water & carbon dioxide to store the suns energy as glucose

66 The Sun is the generator of the flow of energy as well. Cellular Respiration is just the opposite formula Glucose + Oxygen Water and Carbon Dioxide

67 6O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 --> 6H 2 O + 6CO 2 Cellular Respiration 6O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 --> 6H 2 O + 6CO 2 process of cells breaking down food,glucose, made by plants, to make ATP. ATP is cell energy cells use to do cellular functions such as Metabolism Making new cells (Mitosis) Growth and development Reproduction All living organisms respirator Can you think of any?

68 Inputs are: Outputs are:

69 Respiration can be accomplished in two ways by different organisms Aerobic Respiration-the use of oxygen to produce energy –Glucose + Oxygen --> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy – C 6 H 12 O O 2 --> 6 CO H 2 O + Energy Anaerobic Respiration- (a.k.a. fermentation) a form of cellular respiration in the absence of Oxygen –End products: methane; ethyl alcohol; acetic acid; or hydrogen sulfide, lactic acid Production of Energy: different types of energy production Chemosynthesis (typically bacteria)-The conversion of simple compounds into more complex nutrient compounds without the aide of sunlight

70 The Source of Energy Chpt 4.2

71 The Biotic Components of Ecosystems are also supported by the suns energy Producers (autotrophs) Consumers (heterotrophs) Decomposers Fig p. 75

72 72 Organisms that can make glucose during photosynthesis are called Organisms that can make glucose during photosynthesis are called PRODUCERS or AUTOTROPHS.

73 73 Organisms that cannot make their own energy are called CONSUMERS or HETEROTROPHS.

74 Secondary or 2nd order consumers May be a carnivore or omnivore May be a carnivore or omnivore May be a predator May be a predator May be a scavenger May be a scavenger Secondary or 2nd order consumers May be a carnivore or omnivore May be a carnivore or omnivore May be a predator May be a predator May be a scavenger May be a scavenger Consumers that Eat other Consumers

75 75 Consumers that eat consumers that already ate a consumer: Tertiary or 3rd order consumer Tertiary or 3rd order consumer May be a carnivore or omnivore May be a carnivore or omnivore May be a predator May be a predator May be a scavenger May be a scavenger Tertiary or 3rd order consumer Tertiary or 3rd order consumer May be a carnivore or omnivore May be a carnivore or omnivore May be a predator May be a predator May be a scavenger May be a scavenger

76 Cast of Food Web Characters Tertiary Consumers – Animals that eat animals that eat animals Secondary Consumers – Animals that eat animals that eat plants Primary Consumers – Animals that eat plants Primary Producers – Plants and Phytoplankton: organisms using the sun for energy

77 77 These levels of organization are called TROPHIC Levels

78 Trophic Levels: steps in a food chain moving from producers to different levels of consumers. Producer Primary consumer (herbivore) Producer Primary consumer (herbivore) Secondary consumer (carnivore) Tertiary consumer Omnivore Detritivores and scavengers Decomposers

79 Connections:Food Webs show the transfer of energy in an ecosystem

80 Connections: Food Chains, a thread of a food web, also show energy Flow in Ecosystems Fig p. 77; Refer to Fig p. 78 Food chains

81 Ecological Pyramids have many jobs Energy Flow Pyramid Energy Flow Pyramid Ecological efficiency Pyramid of biomass Pyramid of numbers Fig p. 79 Pyramid of bioaccumulation

82 THE ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS represent Energy Flow pyramid: Trophic Levels that depict a food chain or web delivering chemical energy Ecological Efficiency: Percentage of useable energy transferred as BIOMASS limits trophic levels Pyramid of Numbers: The ten percent rule – only 10 percent of energy is passed on to the next level due to metabolism of organism using it Pyramid Biomass: The dry weight of all organic matter at that trophic level Pyramid of Bioaccumulation: The increase of the concentration of toxins as it passes through levels of the food web.

83 How is Energy Moved and Utilized in Ecosystems?

84 TROPHIC LEVELS AND ENERGY TRANSFER or MOVEMENT 90% OF ENERGY IS USED AT EACH Level for cell functions at that level and some is lost as heat. That leaves 10% to be transferred to the next level.

85 The pyramid of Numbers: Only a Fraction of the Energy Present in Organisms of One Trophic Level Is Captured by Organisms of the Next This limits the number of trophic levels.. 10% 1.0% 10% 100%

86 86 Some of the energy moves into the atmosphere as heat. Some energy in the primary consumer is STORED as Glucose or used by the consumer itself This energy is available for another consumer

87 87 Energy Pyramids Show Amount of available energy decreases for higher consumersAmount of available energy decreases for higher consumers Amount of available energy decreases down the food chainAmount of available energy decreases down the food chain It takes a large number of producers to support a small number of primary consumersIt takes a large number of producers to support a small number of primary consumers It takes a large number of primary consumers to support a small number of secondary consumersIt takes a large number of primary consumers to support a small number of secondary consumers

88 Detritivores and Decomposers All through the food pyramid are Detritivores and decomposers. They are Consumers that break down dead organic materials They break down and contribute to the biogeochemical cycles.

89 Celebrating Rot and Decay - Detritivores Energy isnt transferred only upwards between trophic levels. Detritovores use the energy available in dead organisms and allow recycling of essential nutrients in ecosystems.

90 Do you see the energy flow and cycles connection?

91 What is Biomass ? The accumulation of dry organic matter that contributes to a tropic level. It is based on the second law of Thermodynamics: Matter is never destroyed or created, it can be transferred. 1.Which level has the most biomass? 2.Does Biomass change as climates differ? 3.Does more biomass produce more life? Since biomass accumulates at a rate in direct response to solar energy then Yes to 2 and 3!

92 Fig. 4.22, p. 86 Abandoned FieldOcean Tertiary consumers Secondary consumers Primary consumers Producers Do different ecosystems have different amounts of available energy or biomass?

93 Fig. 4.23, p. 86 Grassland (summer) Temperate Forest (summer) Producers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers

94 Bioaccumulacation and biomagnification Why is food web knowledge important for understanding the impact of DDT on ospreys and eagles?

95 Bioaccumulation = the accumulation of a contaminant or toxin in or on an organism from all sources (e.g., food, water, air). Compounds accumulate in living things any time they are taken up and stored faster than they are broken down (metabolized) or excreted.

96 Biomagnification = the increase in concentration of toxin as it passes through successive levels of the food web DDT accumulates at higher levels in organisms that are higher in the food chain

97 Biomagnification of a DDT in Aquatic Environment Tertiary Consumer 3-76 µg/g ww (fish eating birds) Level Amount of DDT in Tissue Secondary Consumers 1-2 µg/g ww (large fish) Primary Consumers (small fish) µg/g ww Primary Producers (algae and aquatic plants) 0.04 µg/g ww

98 Osprey Food Web Large Mouth Bass Crayfish Plant material and algae 3-76 µg/g ww 1-2 µg/g ww µg/g ww 0.04 µg/g ww DDT Concentration Osprey

99 High levels of DDT cause the female ospreys to lay eggs with thin eggshells. Thin eggshells have a greater chance of breaking, leading to embryo death. With high levels of DDT, female ospreys can also lay eggs that contain high enough concentration of DDT to prevent embryo development.

100 Ospreys and eagles are tertiary consumers Making them particularly vulnerable to DDT as Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification take effect

101 After DDT is applied, some DDT volatizes (vaporizes), some remains on the plant, and some washes off the plant into the soil, eventually making its way to a stream, river, or lake. The DDT that remains on the leaves of plants may be ingested by primary consumers such as insects and rodents. DDT that has washed into a waterbody, remains in the sediment or is consumed by bottom-feeding organisms or absorbed by fish gills and skin. All food makes its way to the tertiary consumer

102

103 Make an Energy Pyramid Four sides and four levels!!! Separate each level with pencil mark Color each level the same color all the way around! Make sure all sides line up with the other three sides meaning! 1 st side are the Trophic Levels: Producers, Herbivores,Carnivores,Top Carnivores 2 nd side is type is consumer or producer: do not forget there are primary,secondary, and tertiary consumers!! 3 rd side is type of eater: Autotroph or Heterotroph 4 th side is Amount of energy that is transferred to next level 100% 10% 1.0% and.10%

104 Species Types(6.1): Fill major niches in ecosystems Native Species- Normally live and thrive in ecosystem Non native, invasive, alien species – have been introduced to a community either accidentally or purposefully. Crowd out, outcompete, have no predators

105 Indicator Species Biological smoke alarms Fish, birds, amphibians, butterflies Indicate ecosystem health: pH, Habitat fragmentation, dissolved oxygen in water communities, pollution, reduction in stratospheric ozone, over hunting…

106 Keystone Species Have a huge effect on the species richness and evenness of an ecosystem. A keystone species disappears can lead to population crashes and extinction. Ex: Top predators, bees, dung beetles,

107 Foundation Species Species that play major roles in enhancing habitats in ways that benefit other species. Elephants push over tress clearing ground for grass to grow, accelerate cycling of nutrients

108 Ecosystem Concepts and Components Biomes-areas with a consistent climate and with similar organisms –Climate- long-term weather patterns in a given area –Precipitation and Temperature Aquatic life zones- marine and freshwater portions of the biosphere Biomes-areas with a consistent climate and with similar organisms –Climate- long-term weather patterns in a given area –Precipitation and Temperature Aquatic life zones- marine and freshwater portions of the biosphere

109

110 Terrestrial Ecosystems Aquatic Life Zones Sunlight Climate -Temperature - Precipitation Wind Latitude Altitude (topography) Fire frequency Soil Light penetration Depth Water currents Dissolved nutrient concentrations (especially Nitrogen and Phosphorus) Suspended solids Salinity Figure 4-13 Page 73

111 Ecosystem Boundaries: Ecotones Ecotone- transitional zones between ecosystems where there are a mixture of species not found together in adjacent ecosystems

112 Principles of Ecological Factors Fig p. 73; Refer to Fig p. 73 Abiotic Factors- all of the nonliving parts in an ecosystem Biotic Factors-all of the living factors in an ecosystem Range of Tolerance- any variation in the physical or chemical environment that an organism can withstand before it is killed/harmed –Law of tolerance-the existence, abundance, and distribution of a species in a n ecosystem are determined by whether the levels of one or more physical or chemical factors fall within the range tolerated by that species.

113 Limiting factors terrestrial and aquatic Terrestrial: Precipitation, temperature, available nutrients(too much or too little) Aquatic: temperature, sunlight, nutrient availability, dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity

114 Regulating Population Growth Limiting Factors- a distinguishing chemical or physical factor that regulates the population growth of a species; more specific than any other factor –Limiting Factor Principle- Too much or too little of any abiotic factor can limit or prevent growth of a population, even if all other factors are at or near the optimum range of tolerance. Niche- an organisms functional role within an ecosystem; everything that affects the survival and reproduction of itself and others –Range of tolerance; resources it utilizes (food, space); interaction with other biota and abiotic factors; its role in the food web/matter cycle

115 Adaptations Plant and animal adaptations respond to limiting factor by adapting in many ways. Foods they eat, niches, habitats, physiology, mating timing, how they keep warm, use water….

116 The Biotic Components of Ecosystems Producers (autotrophs) Consumers (heterotrophs) Decomposers Fig p. 75

117 LIST NATURAL CAPITOL Major components of freshwater systems Major components of ecosystem Major Biomes found along the 39 th parallel of the US Solar capitol – flow of energy Cycling of crucial elements (matter) Genetic Diversity among individuals within a species Cycling of crucial elements (matter) Genetic Diversity among individuals within a species

118 Ecosystem Services and Sustainability Fig p. 92

119 An Uncertain Future? Of course … …. but thats not to say theres no hope.

120 Fig. 4.26, p % Not used by Humans 8% Lost or Degrades Land 16% Altered by Human Activity 3% Used Directly


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