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1.Find the amount, in moles, of solute dissolved in a 4 dm 3 of a 2 mol dm 3 solution? 2.Find the concentration, in moldm -3, for 0.5 moles dissolved in 250cm 3 of solution 3.Find the mass concentration, in gdm-3 of 3.56 x of H 2 SO 4, dissolved in 25cm 3 of solution.

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1.Find the amount, in moles, of solute dissolved in a 4 dm 3 of a 2 mol dm 3 solution? = 2 x 4 = 8 moles 2.Find the concentration, in moldm -3, for 0.5 moles dissolved in 250cm 3 of solution? = 1000/250 x 0.5=2moldm -3 3.Find the mass concentration, in gdm -3 of 3.56 x moles of H 2 SO 4, dissolved in 25cm 3 of solution? = 3.56 x moles x (2+32+(16x4) = 98 = g x (1000/25) = 13.96gdm -3

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Atoms and Ions Ions in solution Group 7 Manufacturing Dipoles Bonding Halogenoalkanes Elements of the sea Ionic Formulae Redox

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Discover the relationship between the position of an element in the Periodic Table and the charge on its ion, Write formulae for compounds formed between these ions and other given anions and cations Recall the meaning of the term ionisation enthalpy, write equations for the successive ionisations of an element and explain periodic and group trends in the properties of elements in terms of ionisation enthalpy;

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Ionisation enthalpy Removal of an electron ALWAYS takes energy X (g) X+ (g) + e- Explain this trend Group 7 elements 1 st ionisation enthalpy/kJmol-1 F+1687 Cl+1257 Br+1146 I+1010

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Ionisation enthalpy Decrease – why? Attraction of nucleus and outermost electron decreases. More shells of e-, creating a shielding effect of the positively charged nucleus.

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CI2.5 Ionisation Enthalpy Not just one ionisation enthalpy – successive (remove 2e-, 3e- etc.) Subsequential enthalpies relate to removing 1e- from a + ion and need more energy – why? More + than e- - so attract more, thus need more E to remove e- Electron arrangement

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Electron structure What do you know? Draw it/Write it/Label them.... The electronic arrangement of F, K and Cr

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Electron structure F, K and Cr F = 9 e-, 2,7 (1s 2, 2s 2, 2p 5 ) K = 19 e- 2,8,8, 1 (1s 2, 2s 2, 2p 6, 3s 2,3p 6,4s 1 ) Cr = 24 e- 2,8,13,1 (1s 2, 2s 2, 2p 6, 3s 2,3p 6,3d 5 4s 1 )

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CI2.4 Atomic Orbitals Within these shells there are sub shells (called s,p,d and f) – s sub shell contains 1 s atomic orbital – p sub shell contains 3 p atomic orbitals – d sub shell contains 5 d atomic orbitals – f sub shell contains 7 f atomic orbitals Each atomic orbital contains maximum of 2 e-

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CI2.4 Atomic Orbitals Each e- in an atomic orbital has spin in either clockwise ( ) or anti-clockwise direction ( ). Energy stability means 1 e- into each atomic orbital first + 4s before 3d!

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CI2.4 Atomic Orbitals How do you think the periodic table links to this? HOT Question

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CI2.4 Atomic Orbitals Blocks link to the orbital occupied

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Chemical Ideas 2.4 and 2.5 Start these.....

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Try this – table vs table Some copper-containing minerals are listed below. tenoriteCuO cupriteCu 2 O malachite CuCO 3.Cu(OH) 2 chalcopyriteCuFeS 2 (a) Give the systematic names for tenorite cuprite [2] (b) Complete the electron configuration of a copper atom. 1s22s22p6[2] (c) In the modern process for extracting copper, ore containing chalcopyrite is concentrated and then smelted. An ore contains 2.0% by mass of chalcopyrite. Calculate the percentage of copper in this ore. Give your answer to two significant figures. Ar: Cu, 64; Fe, 56; S, 32 % Cu = [3] [Total 7 marks]

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Review Triangle 1 -Still stuck on – Spin of e Atomic orbitals....

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Best Choice – Salters A level / ES Formula, equations, amount / Concentration Finish CI2.4 CI2.5

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