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Mathematics from High School to Community College: Preparation, Articulation, and College Un-readiness Louise Jaffe, Ed.D. UCLA, 2012

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Research on College Readiness in Math for Community College (CC) Freshmen Analyzed the effectiveness of different high school mathematics pathways in preparing students for college-level mathematics. –Searched for routes to college readiness –Found predictors of college un-readiness 2

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Why Math? Math Functions As A Roadblock 3

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Research Question How do different high school mathematics course-taking patterns and achievement predict placement into community college mathematics? 4

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Examined High School Math Pathways Where students start: Grade 9 Math When students stop: No Math in Grade 12 Where students stop: Highest-Level Math –every course beyond Algebra 2 doubles the odds of college completion (Adelman, 2006) 5

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Sample: 2920 12 th Grade Students 6

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Multinomial Logistic Regression Model Independent and Predictor Variables Tested 1. Gender 2. Ethnicity: Black, Latino, Asian/Pacific Islander, White 3. Highest-Level of Parent Education 4. Indication of Low Socio-Economic-Status 5. Grade 9 Mathematics Course 6. Grade 9 Mathematics Grade Point 7. Grade 10 Mathematics Grade Point 8. Grade 11 Mathematics Grade Point 9. California High School Exit Exam Mathematics Scores 10. Highest-Level High School Mathematics Course 11. No Mathematics in Grade 12 Ordered Dependent/Outcome Variable 1. Community College Assessment into 1-, 2-, 3-, or 4-Levels Below College-Level Mathematics

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CC Math Assessment Placement 8

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Finding Gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and parent education were not significant predictors of placement in community college mathematics. 9

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CC Math Assessment Placement by Ethnicity 10

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Finding Mastery of mathematics that precedes high school coursework is fundamental 11

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Top Ten: Highest Correlation to Placement Predictor Variablesr 1. CAHSEE Mathematics Score.669 2. Grade 7 CST Mathematics scaled score.624 3. Grade 9 CST Mathematics scaled score.610 4. Grade 8 CST Mathematics scaled score.608 5. Grade 11 CST Mathematics scaled score.577 6. Grade 10 CST Mathematics scaled score.573 7. Grade 10 CST ELA scaled score.506 8. Grade 11 Mathematics course.499 9. Grade 12 GPA (all subjects).489 10. Grade 10 Mathematics course.488 p <.01 12

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Finding The CAHSEE Math scale scores were significant predictors of placement at all levels below college-level mathematics Delta-p Variable 1-level below 2-levels below 3-levels below 4-levels below CAHSEE Math 22.64%22.72%22.53%21.54% p <.001 13

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Finding Suggests Off-Label Use of CAHSEE Math to Improve College-Readiness (n=857) CAHSEE Math By College Placement CAHSEE Math SS College- Level 1-level below 2-levels below 3-levels below 4-levels below *** SOLID PROFICIENCY 431-450 (n= 77) 83.1%9.1%5.2%1.3% MODERATE PROFICIENCY 401-430 (n=201) 59.2%16.4% 6.0%2.0% LOW PROFICIENCY 380-400 (n=206) 28.2%18.4%19.9%24.8%8.7% PASS 350-379 (n=340) 2.4%10.3%8.8%32.6%45.9% FAIL 297-349 (n= 33) 3.0%.0% 15.2%81.8% *** p <.001 14

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Finding No Math in Grade 12 was a significant predictor of placement, with a large effect, at 2-, 3-, and 4- levels below college-level mathematics Delta-p Variable 1-level below 2-levels below 3-levels below 4-levels below Grade 12 No Math 57.64%**45.66%*49.20%** * p <.05, ** p <.01 15

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Who Took No Math in Grade 12? 16 * p <.05, ** p <.01

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Who took No Math in Grade 12? Gr 12 No Math All Students (n=2920) 36% CC Freshmen (n=953) 47% 17

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Who Took No Math in Grade 12? Ethnicity No Math in Grade 12 n% Black11443.8 Latino35641.3 White49532.5 API6927.8 18

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Students who started high school further behind were more likely to stop sooner No Grade 12 Mathematics by Students’ Grade 9 Mathematics Grade 9 Math CourseNo Math in Grade 12 Geometry or above (n=1439) 24% Algebra 1 (n= 508) 44% Below-Algebra 1 (n= 491) 48% 19

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Finding There is an opportunity cost to not taking math in grade 12.

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Where students stop is determined in part by when students stop Highest-Level Mathematics Students Last Grade Above Alg. 2 Alg. 2Geom. Alg. 1 and below All (n=2920) Total 1252%9%1%2% 1111%15%3%1% 63%24%4% CC Freshmen (n=953) Total 1234%14%1%3% 1112%23%4%2% 46%37%6%5% 21

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Students who advanced beyond Algebra 2 were more likely to be college-ready Highest-Level Math with CC Math Placement High School MathCommunity College Math Placement N Highest- level Grade Taken College- level 1-level below 2-levels below 3-levels below 4-levels below > Algebra 21254%16%13%11%6%307 1148%16%15%12.5%8%104 Algebra 21211%8%9.5%32%40%126 1111%14%16%28%31%210 < Algebra 2122% 5%24%67%42 111.9%3.8%5.7%34%55%53

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Most students who took No Math in Grade 12 passed Grade 11 Math GPA in Grade 11 Math for students who took No Math in Grade 12 ABCDFail All Students Above Algebra 2 (n=313)21%27%33%12%6% Algebra 2 (n=438)12%20%33%17%18% Geometry (n=86)7%10%19%37%27% CC Freshmen Above Algebra 2 (n=110)8%26%36%19%10% Algebra 2 (n=218)11%17%30%20%22% Geometry (n=39)10%13%18%41%18% 23

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Students traveled different paths through high school mathematics High School Observed Pathways High School Mathematics Grade 9 Grade 12 Highest- Level Math All Students N=2363 CC Freshmen N=739 > Algebra 1Yes> Algebra 236.5%17.7% > Algebra 1YesAlgebra 2.4%.5% > Algebra 1Yes< Algebra 2.4%.6% > Algebra 1No> Algebra 29.6%10.3% > Algebra 1NoAlgebra 2.9%1.3% > Algebra 1No< Algebra 2.1%.2% ≤ Algebra 1Yes> Algebra 211.0%11.6% ≤ Algebra 1YesAlgebra 26.0%10.4% ≤ Algebra 1Yes< Algebra 21.5%2.2% ≤ Algebra 1No> Algebra 2.2% ≤ Algebra 1NoAlgebra 212.4%19.5% ≤ Algebra 1No< Algebra 22.0%2.9% TOTAL 81%78% 24

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Conclusions The high school mathematics path most frequently travelled by community college-bound students was characterized by: –Algebra 1 or below in grade 9, –no math in grade 12, and –no HS math beyond Algebra 2. At these important junctures, students were directed to or chose paths that diminished their chances of attaining college-readiness.

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Conclusions These findings suggest high schools could decrease college un-readiness in mathematics for community college-bound students by: Continuing to strengthen mastery of basic arithmetic and pre-algebra content for students who score below 430 on the CAHSEE Math Requiring lower achieving students to take math in grade 12, using senior year to remediate weak skills or to advance beyond Algebra 2

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Conclusions If educators and researchers in California could study student records across segments (K12 to CC), they would identify useful and actionable findings to improve college readiness.

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Questions? Comments? Thank you! Louise Jaffe louisecjaffe@gmail.com 310-450-2487

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