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Enterprise Information Systems Architecture (ISA) Modeling Roadmap Definitions ISA domains & levels ISA analysis techniques Review questions.

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Presentation on theme: "Enterprise Information Systems Architecture (ISA) Modeling Roadmap Definitions ISA domains & levels ISA analysis techniques Review questions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Enterprise Information Systems Architecture (ISA) Modeling Roadmap Definitions ISA domains & levels ISA analysis techniques Review questions

2 Definition 0: Information Systems Architecture in Enterprise Architecture Enterprise Business Business Model Organization Model Information Systems Applications Data Technology ISA partly stems from and partly overlaps with Business Architecture The main contact point are Business Processes (BP) Indeed most requirements for ISA come from BP, e.g. what transactions and reports the information systems should process Therefore most requirements analysis techniques cover both BP and information analysis 2

3 Definition 1 : User Requirements (UR) ISA is based on User Requirements (UR) UR reflect the needs of the users on three main domains, namely the interface of the users with a computer system the information the users handle the logic / rules and the flow of activities the users perform UR are a higher abstraction level of systems / processing requirements that are usually described by UML

4 Definition 3: User Needs (UN) User Needs (UN) are what users should get from a system User requirements (UR) describe what the system should do (hopefully consistently with needs) regardless its implementation There are some critical points in UN –Seldom users know what they want and even less frequently know how to represent it in a useful form for software development –Therefore : Needs should be elicited i.e. the user should be guided to express his/her own view of needs Requirements should be obtained by transforming and/ or mapping of the users view in a systems analysis view Requirements should be compared against a best practice or reference model We call this approach «Functional analysis»

5 Definition 4: Functional Analysis (FA) Analysis: –Identification of the structure of an object or of a statement through the decomposition of an object in smaller parts according to a predefined rule = structure –Origin of term: it dates back to the Analytica Priora, where Aristotle introduces syllogistic method, argues for correctness, and discusses inductive inference. Information system: a system of functions that collect, process, store and distribute information Function: –An activity with an outcome –Example in Information Systems: read Functional analysis of information systems: –Scope: defines the functions of an information system according to a given model –Purpose: defines what the system should do (i.e. the functions) regardless the implementation technology

6 Definition 2 : Requirements analysis (Wikipedia 2012) In systems engineering and software engineering, encompasses those tasks that go into determining the needs or conditions to meet for a new or altered product, taking account of the possibly conflicting requirements of the various stakeholders, such as beneficiaries or users. It is an early stage in the more general activity of requirements engineering which encompasses all activities concerned with eliciting, analyzing, documenting, validating and managing software or system requirements. Requirements analysis is critical to the success of a systems or software project. Requirements should be documented, actionable, measurable, testable, traceable, related to identified business needs or opportunities, and defined to a level of detail sufficient for system design.

7 Enterprise Information Systems Architecture (ISA) Modeling Roadmap Definitions ISA domains & levels ISA analysis techniques Review questions

8 ISA modelling levels LayerTargetNotationsExplanation ASL Aggregate Strategic Layer Aggregate needs List / GridNeeds are aggregate and expressed by simple notations, as grids or lists RSL Rich Semantic Layer Detailed needs Diagrams Specification languages Needs are detailed and expressed by diagrams RSL is conceptual and neglects the implementation of requirements SEI Software Engineering Interface SoftwareDiagrams Specification & programming languages Transforms RSL into a notation targeting software engineers In most cases such notation is executable.

9 ISA modelling domains DomainExplanation InformationDescribes the structure and properties of the information the system shall use (database) Process (workflow)Describes the workflow of the business processes and related execution rules User interfaceDescribes the user interface, through which information is distributed to (or collected from) users. The analysis should cover the aspects of the system the users perceive, that we term as domains.

10 ISA modelling grid Analysis Layer Analysis Domain InformationBusiness functionsUser Interface ASLBusiness Information Models Business models (e.g. financial mathematical models; KPI) Stakeholder / Goal Oriented Conceptual Models ESLConceptual Information Models UML & BPMN (flow intensive systems) SEIImplementation Frameworks / Platforms GUI Implementation Frameworks/ Platforms

11 Enterprise Information Systems Architecture (ISA) Modeling Roadmap Definitions ISA domains & levels ISA analysis techniques Review questions

12 ASL / information: SIRE SIRE (Strategic Information Requirements Elicitation) is a catalog of the information domains of an enterprise. It uses a grid model, where information domains are layered into information levels, namely 1.master information 2.event information 3.analytic information Developed in University of Pavia (2008) Information Domain Information Level MasterEventAnalysis Domain 1 …… Domain n Analysis Layer Analysis Domain InformationProcessUser Interface ASL RSM SEI

13 ASL / Process: GEF GEF (General Enterprise Framework) lists the activities of business processes (BP) at the respective layers: 1.Planning (e.g. Sales Planning) 2.Execution (Proposal and Selling tasks) 3.Monitoring to check execution workflow (where is the order of Mr. Smith?) 4.Control to appraise actual results (are we on budget?) 5.Information, to manage information collection, storage and distribution Developed in University of Pavia (2012) Analysis Layer Analysis Domain InformationProcessUser Interface ASL RSM SEI LayerBusiness Process Process 1Process … Process N Planning Execution Monitoring Control Information

14 RSM / Information: ER & DFM ER (Entity Relationship) –Models information at a conceptual level –Not for analytic information –Developed by Chen (1976) DFM (Dimensional Fact Model) –Models analytic information by a specific notation. –It is a conceptual technique –Developed in University of Bologna (1998) Analysis Layer Analysis Domain InformationProcessUser Interface ASL RSM SEI

15 RSM / Process: BPM & UML BPMN (Business Process Management Notation) –Models the flow of business processes. –Typically a BPMN flow details a GEF quadrant. UML-EP (Unified Modeling Language with the Erikson Penker estension) –It is a business oriented extension of UML, –It adds models to represent the flow of a Business Process –It supports the elicitation of Use Cases and Candidate Database Entities Analysis Layer Analysis Domain InformationProcessUser Interface ASL RSM SEI

16 RSM / User Interface : GOA Analysis Layer Analysis Domain InformationProcessUser Interface ASL RSM SEI GOA (Goal Oriented Analysis) –The analyst identifies the goals of each user class and the actions implied on the system –Actions are candidate use cases –It is a conceptual technique –Developed in Politecnico di Milano (2004)

17 SEI level Analysis Layer Analysis Domain InformationProcessUser Interface ASL RSM SEI SEI (Software Engineering Interface) is the final transformation stage, into which conceptual notations are transformed into executable languages. Various modeling techniques –BPEL (Business Process Executive Language) for workflow implementation –UML (Unified Modeling Language) for object oriented development (Class Diagrams & Use Cases) –Relational model for databases and data warehouses

18 Enterprise Information Systems Architecture (ISA) Modeling Roadmap Definitions ISA domains & levels ISA analysis techniques Review questions

19 Preliminary definitions –May an individual i belong to different classes A, B, C ? In which case yes and in which not? –Consider a simple class e.g. a Volkswagen Golf What is an individual of Volkswagen Golf class? What is a specialization of Volkswagen Golf? Is Volkswagen Golf an aggregation of Engine, Car-body etc.? –Describe the overall model taxonomy –Describe constructions types and interpretation of Model M* –Could you define a Model richer then M? Modeling grid –Which are the differences between User Needs and User Requirements? –Define Levels and Domains of Functional Analysis in terms of Objectives Modeling Level


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