Presentation on theme: "CST Review Standard 4 Energy enters the Earth system primarily as solar radiation and eventually escapes as heat. Know the relative amount of incoming."— Presentation transcript:
1 CST Review Standard 4Energy enters the Earth system primarily as solar radiation and eventually escapes as heat.Know the relative amount of incoming solar energy compared with Earth’s internal energy and the energy used by society.Know the fate of incoming solar radiation in terms of reflection, absorption, and photosynthesis.Know the different atmospheric gases that absorb the earth’s thermal radiation and the mechanism and significance of the greenhouse effect.Students know the differing greenhouse conditions on Earth, Mars, and Venus; the origins of those conditions; and the climate consequences of each.
3 1. How do we know about the atmosphere’s history? Scientists look at the rock and fossil record.Core SamplesFossils
4 2. What happened to Earth’s very first atmosphere? The early atmosphere was blown away by the Solar Wind, weak gravity, and weak EM field.
5 3. What caused the earth’s atmosphere to form? Volcanoes appeared as earth became solid, and began Outgassing.
6 4. What was earth’s first atmosphere’s composition? Methane (CH4), Ammonia (NH3), plus smallquantities of water vapor (H20). Asteroids andcomets bombarded earth.Asteroids and comets bombarded earth.
7 5. What is Outgassing?The term Outgassing is important because it representsThe gases that came out of the volcanoes about 2.5Billion years ago. The atmosphere formed from theseGases.Asteroids and comets bombarded earth.
8 6. Since we had no plants as we know them today, what primitive plants are responsible for photosynthesis during the earth’s early atmosphere?Primitive plants such as cyanobacteria.
9 Cyanobacteria is a primitive plant responsible for photosynthesis during earth’s early atmosphere; producing oxygen.
10 7. What produced the oxygen we have today? The process of photosynthesis.
11 8. What does photosynthesis produce? Oxygen and Glucose (also known as acarbohydrate).
12 Photosynthesis…NEEDS THISTO MAKE THISAKA: Carbohydrate
13 9. What does photosynthesis require to make oxygen and glucose? Plants + Sunglight + Carbon dioxide + Water.
14 Photosynthesis…NEEDS THISTO MAKE THISAKA: Carbohydrate
15 In a “nutshell” OUTGASSING is important because…. It played a big role in the formation ofthe atmosphere as we have it today because thevolcanoes produced the outgassing which includedthe carbon dioxide, CO2. The cyanobacteria thenProduced oxygen through photosynthesis andFreed up the oxygen from here
16 Finally the Atmosphere was born and here she is…a beautiful, stable, amount of gases that allow you to breathe and live…78%N,21% O2, and 1% Ar, CO2…
18 9. What is the atmosphere’s current composition? Do you remember the percentages?
19 1. oxygen 2. nitrogen 3. argon 4. water vapor 10. What is of the following is the most abundantgas in the atmosphere.1. oxygen 2. nitrogen 3. argon 4. water vapor
20 1. oxygen 2. nitrogen 3. argon 4. water vapor 11. Life was not possible in the early atmosphere because one of the following gases was missing.1. oxygen 2. nitrogen 3. argon 4. water vapor
21 1. 4.5 billion years ago 2. 11 billion years ago 500 million years ago 12. Approx. how long ago did this atmospherebegin to form?billion years agobillion years ago500 million years ago2.5 billion years ago
22 1. Respiration 2. Photosynthesis Water cycle Nitrogen cycle 13. Which of the following processes was usedTo make the first oxygen?1. Respiration2. PhotosynthesisWater cycleNitrogen cycle
23 1. A type of sugar 2. A carbohydrate A protein Both 1 and 2 14. What is another name for glucose?1. A type of sugar2. A carbohydrateA proteinBoth 1 and 2
24 1. Respiration 2. Photosynthesis Water cycle Nitrogen cycle 15. Which of the following processes produces oxygen as a byproduct?1. Respiration2. PhotosynthesisWater cycleNitrogen cycle
25 1. Outgassing 2. Photosynthesis Water cycle Nitrogen cycle Both 3&4 16. Which of the following processes was not involved in producing oxygen?1. Outgassing2. PhotosynthesisWater cycleNitrogen cycleBoth 3&4
37 21. How does the Earth’s atmosphere pressures change with elevation (or altitude)? Earth’s gravity makes the atmosphere pressure at the ground high. Earth’s atmosphere becomes less dense creating less pressure with increasing elevation.Less Dense – less moleculesIncreasingElevation(Altitude)More Dense more molecules
43 Radiant Energy (light) from the Sun has short wavelengths because the sun is hot. Visible Waves
44 The sun provides the most radiant energy than any other source. Radiant Energy (light) from the Sun has short wavelengths because the sun is hot.Visible Waves
45 Radiant Energy released by Earth has longer wavelengths (infrared waves-heat). Short WavelengthLong WavelengthInfrared Waves
46 22. Which of the following provides the most radiant energy for the world? a. Sunb. moonc. nuclear energyd. geothermal energy
47 23. Which of the following has a shorter wavelength? 1. Radiation from the sun (visible light) or2. Infrared radiation released by earth
48 What happens to incoming radiant energy as it travels through the atmosphere? Radiant Energy (light) from the Sun is absorbed, reflected, or re-radiated back to space.
49 What happens to incoming radiant energy as it travels through the atmosphere? Radiant Energy (light) from the Sun is absorbed, reflected, or re-radiated back to space.24. What is the total percentageof radiant solar energy reflected back clouds?25. What is the total percentageof radiant energy absorbed by the atmosphere and clouds?26. What is the total percentage of radiant energy absorbed by the surface (land and water)?
50 24. If the earth absorbs more radiant energy than it reflects back into space, what is the effect.? Temperature will decrease (cooler)Temperature will increase (warmer)No change
51 25. If the earth reflects more radiant energy than it absorbs, what is the effect.? Temperature will decrease (cooler)Temperature will increase (warmer)No change
53 The Greenhouse Effect: is a process by which thermal radiation from a planetary surface is absorbed by atmospheric greenhouse gases, and is re-radiated in all directions.
54 What are the most common Greenhouse gases? Water Vapor H2OOHCarbon Dioxide CO2COCHMethane CH4Nitrogen Oxide NONO
55 The greenhouse gases that absorb the most radiation are? Water Vapor H2OCarbon Dioxide CO2COMethane CH4CHNitrogen Oxide NONO
56 26. Which of the following would cause the most absorption of radiation, creating an increase in temperature?methaneNitrous oxideWater vapor and carbon dioxide
57 Radiant Energy released by Earth has longer wavelengths (infrared waves-heat). These are the waves involved in the Greenhouse effect.Short WavelengthLong WavelengthInfrared Waves
58 Visible light passes through from the sun but … COCHNOVisible light passes through from the sun but …Infrared radiation emitted back by the earth is absorbed by the greenhouse gases.OHCHOHNOCOThis is the Greenhouse Effect!!!
59 27. What type of radiation is involved in the absorbing of greenhouse gases in the greenhouse effect?X-ray radiationUltra violetVisible lightInfrared radiation
60 28. Which of the following would cause an increase in temperature? Reflection of gasesAbsorption of gases
61 Infrared Radiation is the one!!! 29. Which of the following radiations is not involved in the absorption of greenhouse gases in the greenhouse effect?Infrared Radiation is the one!!!X-ray radiationGamma radiationVisible lightAll of the above
63 Greenhouse EffectWe need the greenhouse effect to stay warm here on earth, but too much of a good thing is a problem!Becoming too warm around the world (global warming) can affect global and regional weather patterns
64 Putting more gases like carbon dioxide CO2, methane CH4, water vapor H2O, and pollutants in the air can absorb more and more infrared waves and make it warmer on Earth.How are we humans putting more greenhouse gases into the atmosphere?
65 Activities that Release Carbon Dioxide into the Atmosphere Clearing ForestsAny type of burning produces carbon dioxide!
66 30. Which of the following radiations is not involved in the absorption of greenhouse gases in the greenhouse effect?X-ray radiationGamma radiationVisible lightAll of the above
67 31. What are CFCs and what do they do? CFCs or Chlorofluorohydrocarbons are pollutants found in aerosol sprays and refrigerants such as refrigerators and air conditioners. The CFC’s destroy the Ozone layer, allowing in dangerous ultraviolet radiation.
68 2 O3 → 3 O2 32. Why is the stratospheric ozone layer important? Stratospheric Ozone (O3) blocks harmful UV radiation by absorbing it and converting to O2.UVlight2 O3 → 3 O2Reacts with other lightand is restored to O3
69 Methane CH4 is released into the atmosphere by outgassing cows… Methane Gas4So many cows living on our planet are creating the greenhouse gas methane
70 The warmer the earth gets because of greenhouse gases, the more evaporation, and more water vapor (Greenhouse gas)WaterVaporWaterVaporMore Heat = More EvaporationWater Vapor, H20 is released into the atmosphere by increased evaporation.
71 Is there a way we can get the same amount of energy but release less carbon dioxide into the air?
74 33. What is causing global warming? Humans are increasing the amount of greenhouse gases, specifically Carbon Dioxide (CO2). This is causing earth to heat up.
75 34. What effect are humans and industrialization having on the atmosphere? Humans are increasing the amount of greenhouse gases, and damaging the stratospheric ozone layer. In addition we are poisoning the air we breathe.
76 35. What is a temperature inversion and how does it affect air pollution? A temperature inversion is when hot air is trapped by cold air above and below it. This traps pollution below it.
78 It’s not like I can just take my coat off and come live in the desert…I see how it is…you are too busy texting while you destroy my home.Stop putting so many greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. You are ruining our “homes”
79 Go back to sleep; I guess The Greenhouse EffectIs not your problem.
83 Venus and Mars have it too! Yup! The greenhouse effect is not just found on Earth!!!Venus and Mars have it too!
84 -Venus has a thick atmosphere with lots of greenhouse gases *Carbon Dioxide*Water Vapor*Methane*Nitrogen Oxide-So it is much hotter on Venus than on Earth
85 -Mars has a thin atmosphere with almost no greenhouse gases -So during the day it is veryand at night it’s very
86 37. Which planet has a greater greenhouse effect? Venus, Mars, or Earth.
87 But why doesn’t it get really really hot during the day and really really cold at night here on Earth?
88 The trapped arrows represent the Greenhouse Effect Because of the Greenhouse Effect which naturally warms the lower part of the earth earth.The trapped arrows represent the Greenhouse EffectGreenhouse gases absorb infrared (heat) energy from the Sun making the atmosphere warmer.