Presentation on theme: "CST Review Standard 4 Energy enters the Earth system primarily as solar radiation and eventually escapes as heat. a.Know the relative amount of incoming."— Presentation transcript:
CST Review Standard 4 Energy enters the Earth system primarily as solar radiation and eventually escapes as heat. a.Know the relative amount of incoming solar energy compared with Earths internal energy and the energy used by society. b.Know the fate of incoming solar radiation in terms of reflection, absorption, and photosynthesis. c.Know the different atmospheric gases that absorb the earths thermal radiation and the mechanism and significance of the greenhouse effect. d.Students know the differing greenhouse conditions on Earth, Mars, and Venus; the origins of those conditions; and the climate consequences of each.
The Early Atmosphere
1. How do we know about the atmospheres history? Scientists look at the rock and fossil record. Core SamplesFossils
2. What happened to Earths very first atmosphere? The early atmosphere was blown away by the Solar Wind, weak gravity, and weak EM field.
3. What caused the earths atmosphere to form? Volcanoes appeared as earth became solid, and began Outgassing.
4. What was earths first atmospheres composition? Methane (CH 4 ), Ammonia (NH 3 ), plus small quantities of water vapor (H 2 0). Asteroids and comets bombarded earth. Asteroids and comets bombarded earth.
5. What is Outgassing? The term Outgassing is important because it represents The gases that came out of the volcanoes about 2.5 Billion years ago. The atmosphere formed from these Gases. Asteroids and comets bombarded earth.
6. Since we had no plants as we know them today, what primitive plants are responsible for photosynthesis during the earths early atmosphere? Primitive plants such as cyanobacteria.
Cyanobacteria is a primitive plant responsible for photosynthesis during earths early atmosphere; producing oxygen.
7. What produced the oxygen we have today? The process of photosynthesis.
8. What does photosynthesis produce? Oxygen and Glucose ( also known as a carbohydrate ).
Photosynthesis… TO MAKE THIS AKA: Carbohydrate NEEDS THIS
9. What does photosynthesis require to make oxygen and glucose? Plants + Sunglight + Carbon dioxide + Water.
Photosynthesis… TO MAKE THIS AKA: Carbohydrate NEEDS THIS
In a nutshell OUTGASSING is important because…. It played a big role in the formation of the atmosphere as we have it today because the volcanoes produced the outgassing which included the carbon dioxide, CO 2. The cyanobacteria then Produced oxygen through photosynthesis and Freed up the oxygen from here
Finally the Atmosphere was born and here she is…a beautiful, stable, amount of gases that allow you to breathe and live…78%N, 21% O 2, and 1% Ar, CO 2…
The Atmosphere Today
9. What is the atmospheres current composition? Do you remember the percentages?
10. What is of the following is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere. 1. oxygen 2. nitrogen 3. argon 4. water vapor
11. Life was not possible in the early atmosphere because one of the following gases was missing. 1. oxygen 2. nitrogen 3. argon 4. water vapor
12. Approx. how long ago did this atmosphere begin to form? billion years ago billion years ago million years ago billion years ago
13. Which of the following processes was used To make the first oxygen? 1. Respiration 2. Photosynthesis 3.Water cycle 4.Nitrogen cycle
14. What is another name for glucose? 1. A type of sugar 2. A carbohydrate 3.A protein 4.Both 1 and 2
15. Which of the following processes produces oxygen as a byproduct? 1. Respiration 2. Photosynthesis 3.Water cycle 4.Nitrogen cycle
16. Which of the following processes was not involved in producing oxygen? 1. Outgassing 2. Photosynthesis 3.Water cycle 4.Nitrogen cycle 5.Both 3&4
How we learn about the Atmosphere
17. How do Scientist learn about the atmosphere? Kites, Weather balloon experiments, Airplanes and rockets and satellites. Weather balloons Satellites Airplanes
The Atmospheric Layers Today
18. What are the layers of the atmosphere? Troposphere Stratosphere Mesosphere Thermosphere AKA: Ionosphere
19. How are the atmospheric layers divided up? By temperature gradient. Cooling with altitude Warming with altitude Cooling with altitude Warming with altitude
20. Which layer is the coldest? Mesosphere. Cooling with altitude Warming with altitude Cooling with altitude Warming with altitude
17. Which layer is the hottest? Thermosphere. Cooling with altitude Warming with altitude Cooling with altitude Warming with altitude
18. Which layer contains the ozone layer? Stratosphere. Cooling with altitude Warming with altitude Cooling with altitude Warming with altitude
19. Why is the troposphere important? The Troposphere is the only layer that supports life. It is the only layer with water vapor and weather.
20. Why is the Stratosphere important? The Stratosphere screens out much of the high energy EM Spectrum. Specifically UV (ultraviolet) in the Ozone Layer. Ozone Layer
Pressure in the Atmosphere
21. How does the Earths atmosphere pressures change with elevation (or altitude)? Earths gravity makes the atmosphere pressure at the ground high. Earths atmosphere becomes less dense creating less pressure with increasing elevation. More Dense more molecules Less Dense – less molecules Increasing Elevation (Altitude)
The Greenhouse Effect
Every object releases electromagnetic radiation! Our eyes see visible waves. But all objects give off infrared waves as heat, we just cant see them except with special lenses.
Animals and humans release infrared radiation.
Even non-living things like houses give off infrare d radiation.
The Earth releases infrared heat too!
Radiant Energy (light) from the Sun has short wavelengths because the sun is hot. Visible Waves
Radiant Energy (light) from the Sun has short wavelengths because the sun is hot. The sun provides the most radiant energy than any other source. Visible Waves
Radiant Energy released by Earth has longer wavelengths (infrared waves-heat). Infrared Waves Short Wavelength Long Wavelength
22. Which of the following provides the most radiant energy for the world? a. Sun b. moon c. nuclear energy d. geothermal energy
23. Which of the following has a shorter wavelength? 1. Radiation from the sun (visible light) or 2. Infrared radiation released by earth
Radiant Energy (light) from the Sun is absorbed, reflected, or re-radiated back to space. What happens to incoming radiant energy as it travels through the atmosphere?
Radiant Energy (light) from the Sun is absorbed, reflected, or re-radiated back to space. What happens to incoming radiant energy as it travels through the atmosphere? 24. What is the total percentage of radiant solar energy reflected back clouds? 25. What is the total percentage of radiant energy absorbed by the atmosphere and clouds? 26. What is the total percentage of radiant energy absorbed by the surface (land and water)?
24. If the earth absorbs more radiant energy than it reflects back into space, what is the effect.? a.Temperature will decrease (cooler) b.Temperature will increase (warmer) c.No change
25. If the earth reflects more radiant energy than it absorbs, what is the effect.? a.Temperature will decrease (cooler) b.Temperature will increase (warmer) c.No change
The Greenhouse Effect: The greenhouse effect is a process by which thermal radiation from a planetary surface is absorbed by atmospheric greenhouse gases, and is re- radiated in all directions.
O HH C H H H H N O COO CO 2 Carbon Dioxide CO 2 H 2 O Water Vapor H 2 O NO Nitrogen Oxide NO CH 4 Methane CH 4 What are the most common Greenhouse gases?
O HH C H H H H N O COO CO 2 Carbon Dioxide CO 2 H 2 O Water Vapor H 2 O NO Nitrogen Oxide NO CH 4 Methane CH 4 The greenhouse gases that absorb the most radiation are?
26. Which of the following would cause the most absorption of radiation, creating an increase in temperature? a.methane b.Nitrous oxide c.Water vapor and carbon dioxide
Radiant Energy released by Earth has longer wavelengths (infrared waves-heat). These are the waves involved in the Greenhouse effect. Infrared Waves Short Wavelength Long Wavelength
Visible light passes through from the sun but … Infrared radiation emitted back by the earth is absorbed by the greenhouse gases. O HH O HH N O C H H H H C H H H H N O COOCOO This is the Greenhouse Effect!!!
27. What type of radiation is involved in the absorbing of greenhouse gases in the greenhouse effect? a.X-ray radiation b.Ultra violet c.Visible light d.Infrared radiation
28. Which of the following would cause an increase in temperature? a.Reflection of gases b.Absorption of gases
29. Which of the following radiations is not involved in the absorption of greenhouse gases in the greenhouse effect? a.X-ray radiation b.Gamma radiation c.Visible light d.All of the above Infrared Radiatio n is the one!!!
Human Activities Effect on the Atmosphere
Greenhouse Effect We need the greenhouse effect to stay warm here on earth, but too much of a good thing is a problem! Becoming too warm around the world (global warming) can affect global and regional weather patterns
Putting more gases like carbon dioxide CO2, methane CH4, water vapor H2O, and pollutants in the air can absorb more and more infrared waves and make it warmer on Earth. How are we humans putting more greenhouse gases into the atmosphere?
Activities that Release Carbon Dioxide into the Atmosphere Any type of burning produces carbon dioxide! Clearing Forests
30. Which of the following radiations is not involved in the absorption of greenhouse gases in the greenhouse effect? a.X-ray radiation b.Gamma radiation c.Visible light d.All of the above
31. What are CFCs and what do they do? CFCs or Chlorofluorohydrocarbons are pollutants found in aerosol sprays and refrigerants such as refrigerators and air conditioners. The CFCs destroy the Ozone layer, allowing in dangerous ultraviolet radiation.
32. Why is the stratospheric ozone layer important? Stratospheric Ozone (O3) blocks harmful UV radiation by absorbing it and converting to O 2. 2 O 3 3 O 2 UV light Reacts with other light and is restored to O3
Methane CH4 is released into the atmosphere by outgassing cows… CH4 CH Methane Gas So many cows living on our planet are creating the greenhouse gas methane 4
Water Vapor, H 2 0 is released into the atmosphere by increased evaporation. Water Vapor More Heat = More Evaporation Water Vapor The warmer the earth gets because of greenhouse gases, the more evaporation, and more water vapor (Greenhouse gas)
Is there a way we can get the same amount of energy but release less carbon dioxide into the air?
Look at the dependence on fossil fuels!
Look at where we need to cut back!
33. What is causing global warming? Humans are increasing the amount of greenhouse gases, specifically Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ). This is causing earth to heat up.
34. What effect are humans and industrialization having on the atmosphere? Humans are increasing the amount of greenhouse gases, and damaging the stratospheric ozone layer. In addition we are poisoning the air we breathe.
35. What is a temperature inversion and how does it affect air pollution? A temperature inversion is when hot air is trapped by cold air above and below it. This traps pollution below it.
Proof: North Pole Ice Caps Melting
Stop putting so many greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. You are ruining our homes Its not like I can just take my coat off and come live in the desert…I see how it is…you are too busy texting while you destroy my home.
Go back to sleep; I guess The Greenhouse Effect Is not your problem.
What about me????
36. Why is our effect on the atmosphere important? The atmosphere is very thin, and delicate. It is also very necessary for life, if we destroy it we will die.
Do other Planets have a Greenhouse Effect?
Yup! The greenhouse effect is not just found on Earth!!! Venus and Mars have it too!
- Venus has a thick atmosphere with lots of greenhouse gases - So it is much hotter on Venus than on Earth *Methane *Water Vapor *Nitrogen Oxide *Carbon Dioxide
- Mars has a thin atmosphere with almost no greenhouse gases - So during the day it is very and at night its very
37. Which planet has a greater greenhouse effect? Venus, Mars, or Earth.
But why doesnt it get really really hot during the day and really really cold at night here on Earth?
Because of the Greenhouse Effect which naturally warms the lower part of the earth earth. Greenhouse gases absorb infrared (heat) energy from the Sun making the atmosphere warmer. The trapped arrows represent the Greenhouse Effect