Presentation on theme: "Escola Secundária 3EB Dr. Jorge Correia – Tavira PORTUGAL FATHER ANTÓNIO VIEIRAS 4th CENTENARY Class: 11º C1 Teachers: Ana Cristina Matias Graça Moreira."— Presentation transcript:
Escola Secundária 3EB Dr. Jorge Correia – Tavira PORTUGAL FATHER ANTÓNIO VIEIRAS 4th CENTENARY Class: 11º C1 Teachers: Ana Cristina Matias Graça Moreira School Year: 2008/2009
Europe in the 17th century, Vieiras century * Famine * War * Plague In the 17th century, hunger, war and plague once again devastated Europe. This century was known as a century of hard times and difficulties. But, there were many outstanding men :
John Milton (1608 - 1674) John Milton, member of the English classicism, is the famous author of Lost Paradise, one of the most important epic poems of the universal literature. He was a politician, a play writer and a religion scholar.
Torricelli Torricellis study of Two New Sciences, by Galileo (1683), made him develop the mechanical principles there presented, which he published in De Motu (included in his Opera geometrica, 1644). When, in 1641, his friend Castelli sent to Galileo Torrecellis book, along with a message saying they should work together, Torricelli went to Florence, where he met Galileo.
Isaac Newton Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica is considered one of the most influential works in the History of Science. Published in 1687, this book describes the law of universal gravitation and the three laws of Newton, on which the classical mechanics was founded.
Peter I from Russia Peter (1672-1725), the Great, was a Russian tsar, and the first emperor of the Russian Empire. He ruled from 1682 to 1725. He was important in the modernization and westernization of Russia. Students: João Correia and Sérgio Santos
António Vieira A Jesuit priest ( 1608 – 1697), defender of the human rights, famous preacher and a great Portuguese writer.
1637 – Manuelinhos rebellion, in Évora The Manuelinhos rebellion was a movement which started in Évora, on 21 August 1637, and it rapidly spread to other parts of the kingdom. Vieiras century 17 th century PORTUGAL The intention of this rebellion was to defeat the hated Spanish Philippine Dynasty, which had been ruling Portugal since 1580.
1640 – Portugal regains its independence The Restoration of the Independence is the name given to the uprising on 1 December 1640 against the Spanish Philippine Dynasty. A Portuguese dynasty, known as the House of Braganza, inherits the throne. King John IV is the new king.
1657 – King John IV dies King John IV died in Lisbon on 6 December 1656 and was buried in the Monastery of S. Vicente de Fora. The kingdom was not in absolute safety, but it was already strong enough to overcome the crisis. King Alfonso VI, his second child, ascended to the throne. However, due to his mental instability, Peter II was appointed regent of the kingdom in 1668. Years later, Peter II was King of Portugal from 1683 until his death in 1706. King Alfonso VI King Peter II
After the independence in 1640, a war broke out against Spain. The peace treaty was only signed in 1668. 1668 – Peace treaty between Portugal and Spain Students: José Ramos, Mariana Morais and Rui Vale
Father António Vieira 1608: Vieira was born on 6 February, in Lisbon. Lisbon in the 17th century
1614: At he age of six, Vieira went with his family to Brazil. There his father was the main office clerk of the district of Bahia.
1623: Vieira attends the School run by the Jesuit Society in Bahia and decides to become a priest. Bahia, in the 17th century
1624: The Dutch took possession of Bahia and the Jesuits, including Vieira, have to flee to the hinterland of Brazil. 1626: Vieira is now a teacher of Rhetoric (oratory) in Olinda, a town in Brazil. Church, in Olinda, Pernambuco, Brazil
1633: Vieira delivers his first speech in Bahia. 1635: Vieira is now a priest, a Master of Arts and a gospel preacher. 1638: In this, and in the following years, Vieira delivers some of his most famous sermons: Sermon of the second Sunday before Lent ; Sermon of the Slaves; Saint Anthonys Sermon to the Fish. Students: André Caetano and Clayton Soares
Father António Vieira – his first stay in Europe (1641-1651) After the Restoration of the Portuguese Independence (1640), Vieira returned to Lisbon initiating a diplomatic career. His mission was to assure Brazils obedience to the new King, John IV. Due to his wit and good preaching skills, he gained the confidence of King John IV and was nominated the royal preacher.
Due to his diplomatic career, in 1646, Vieira goes to Holland, and, in the following year, to France. As an ambassador, his goal was to negotiate with the Dutch the possession of the northeast of Brazil. Vieira was in favour of the New Christians (Jews converted to Christianity) and wanted them to give financial support to the Portuguese crown, but the Inquisition opposed him fiercely. However, he managed to establish the Brazilian Commercial Company. Students: Fábio Vitória and Tiago Silva
Father António Vieiras second stay in Brazil Portugal didnt value Father António Vieiras preaching, mainly because he was in favour of the Jews. So, he decided to leave Portugal and returned to Brazil where he stayed from 1652 until 1661.
Vieiras life in Brazil In1652, Vieira goes to Maranhão, Brazil, as a missionary; In 1654, he preaches a very famous Portuguese sermon: Saint Anthonys sermon to the fish (Sermão de Santo António aos Peixes); By then, he came to Lisbon to get new laws favourable to the Indians.
In 1665, back in Lisbon, Vieira delivers, among others, the Sermon of the second Sunday before Lent ("Sermão da Sexagésima) and returns to Maranhão with the new laws; In 1659, he wrote Hopes of Portugal- the V Empire of the World in which he presents prophetic thesis. In 1661, Vieira and the other Jesuits are expelled from Maranhão, Brazil. Bárbara Ferreira e Marta Gonçalves, 11º C1 Students: Bárbara Ferreira and Marta Gonçalves
Father António Vieiras second stay in Europe By the year 1661, Vieira was expelled from Brazil and came back to Portugal. At first, he was welcomed At first, he was welcomed by the regent queen Luiza Gusmão at the Portuguese court. But, he gained enemies and had to move to Oporto.
Vieira became a defender of the Jews and the New Christians and was arrested by the Inquisition. He was in prison for 26 months.
After having been released, Vieira moved to Rome, capital of the Catholicism. He was in charge of some issues regarding the Society of After having been released, Vieira moved to Rome, capital of the Catholicism. He was in charge of some issues regarding the Society of Jesus, he was invited to preach before the College of Cardinals, and became confessor to Queen Christina of Sweden and a member of her literary academy.
A Portuguese delegation arrived in Rome and told Vieira that King Peter II wanted him back in Portugal. So, by 1675, he was liberated from the accusations that came from the Portuguese Inquisition and his work was no longer censured.
In August 1675, Vieira moved back to Lisbon, where he lived for five years. By 1680 he went back to Brazil. Students: Adelina Patraus and Bernardo Faria
Father António Vieira returns to Brazil In Brazil for the last time
The return Father António Vieira decided to return again to Brazil, so he left Lisbon in 1681 and travelled by boat. There, he dedicated himself to the task of carrying on writing, aiming to complete the edition in 16 volumes of his sermons, which he had started in 1679. He also wanted to complete Clavis Prophetarum, book of prophecies that he never managed to end.
Up till then, he had written about 500 letters, which were published in three volumes. His writings began to be published in Europe, where they were praised by the Inquisition. Already elderly and ill, he began sending the same letter to all his correspondents telling them about his health condition in order to keep up his vast correspondence.
By 1694 he was no longer able to write by his own hand. On June 10 his agony began, he lost his voice, and his speeches were silenced. António Vieira died on 18 July 1697, in the city of Salvador, Bahia. He was 89 years old. Students: Daniela and Rui Encarnação
Escola Secundária 3EB Dr. Jorge Correia – Tavira PORTUGAL FATHER ANTÓNIO VIEIRAS 4th CENTENARY Music: Sarabande, by Haendel School Year: 2008/2009