2 The World of Arbin Fuel Cells Hardware Engineering Batteries TechnologySoftwareSupercapacitorsService
3 OrganizationHeadquarters and Production Facility in College Station, TXArbin Offices in Korea and ChinaArbin Service Centers in Germany and CanadaArbin Representative Offices in France, Spain, Turkey, India, Israel, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, TaiwanTruly Worldwide Organization and Support Structure
4 Energy Conversion Devices Primary BatterySecondary BatteryFuel CellSupercapacitorFlywheelSolar CellDC MotorsElectric VehicleHybrid Electric Vehicle
5 Applications Aerospace Automotive Consumer Electronics Marine Medical MilitaryTelecommunicationsTransportationPower Generation
6 Battery Testing Multiple Independent Channels Automated Charge and Discharge Systems for All Battery Types and ChemistriesWide Range of Current, Voltage, and Power for Testing Single Cells up to Large PacksPotentiostatic and Galvanostatic OperationUp to 3000A, 800V
7 Electric Vehicle Testing Life Cycle Test: Charge/Discharge CyclingESR MeasurementLeakage Current MeasurementFast Rise TimeFast Data CollectionSimulation controlThermal Performance Test (temperature chamber interface)Power up to 25 kW3 current ranges/2 voltage ranges
8 Fuel Cell Fully Automated Cell and Stack Testing <1W up to 200kW Gas HandlingComplete Temperature and Pressure ControlProgrammable Electronic LoadStack Cooling/HeatingDPH Humidification TechnologyExhaust Gas HandlingAuxiliary Measurements
9 Plug & Play Modularization Easy installationEasy serviceEasy upgradeEasy expansionFlexible custom design with standard modulesCompact size: 20% ~ 80% decrease from conventional designHigh power densityHigher reliabilityCurrent Range CardFour Channel Board
10 Main I/V FeaturesOptional high and slow speed pulse with synchronized DAQ. MITS Pro, can generate high speed (sub-millisecond) bipolar pulses as fast as 500us and synchronized data sampling on linear circuitryDC internal resistance. Online measurement of cell’s DC ohmic resistance.Bipolar current/voltage output guarantees cross zero linearity and accuracy. Enables instant cross zero transition with the speed defined by the rise time.Voltage clamp to protect from over- or under- charge/discharge.I/V channel paralleling. This option allows users to parallel several I/V channels to increase current output.Programmable control of current, voltage, load and power; providing constant, linear ramp, staircase and other control profiles, generated by a specified formula.Independent control for each channel.High accuracy to 0.1% FSR control and reading accuracy of current or voltage on linear circuitry and 0.25% FSR accuracy on PWM circuitry.Multiple current ranges on every channel provides high accuracy over a wide, dynamic range.Fast current rise time from 50ms to 2ms on linear circuitry; 10~100ms on PWM circuitry.
11 with Multiple Current Ranges High Accuracywith Multiple Current RangesLow rangeMedium rangeHigh rangeLog(ABS I )10A1A10mA1mA10uA-10mALog I (A)10mA10 A-10 A-1mA-Log I (A)10 V5 VThree Current Ranges(±10A/±100mA/ ±1mA,)Single Current Range(±10A, 2 V ~10 V)Up to three current ranges and two voltage ranges0.02% full scale accuracy
12 Fast Rise Time and Bipolar Bipolar control without zero crossing dead zone (current and voltage)Guarantees cross zero linearityAdvantage over other products on the market, which can not apply or control desired value when current or voltage is close to zero, such as within 2% of the maximum current.Reverse Charge Technique
13 Voltage Clamp High voltage clamp CV CC Low voltage clamp A maximum voltage limit on charging or minimum voltage limit on discharging are applied through hardwareAs it is a hardware function, voltages can not exceed these limits even if software hangs up or communication is lost
15 IR measurements I0 - the current in the testing step, I1 - the current setting for IR measurementResulted IR value is based on the averages over ten generated pulsesThe width of each pulse is of 1.0 ms.
16 Option: SimulationI or VtimeOriginal profileSimulated profileThis operation is used to simulate the load profile of a complex application, suchas a power tool or electric vehicle where programming profile would be difficultVoltage, Current or Power profiles can be simulatedResponse Time: 250 ms1. Convert real time data to Notepad or Excel file, (Excel is better)2. Enable ‘simulation control’3. Depending on the type of machine, both V and I, or V only, or I only profiles can be conducted for simulation operation.
18 High Speed Pulse Option User-Defined Pulse SpecificationsMinimum pulse stage width500 sMinimum pulse stage increment width50 sMaximum total pulse stage10Maximum total pulse length3 sMaximum data sampling speedOne pulse every 15 s
19 Optional AuxiliariesAuxiliary Voltage Input: Usually a floating ±10V or 0-20V range with 10GOhm input impedanceThermocouple Input: Type T, K, J, EThermistor Input: Provides activation signal for the thermistorPressure Input: Provides activation signal to the pressure transducerpH meter: A BNC connector is provided for input from the pH sensorExternal Charge/Load Adapter: This option is to test a battery under a specific charger/load or to test the charger/load. It connects the battery under test to an external charger or load.Smart Battery: The BT2000 reads information from a smart battery and tests the smart battery accordinglyFlow Rate Input: Reads data from the gas or liquid flow meter into data fileProgrammable Digital Input/Output Control: Input control provides external TTL or relay signal to control the testing while output control provides TTL or isolated relay output to trigger external devices such as valves or alarm.
20 Optional UtilitiesAC Impedance Measurement to achieve certain accuracy (± 5~6% of value) of the cell’s AC impedance.Auto-Calibration allows for automatic calibration of the main I/V channels and auxiliary inputs for higher number-of-channel systemsUninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) protects against computer shutdown in the event of power failure. Arbin recommends a UPS for the system’s protection.Software can control multiple Temperature Chambers which are added to the system to provide environmental control around tested cell/battery.Temperature chamber or device controller to control Arbin temperature chamber or other brands of temperature chamber.Mass flow or metering pump controller to deliver required flow rate set in the testing schedule and record flow rate data in a data file.Combustible or toxic gas detector and alarm.
22 1.3. Scheduling and Operation on BT2000 Series Load Test BatchClick ’launch’to get monitor &control window on ArbinSys.bthor right click a ‘*.bth’ to launchit onto ArbinSys.bthCreate Schedule 1CH. 2Unit 1CH. 3Create Schedule 2Unit 2Aux.Mapping, V clamp& Math filterMITSPro windowCreate Schedule nCH. nSchedule windowBatch windowRunning Test BatchHighlight channels in M&C windowCheck hardware connectionClick the ‘start channel’After while, ‘graph view’Stop or Resume ChannelHighlight only channels to be effected onClick the ‘stop channel’ orthe ‘resume channel’View & Print GraphClick ‘Excel’ button,Select ‘Arbin data’,then, ‘Arbin plot’Only 1 running batch file, reasons to make batch file- Map Different Auxiliaries- Do next weeks work ahead of timeMonitor & Control windowYesStopchannel?MITSPro windowMonitor & Control windowNoS1.3.1
23 Schedule Editing, Control Types (3)(1)Slope (2)ConstantRamp(1)ttSAFOR: ± I, VLBT: ± I, W, PBT: - I, W, BT2000: ± I, V, W, SAFOR: N/ALBT: ± IPBT: - IBT2000: ± I, VI -- CurrentV -- VoltageW -- Power -- Loadwidth of stair(3)t(4)StaircaseFormula(2) height of stair(1)tSAFOR: N/ALBT: ± IPBT: - IBT2000: ± I, VFormula, up to 8 parameters,4 functions and 1 operatoronly applied on BT2000S1.3.4
24 Schedule Editing1234Green Lines are commandsYellow lines when its done and how to log data1. Control type Control value Termination condition 4. Data collection condition
25 Schedule Editing Control Types 1. ‘Voltage’/‘Current’ Control, and ‘Voltage Clamp’2. ‘Power’ Control: ( related application, operation sequence and initial status of the battery)W = V x I (watt)3. ‘Load’ Control: ( related application, operation sequence and initial status of the battery)R = V / I (ohm)4. ‘C-rate’ Control: (same type, different size, and + charge, - discharge)You must enter the capacity of the battery in the batch fileC-Rate calculates the correct current for charge/discharge5. ‘Rest’ Control: ( set as first step to check external connection and initial status of the battery)No Current, Just reading the voltage.6. ‘Internal Resistance’7. ‘AC Impedance’ Measurement, (optional)8. ‘External Charge’ Control: (optional)No control for external power supply, reading I & V9. ‘Voltage or Current Simulation’: (optional) simulate the charge or discharge profile of special load, such as the power tool.Clamp – commonly used for protection circuits to limit machines output voltage and keep it from damaging circuit.Power and Load are simulated, i.e. we measure the Voltage and then apply the appropriate amount of current to get the desired output.S1.3.5
26 Schedule Editing Step Limit Conditions 1. Time Limits. 6 different timers2. Voltage Limit.3. Current Limit.4. ‘Capacity’ or ‘Energy’ Limits. (AH or WH)5. ‘Factor of Capacity or Energy’ Limit (FC): Formula6. ‘Change of the Voltage or the Current’ Limit (dV or dI):i.e.V- Vmax, Formula7. ‘Voltage or Current Rate’ Limit (dV/dt or dI/dt)8. Step Index. Control test based on another channel.9. Digital Inputs: to control testing by external on/off signal.10. Internal Resistance.11. Auxiliary Value and Differential Limits,2nd voltage, Temperature, Pressure, pH, & Flow rate12. A variety of combinations through ‘And’ conditions, formulae, and meta-variables.Time Limits: Test, step, TC-Count 1 thru 4Voltage Limits: Ending a test based on a cutoff VoltageCurrent Limit: Ending a test based on a cutoff CurrentCapacity and Energy Limits: Using calculated capacity/energy to manipulate testsFactor Capacity / Energy: Use a formula, 80% * Nominal_Capacity, to influence testingVoltage or Current Rate: use dV/dt or dI/dt to influence testingStep Index: Use another channels input to influence testingDigital Inputs: If you have Digital I/O ports, you can use those to influence a testAuxiliaries: Using Auxiliaries to influence the test or tell the system to go unsaveNote: Is formulae really the plural of Formula?S1.3.17
27 Schedule Editing Log Limit Conditions 1. Time Interval tLog a data point every t2. Voltage Difference VWhen the voltage difference from the last logged data point reaches V, a new data point will be logged.3. Current Difference IWhen the current difference from the last logged data point reaches I, a new data point will be logged.Can use multiple log conditions,Current Control – DT, DVVoltage Control – DT, DIAlmost always >= used in software. Otherwise you could log data uncontrollablyS1.3.19
28 Virtual Mapping:Traditionally, auxiliary inputs are dedicated to a main channel. As a result, many auxiliary inputs will be needed for every possible usage on every channel.Virtual mapping enable user to assign any single or group of auxiliary inputs to any main I/V channel. Any auxiliary input can also be assigned to several main I/V channels.As result, only small number of input channels may serve for large number of main channels and can be more creative and more flexible in the application
30 Specific functions1. Using Simulation Control, the user programs a 1 step schedule that tells the Arbin system to control current, voltage, or power based on a text file. In the text file is simply data about current, voltage, power vs. time. The Arbin system will apply the current (or voltage or power) profile according to the data in the text file.2. Formula feature: Software should allow the user to control a test using variables rather than concrete control values (for example, instead of using 4.2V for control, the system should be able to use “Last Step Maximum Voltage” as the control type for the following step. It must also be possible to use these variables in a formula to control the system (For example, “Stop the charge step when FORMULA A falls below -0.1 where FORMULA A = PRESENT CHANNEL VOLTAGE – MAXIMUM CHANNEL VOLTAGE)…..or something. Formulas should have: ABS, COS, ACOS, SIN, ASIN, TAN, ATAN, CEILING, CUBIC, EXP, EVEN, FACTOR, FLOOR, INT, LN, LOG10, ODD, RANDOM, SIGN, SQUARE, SQRT, and TRUNCATE function commands in addition to the normal operators (+ - * /).3. C-Rate: It should be possible to program test profiles using C-RATE so that a single test schedule many be performed on different sizes of batteries. The user programs the schedule based on C-RATE and then when assigning that test schedule to the channel the test will be performed on, they also enter the capacity of the battery that the schedule will be assigned to.This prevents the customer from having to write a different schedule for every size battery they use when the test that they are performing is the same except for current values.4. On-the-fly test schedule modification: The user should be able to make modifications to the test schedule while the test is currently running – without stopping or pausing the test. Changes are applied immediately upon saving the schedule.For example, you write a test schedule and run it on a battery. While monitoring the data real time, you notice that the current value you programmed should actually be a different value. With the test running, you simply open the schedule and change the current value. You then save the schedule and the change is applied instantly to the running test.
31 Specific functions5. System should have the following control types (standard):Constant Current – user sets current value (or variable or function)Constant Voltage – user sets voltage value (or variable or function)C-Rate – user sets C-Rate value (Ex. C/4….)Rest (OCV)Constant Power – user sets power valueConstant Load – user sets load value (Ohms)Current Ramp – user sets starting current value and ramp rate (A/sec)Voltage Ramp – user sets starting voltage value and ramp rate (V/sec)Current Staircase – user sets starting current value, current step value, and stair time valueVoltage Staircase – user sets starting voltage value, voltage step value, and stair TimeCurrent Pulse – user defines sub-second pulse with up to 10 stages (current and time per stage). Pulse can be run once or repeated for a certain length of timeVoltage pulse - user defines sub-second pulse with up to 10 stages (voltage and time per stage). Pulse can be run once or repeated for a certain length of timeCurrent Simulation – user assigns data text file with current vs. time data – system follows data fileVoltage Simulation – user assigns data text file with voltage vs. time data – system follows data filePower Simulation – user assigns data text file with power vs. time data – system follows data fileInternal Resistance – user assigns amplitude and offset – system automatically runs DC internal resistance measurement based on current interrupt method and generates resistance value
33 Monitoring a test with MITS pro: Monitor screen is the main interface between machine and user. 4 monitor screens are provided for convenience of use.The detail view provide real time data and information, one line for each channel. It include date, time, test name, schedule name, step#, current, voltage, energy, capacity, power, load…. This is the main screen for user to quickly scan each channels information.The brief view give a glance of all channels of their status. Each channel is represented with a small square box and color codes represent status such as charge, discharge, stop…Graph view plot test curves of a number of channels for certain period of time up to the moment. It is convenient to check the test trend of several channels through this view.Channel view present all available data of one channel on one screen, including SMB data. User does not need to scroll the screen like in the detail view.
37 Partial list of customers: 3MArgon Nat’l LabAT&TBellcoreCanonCorningDaimlerChryslerDupontDuracellEnergizerEveready BatteryFMCGMIBMGM DelphiLawrence Berkeley LabMaxwell LabMonsantoMotorolaNASAOvonics BatteryPanasonicProcter&GambleRaychemSanyoSaftSchlumbergerSynergyTCLTDKUS Army Research LabHutchinsonPSAINRETSCEA grenoblePolytech’NantesBatscapNissanEADS