Presentation on theme: "Polish Sarmatian and his world in 17th century"— Presentation transcript:
1Polish Sarmatian and his world in 17th century Sharing literary and cultural referencesPolish Sarmatianand his world in 17th century
2Every nation has had its heros Every nation has had its heros. The Greek - semigods, the Roman - gladiators, the French - Roland, and the Polish - Sarmatians.
3Henryk Sienkiewicz as an author of national mythology. Henryk Sienkiewicz also known as 'Litwos' was born in 1846 in Wola Okrzejska and died in 1916, in Vevey in Switzerland. Since 1855 he lived in Warsaw where he studied medicine, law and philology in Szkoła Główna and in Russian Warsaw University
4In 1869 Sienkiewicz debuted as of a literary department. a journalist. ‘The Weekly Review’ printed his review of the play. His first novel 'Na mamę' was published in He worked for some periodicals, such as: "Przegląd Tygodniowy", "Tygodnik ilustrowany" "Niwa" and “Gazeta Polska”. In 1882 he worked with ‘Słowo’ and he was the chief editor, then he became a directorof a literary department.
5In 1905 Sienkiewicz was awarded the Noble Prize for his literary achievements.
7The historical current which was developing in literature inspired Sienkiewicz to write "The Trylogy" (“With Fire and Sword”, “The Deluge” and “Pan Wolodyjowski”). Writer's stay in United States had an crucial impact on the changes in his professional life. His meetings with political emigration and old soldiers imparted additional importance to his works.
8Sienkiewicz’s idea of historical adventure developed thanks to the end of the Civil War - the last desperate fights of Indian tribes and appearance legendary western characters.
9The writer started to accumulate materials for the novel in 1880 The writer started to accumulate materials for the novel in In the beginning it was a small size work titled “Wilcze gniazdo” fllowing a track of previous Scott’s tradition.
10Characters of the ‘Deluge’ as typical Sarmatians.
11Jan Onufry Zagłoba a fat country gentleman with a web eye and a scar on his forehead. Confabulator,braggart, scoffer.A bit coward knight,who thinks thatthe most threatening weapon is intellect. Near Białystok he got into a military commander, but he resigned authority, because he knew he didn’t have any suitable skills.
12Andrzej KmicicAndrzej Kmicic – a standar bearer, Oleńka’s fiance, Lubicz’s inheritor. He was bound with Janusz Radziwiłł. He had belived naively in Radziwill’s good intensions, he had served him in big involvement until Bogusław Radziwill showed real motivations of his family.Since then, Kmicic had changed himself into Babinicz – motherland saviour. After many adventures, he won back Oleńka’s love and respect.
13Wolodyjowski and Kmicic’s conversation about Olenka’s fellings for Kmiicic. - Skądże... to waść wiesz, że ona... mnie miłuje? – Bo mam oczy i patrzę, bo mam rozum i miarkuję; teraz zwłaszcza, gdym rekuzę dostał, zaraz mi się w głowie rozjaśniło. Naprzód tedy, gdym po pojedynku przyszedł jej powiedzieć, że jest wolna, bom waćpana usiekł, wnet ją zamroczyło i zamiast wdzięczność mi okazać, całkiem mnie spostponowała; po wtóre, gdy cię tu Domaszewicze dźwigali, to ci głowę jako matka unosiła, a po trzecie, że gdym się jej oświadczył, tak mnie przyjęła, jakby mi kto w pysk dał. Jeśli te racje panu nie wystarczają, to chyba dlatego, żeś przez rozum zacięty i na umyśle szwankujesz
15Oleńka BillewiczównaOleńka Billewiczówna – Herakliusz’s granddaughter, who acts up to her grandfather’s will. According to the will she can marry Andrzej Kmicic or go to the convent. She is a patriot, she prizes men who are brave and aren’t afraid of death. Oleńka is very religious. Unhappy first love induces her to make a decision to go to the convent, but in fact, she doesn’t do that. She is confident, brave and uncompromising.
16Jerzy Michał Wołodyjowski Jerzy Michał Wołodyjowski -called “a small knight”,an excellent soldier,always changed his lovers.He commandeddetachement from Laudaand found Oleńka, who was kidnapped by Kmicic.He won a duel with Kmicicand then he gave him helping hand. Wołodyjowski bravely fought for freedom of homeland against the Swedes.
17Sarmatism is….Sarmatism is a socially-moral movement and attitude deriving from the Polish nobility or from nomadic nation living in Poland.Embodied in the dominant lifestyle, culture and ideology of the nobility in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from the 16th to the 19th century.Baroque culture formation in Poland. It was based on the myth that Polish nobility descended from Sarmatians - ancient people who in the beggining lived between Dolna Wołga and Don.
18Who was a Sarmatian?A nobleman – Catholic pattern, a country gentleman, a knight, a traditionalist in all domains of life was an ideal for Sarmatians.They were associated witha nobleman who was proudAs well as valiantbut quarrelsomeand inclined to scrimmages.
19had a big influence in Poland. Sarmatian originAt the splendour timethe Polish gentry was looking for its ancestors and found them in ancient Sarmatian people (in fact it was Iranian nomadic folk living in Wołga’s basin). That peculiar origin was to justify that the Polish gentryhad a big influence in Poland.
20Sarmatian’s character traits VIRTUESReligiousnessPatriotismHonourValourVICESDevotionAnarchySense of superiorityReligious intolerance
21Sarmatian’s clothing The richer was the Sarmatian, the more he looked likea Turkish Sultan.Male outfitFemale outfit
22Male outfitŻupan looks like a cassock. It’s a long frock with extensive sleeves. It’s buttoned up from neck to waist. It has cuts aside too. Fabrics, which were mostly used to sew żupan, were silk, satin and velvet. In the summer men wore fine and airy żupan, but in the winter they were thick and warm. Kontusz is a type of outer garment worn by the Polish male nobility which became popular in the 17th century. The kontusz was a long robe, usually reaching below the knees, with a set of decorative buttons down the front. The sleeves were long and loose, on hot days worn untied.
23Female outfitNoblewomen wore long frocks connecting gathereda skirt at the waist with a tight bodice. Delia or kontusik was modeled on a male fashion conduced as overcoats. There were various shapes of ladies’ shoes, imitating Western European articles. Gold or silver jewellery was very popular: tiaras, necklaces, rings, brooches and pearls. Noblewoman’s attire was subject to influences by Western European fashion.
24The sword – traditional Polish gentry weapon was inseparable nobleman's attribute. It served him not only to decorate his attire,but it also served as weapon, which was used to fightor duel.Roch Kowalski's attiude,who called his sword his wife or life's companion,is evidence of enormous Polish attachmentto their weapons.
25Michał Wołodyjowski in a battle with Andrzej Kmicic.
26CustomsIn 'Potop' Henryk Sienkiewicz showed old Polish traditional nobility's feasts.The feasts were important element in those times. It was the one and only social meeting at the table.They were held for many reasonsfor example in honour of an important eventor a newly arrived guest.
27FeastingFeasts lasted long hours. Each of guests had a servant at hand. There were musicians and singers performing for the invited guests. Food was very fat, spicy and portions were abundant. Among served food was meat, fish, groats, dumplings and pasta dish with poppy. After the dinner guests drank and proposed toasts. It was common that a lot of plates and glasses were broken.
28Sarmatian funeralsFuneral rituals assumed a very wealthy form. Preparations to these ceremonies lasted a few months. In churches there were special scaffoldings built for a coffin. Religious solemnities were preceded by a procession. Funeral ceremonies lasted even four days and were concluded with a funeral feast, which had nothing in common with solemnity of the situation. It was simply transformed into a traditional feast.
29Coffin portraitsOrigins - coffin portraits are specific and absolutely original element of the Polish Sarmatian culture.Image - idealization was avoided. Resemblance to deceased was very strong and realistic. Pictures characterizes nightmarish realism, because the painter tried to present deceased like he was alive.Adaptation – it was one of the elements in Sarmatian funeral ceremony, which assumed a shape of theatrical performance.Material - the portrait was usually painted on tinny metal plate, most often in hexagon shape.
30Religion Sarmatians were very intolerant, they condemned other religions.They believed that God chosethe gentry and favoured itwith unusual love.They found themselvesas defenders andguards of faith.They believed in miracles,superstitions and magic.
31PatriotismSienkiewicz’s patriotism is presented as an unconditional homage to the king, battle of independence, Christianity, becoming fond of motherland, readiness to sacrifice your life for Poland, which seems to be tailor-made scenario of death for real patriots.
32However, the Polish's feature was self-interest However, the Polish's feature was self-interest. In Wrzeszczowicz’s opinion the Polish surrended the the Swedes only for one reason - they were promissed not to change anything in the Polish political system. Sarmatians didn’t care whom they were subordinated. They weren't patriots. To protect their state they had to be active, go to the war, loose personal property or to allot their belongings for military needs. The XVI century Sarmatians couldn't afford that.
33The Sarmatian political approach. Democracy: the law-abidingness, autonomy and free elections.The Polish political system was seen as the best in the world and the parliament as the oldest.The basis of Poland were the cardinal laws and liberum veto.Every attempt to break the law was seen as a terrible crime.
34This has been the picture of the Polish national heros This has been the picture of the Polish national heros. The positives and the negatives. Were they really heros?
35By Liceum no 18 in Szczecin, Poland. Classes: 3b, 3c, 2aCoordinators: Magorzata KujawskaIzabela SkulskaSchool year 2008/2009