Presentation on theme: "Polish Sarmatian and his world in 17th century Sharing literary and cultural references."— Presentation transcript:
Polish Sarmatian and his world in 17th century Sharing literary and cultural references
Every nation has had its heros. The Greek - semigods, the Roman - gladiators, the French - Roland, and the Polish - Sarmatians.
Henryk Sienkiewicz also known as 'Litwos' was born in 1846 in Wola Okrzejska and died in 1916, in Vevey in Switzerland. Since 1855 he lived in Warsaw where he studied medicine, law and philology in Szkoła Główna and in Russian Warsaw University Henryk Sienkiewicz as an author of national mythology.
In 1869 Sienkiewicz debuted as a journalist. The Weekly Review printed his review of the play. His first novel 'Na mamę' was published in 1872. He worked for some periodicals, such as: "Przegląd Tygodniowy", "Tygodnik ilustrowany" "Niwa" and Gazeta Polska. In 1882 he worked withSłowo and he was the chief editor, then he became a director of a literary department.
In 1905 Sienkiewicz was awarded the Noble Prize for his literary achievements.
The historical current which was developing in literature inspired Sienkiewicz to write "The Trylogy" (With Fire and Sword, The Deluge and Pan Wolodyjowski). Writer's stay in United States had an crucial impact on the changes in his professional life. His meetings with political emigration and old soldiers imparted additional importance to his works.
Sienkiewiczs idea of historical adventure developed thanks to the end of the Civil War - the last desperate fights of Indian tribes and appearance legendary western characters.
The writer started to accumulate materials for the novel in 1880. In the beginning it was a small size work titled Wilcze gniazdo fllowing a track of previous Scotts tradition.
Characters of the Deluge as typical Sarmatians.
Jan Onufry Zagłoba – a fat country gentleman with a web eye and a scar on his forehead. Confabulator, braggart, scoffer. A bit coward knight, who thinks that the most threatening weapon is intellect. Near Białystok he got into a military commander, but he resigned authority, because he knew he didnt have any suitable skills.
Andrzej Kmicic – a standar bearer, Oleńkas fiance, Lubiczs inheritor. He was bound with Janusz Radziwiłł. He had belived naively in Radziwills good intensions, he had served him in big involvement until Bogusław Radziwill showed real motivations of his family. Since then, Kmicic had changed himself into Babinicz – motherland saviour. After many adventures, he won back Oleńkas love and respect.
- Skądże... to waść wiesz, że ona... mnie miłuje? – Bo mam oczy i patrzę, bo mam rozum i miarkuję; teraz zwłaszcza, gdym rekuzę dostał, zaraz mi się w głowie rozjaśniło. Naprzód tedy, gdym po pojedynku przyszedł jej powiedzieć, że jest wolna, bom waćpana usiekł, wnet ją zamroczyło i zamiast wdzięczność mi okazać, całkiem mnie spostponowała; po wtóre, gdy cię tu Domaszewicze dźwigali, to ci głowę jako matka unosiła, a po trzecie, że gdym się jej oświadczył, tak mnie przyjęła, jakby mi kto w pysk dał. Jeśli te racje panu nie wystarczają, to chyba dlatego, żeś przez rozum zacięty i na umyśle szwankujesz Wolodyjowski and Kmicics conversation about Olenkas fellings for Kmiicic.
Oleńka Billewiczówna – Herakliuszs granddaughter, who acts up to her grandfathers will. According to the will she can marry Andrzej Kmicic or go to the convent. She is a patriot, she prizes men who are brave and arent afraid of death. Oleńka is very religious. Unhappy first love induces her to make a decision to go to the convent, but in fact, she doesnt do that. She is confident, brave and uncompromising.
Jerzy Michał Wołodyjowski - called a small knight, an excellent soldier, always changed his lovers. He commanded detachement from Lauda and found Oleńka, who was kidnapped by Kmicic. He won a duel with Kmicic and then he gave him helping hand. Wołodyjowski bravely fought for freedom of homeland against the Swedes.
Sarmatism is a socially-moral movement and attitude deriving from the Polish nobility or from nomadic nation living in Poland. Embodied in the dominant lifestyle, culture and ideology of the nobility in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from the 16th to the 19th century. Baroque culture formation in Poland. It was based on the myth that Polish nobility descended from Sarmatians - ancient people who in the beggining lived between Dolna Wołga and Don. Sarmatism is….
A nobleman – Catholic pattern, a country gentleman, a knight, a traditionalist in all domains of life was an ideal for Sarmatians. They were associated with a nobleman who was proud As well as valiant but quarrelsome and inclined to scrimmages. Who was a Sarmatian?
At the splendour time the Polish gentry was looking for its ancestors and found them in ancient Sarmatian people (in fact it was Iranian nomadic folk living in Wołgas basin). That peculiar origin was to justify that the Polish gentry had a big influence in Poland. Sarmatian origin
VIRTUES Religiousness Patriotism Honour Valour VICES Devotion Anarchy Sense of superiority Religious intolerance Sarmatians character traits
Male outfitFemale outfit The richer was the Sarmatian, the more he looked like a Turkish Sultan. Sarmatians clothing
Żupan looks like a cassock. Its a long frock with extensive sleeves. Its buttoned up from neck to waist. It has cuts aside too. Fabrics, which were mostly used to sew żupan, were silk, satin and velvet. In the summer men wore fine and airy żupan, but in the winter they were thick and warm. Kontusz is a type of outer garment worn by the Polish male nobility which became popular in the 17th century. The kontusz was a long robe, usually reaching below the knees, with a set of decorative buttons down the front. The sleeves were long and loose, on hot days worn untied. Male outfit
Noblewomen wore long frocks connecting gathered a skirt at the waist with a tight bodice. Delia or kontusik was modeled on a male fashion conduced as overcoats. There were various shapes of ladies shoes, imitating Western European articles. Gold or silver jewellery was very popular: tiaras, necklaces, rings, brooches and pearls. Noblewomans attire was subject to influences by Western European fashion. Female outfit
The sword was inseparable nobleman's attribute. It served him not only to decorate his attire, but it also served as weapon, which was used to fight or duel. Roch Kowalski's attiude, who called his sword his wife or life's companion, is evidence of enormous Polish attachment to their weapons. The sword – traditional Polish gentry weapon
Michał Wołodyjowski in a battle with Andrzej Kmicic.
In 'Potop' Henryk Sienkiewicz showed old Polish traditional nobility's feasts. The feasts were important element in those times. It was the one and only social meeting at the table. They were held for many reasons for example in honour of an important event or a newly arrived guest. Customs
Feasts lasted long hours. Each of guests had a servant at hand. There were musicians and singers performing for the invited guests. Food was very fat, spicy and portions were abundant. Among served food was meat, fish, groats, dumplings and pasta dish with poppy. After the dinner guests drank and proposed toasts. It was common that a lot of plates and glasses were broken. Feasting
Funeral rituals assumed a very wealthy form. Preparations to these ceremonies lasted a few months. In churches there were special scaffoldings built for a coffin. Religious solemnities were preceded by a procession. Funeral ceremonies lasted even four days and were concluded with a funeral feast, which had nothing in common with solemnity of the situation. It was simply transformed into a traditional feast. Sarmatian funerals
Origins - coffin portraits are specific and absolutely original element of the Polish Sarmatian culture. Image - idealization was avoided. Resemblance to deceased was very strong and realistic. Pictures characterizes nightmarish realism, because the painter tried to present deceased like he was alive. Adaptation – it was one of the elements in Sarmatian funeral ceremony, which assumed a shape of theatrical performance. Material - the portrait was usually painted on tinny metal plate, most often in hexagon shape. Coffin portraits
Sarmatians were very intolerant, they condemned other religions. They believed that God chose the gentry and favoured it with unusual love. They found themselves as defenders and guards of faith. They believed in miracles, superstitions and magic. Religion
Sienkiewiczs patriotism is presented as an unconditional homage to the king, battle of independence, Christianity, becoming fond of motherland, readiness to sacrifice your life for Poland, which seems to be tailor-made scenario of death for real patriots. Patriotism
However, the Polish's feature was self- interest. In Wrzeszczowiczs opinion the Polish surrended the the Swedes only for one reason - they were promissed not to change anything in the Polish political system. Sarmatians didnt care whom they were subordinated. They weren't patriots. To protect their state they had to be active, go to the war, loose personal property or to allot their belongings for military needs. The XVI century Sarmatians couldn't afford that.
Democracy: the law-abidingness, autonomy and free elections. The Polish political system was seen as the best in the world and the parliament as the oldest. The basis of Poland were the cardinal laws and liberum veto. Every attempt to break the law was seen as a terrible crime. The Sarmatian political approach.
This has been the picture of the Polish national heros. The positives and the negatives. Were they really heros?
By Liceum no 18 in Szczecin, Poland. Classes: 3b, 3c, 2a Coordinators: Magorzata Kujawska Izabela Skulska School year 2008/2009