Presentation on theme: "The City in Space and Time"— Presentation transcript:
1The City in Space and Time The Human MosaicChapter 10
2Introduction Imagine humankind’s sojourn on Earth as a 24-hour day Settlements of more than a hundred people are only about a half-hour oldTowns and cities emerged only a few minutes agoLarge-scale urbanization began less than 60 seconds ago
3IntroductionUrbanization in the last 200 years has strengthened links between culture, society, and the city“Urban explosion” has gone hand in hand with the industrial revolutionEstimates demonstrate the world’s urban population more than doubled since 1950Urban population doubled again by 2000Over 50 percent of Earth’s population live in cities
5Urbanization: Sao Paulo, Brazil Sao Paulo epitomizes the dynamics of urbanization, especially capitalism. Starting as a coffee exporting center, it had less than inhabitants by Today metropolitan Sao Paulo is a primate city of more than 20 million. Economic development and flat land engendered population increase and sprawl, rising land costs in the center, and a boom in construction.
6Urbanization: Sao Paulo, Brazil Economic success is denoted by the high-rises which are a mix of industrial, commercial and professional office blocks, as well as apartment complexes. City planning is only a recent phenomenon. Rural to urban migration is a serious problem and the city’s rapid growth has outstripped its ability to provide jobs, housing and adequate services.
7Culture regions Urban Culture Region Origin and Diffusion of the City Evolution of Urban LandscapesThe Ecology of Urban LocationCultural Integration in Urban Geography
8Problem of recognizing urban regions Urbanized population—percentage of a nation’s population living in towns and citiesStriking urbanization difference between countriesSome close to 90 percentOthers less than 20 percentCulture regions can be based on varying rates of urbanizationWe have a pattern of “urban” versus “rural” countries
9Problem of recognizing urban regions Within each nation, we can delimit formal and functional culture regions separating urban and rural domainsThere is no agreed-upon international definition of what constitutes a cityIndia defines an urban center as 5,000 inhabitants, with adult males employed primarily in nonagricultural workThe United States Census Bureau defines a city as a densely populated area of 2,500 people or moreSouth Africa counts as a city any settlement of 500 or more people
10Problem of recognizing urban regions Some countries revise definitions of urban settlements to suit specific purposesChina revised its census definitions with criteria that vary from province to province causing their urban population to swell by 13 percent in 1983
11GeneralizationsGeneralizations made about the differences in the world’s urbanized populationHighly industrialized countries have higher rates of urbanized population than do less-developed countriesDeveloping countries are rapidly urbanizingCaused by massive migration away from the countryPeople flock to the cities searching for a better life
13Generalizations Developing countries are rapidly urbanizing City migration is often driven by desperation, as rural supply systems collapseFor newcomers to the cities, unemployment rates are often over 50 percentOne of the world’s ongoing crises will be this radical restructuring of population and culture as people move into the cities
14Generalizations Urban growth comes from two sources Migration of people to the citiesHigher natural population growth rates for recent migrantsBecause employment is unreliable, large families construct a more extensive family support systemIncreases the chances of someone getting workSmaller families when a certain dimension of security is ensuredSmaller families often occur when women enter the work force
15World cities Cities over 5 million in population Over half of the world’s 20 largest cities are in the developing worldThirty years ago, the list of world cities was dominated by Western, industrialized citiesNow the list is even more dominated by the developing world
16World cities Mexico City’s growth is linked to Mexico’s oil industry Some countries are trying to regulate urban growthProblems with transportation, housing, and employmentFailure or success of these policies will influence city size in the next ten to twenty yearsChina closely regulates urban growth
17World citiesAccurate population projections are evasive because they depend on variablesPrimate city — a settlement city that dominates the economic, political, and cultural life of a countryThe target for much urban migrationRapid growth expands its primacy, or dominanceExample of Mexico City — far exceeds Guadalajara, the second-largest city in Mexico, in size and importanceMany developing countries are dominated by a primate city, which was often a former center of colonial powerPrimate cities are also found in developed countries —London and Paris
18Culture regions Urban Culture Region Origin and Diffusion of the City Evolution of Urban LandscapesThe Ecology of Urban LocationCultural Integration in Urban Geography
19The first citiesIn seeking explanation for the origin of cities, we find a relationship between:Areas of early agriculturePermanent village settlementThe development of new social formsUrban lifeEarly people were nomadic hunters and gatherers who constantly moved
20The first citiesAs they became increasingly efficient in gathering resources, their campsites became semi-permanentAs quantities of domesticated plants and animals increased settlement became more permanentThe first cities appeared in the Middle EastDeveloped about ten thousand years agoFarming villages modest in size, rarely with more than 200 peopleProbably organized on a kinship basis
21The first cities The first cities appeared in the Middle East Probably organized on a kinship basisJarmo, one of the earliest villagesLocated in present-day IraqHad 25 permanent dwellings clustered near grain storage facilitiesLacked plows, but cultivated local grains — wheat and barleyDomestic dogs, goats, and sheep may have been used for meatFood supplies augmented by hunting and gathering
22The first citiesIn agricultural villages, all inhabitants were involved in some way in food procurementCities were more removed, physically and psychologically, from everyday agricultural activitiesFood was supplied to the cityNot all city dwellers were involved in actual farmingAnother class of city dwellers supplied services — such as technical skills, and religious interpretation
23The first cities Two elements were crucial to this social change Generation of agricultural surplus prerequisite for supporting nonfarmersStratified social systemMeaning the existence of distinct elite and lower classesFacilitates the collection, storage, and distribution of resourcesWell-defined channels of authority that exercise control over goods and peopleThese two set the stage for urbanization
24Models for the rise of cities TechnicalThe hydraulic civilization model, developed by Karl WittfogelLarge-scale irrigation systems as prime mover behind urbanizationHigher crop yields resultedFood surplus supported development of a large nonfarming populationStrong, centralized government, backed by an urban-based militaryFarmers who resisted new authority were denied water
25Models for the rise of cities TechnicalThe hydraulic civilization model, developed by Karl WittfogelPower elite needed for organizational coordination to ensure continued operation of the irrigation systemLabor specialization developedThe hydraulic model cannot be applied to all urban hearthsUrban civilization blossomed without irrigation in parts of MesoamericaThe question of how or why a culture might first develop irrigation
26Models for the rise of cities ReligiousPaul Wheatley suggests religion was the motivating factor behind urbanizationKnowledge of meteorological and climatic conditions was considered to be within the domain of religionReligious leaders decided when and how to plant cropsSuccessful harvests led to more support for this priestly classPriestly class exercised political and social control that held the city togetherIn this scenario, cities are religious spaces functioning as ceremonial centersFirst urban clusters and fortification seen as defenses against spiritual demons or souls of the dead
27Models for the rise of cities Multiple factorsDistinction between economic, religious, and political functions were not always clearA king may have functioned as priest, healer, astronomer, and scribeIn some ways secular and spiritual power was fusedAttempting to isolate one trigger to urbanization is difficult, if not impossibleIt would be wiser to accept the role of multiple factors behind the changes leading to urban lifeTechnical, religious, and political forces were often interlinked
28Urban hearth areas Where the first cities appeared, for example: MesopotamiaThe Nile ValleyPakistan’s Indus River ValleyThe Yellow River valley (or Huang Ho) in ChinaMesoamericaNext slide gives general dates of urban life emergence for each region
30Urban hearth areas Generally agreed first cities arose in Mesopotamia River valley of the Tigris and Euphrates in what is now IraqCities, small by current standards, covered one-half to two square milesPopulations rarely exceeded 30,000Densities could reach 10,000 per square mile —comparable to today’s citiesEarly cities, also called cosmomagical cities, exhibited three spatial characteristics
32Urban hearth areasEarly cities, also called cosmomagical cities, exhibited three spatial characteristicsGreat importance accorded the symbolic center of the city, which was thought to be the center of the known worldOften demarcated by a vertical structure of monumental scale representing the point on Earth closest to the heavensThis symbolic center, or axis mundi, took different formsThe ziggurat in MesopotamiaThe palace or temple in ChinaThe pyramid in Egypt and MesoamericaThe Stupa in the Indus Valley
34Cosmomagical City: Beijing, China This is the Hall of Supreme Harmony, the most important ceremonial building in Beijing’s Forbidden City. The hall is set upon an auspicious number of three tiers. From the Gate of Supreme Harmony, the emperor would be carried on his palanquin above the “dragon pavement,” carved with his dragon and other auspicious symbols such as waves, mountains and clouds.
35Cosmomagical City: Beijing, China The Forbidden City marked the inner sanctum of the Imperial city, a model of harmony and moral order expressing the Will of Heaven.Ritual and cosmic correctness was imbued in city form through divination and orientation; cardinal axiality and concentricity; and, square configuration defined by walls and gates.
36Urban hearth areasEarly cities, also called cosmomagical cities, exhibited three spatial characteristicsIn Mesopotamia, this area was known as the citadel and housed the elite who lived in relative luxuryStreets were paved, drains and running water were providedPrivate sleeping quarters, bathtubs, and water closets were providedPrivileges did not extend to the city as a whole
38Urban hearth areasEarly cities, also called cosmomagical cities, exhibited three spatial characteristicsThe city was oriented toward the four cardinal directionsGeometric form of city would reflect the order of the universeWalls around the city delimited the known and ordered world from the outside chaosAttempt to shape the form of the city according to the form of the universeThought essential to maintain harmony between human and spiritual worldsExample of Ankor Thorn in India
39Urban hearth areasLife in Mesopotamia’s early cities from archaeological evidenceDense housing, located just outside the citadel, was one or two stories tall composed of clay brick, and contained three or four roomsNarrow unsurfaced streets had no drainage, and served as the community dumpAt Ur, excavations show that garbage levels rose so high, new entrances were cut into second stories of the housesJust inside the city wall, huts of mud and reed housed the lower classes
40Urban hearth areasEarly cities of the Nile were not walled, suggesting a regional power structure kept cities from warring with each otherIn the Indus Valley, Mohenjo-Daro was laid out in a grid that consisted of 16 large blocksThe most important variations in living conditions occurred in MesoamericaCities were less dense and covered large areasCities arose without benefit of the wheel, plow, metallurgy, and draft animalsDomestication of maize compensated for technological shortcomingsMaize yields several crops a year without irrigation in tropical climates
42The diffusion of the city from hearth areas The two hypotheses of how cities spread in prehistoric timesCities evolved spontaneously as native peoples created new technologies and social institutionsPreconditions for urban life are too specific for most cultures to invent without contact with other urban areasPeople must have learned these traits through contact with city dwellersThis scenario emphasized the diffusion of ideas and techniques
43The diffusion of the city from hearth areas Diffusionists believe ideas and techniques from Mesopotamia were shared with people in the Nile and the Indus River valleyArchaeological evidence documents trade ties between the three regionsSoapstone objects made in Tepe Yahyã, 500 miles east of Mesopotamia, have been found in ruins of both Mesopotamia and Indus Valley citiesIndus Valley writing and seals have been found in Mesopotamian urban sitesAn alternate view is that trading took place only after these cities were well established
44The diffusion of the city from hearth areas There is evidence of contacts across the oceans between early urban dwellers of the New World and those of Asia and AfricaUnclear if this means urbanization was diffused to MesoamericaMaybe some trade routes existed between these peoples
45The diffusion of the city from hearth areas Little doubt diffusion is responsible for the dispersal of the city in historical timesCity used as vehicle for imperial expansionUrban life is carried outward in waves of conquest as empires expandInitially, military controls newly won lands and sets up collection points for local resourcesAs collection points lose some military atmosphere they begin to show the social diversity of a cityNative people are slowly assimilated into the settlement as workers and may eventually control the cityThe process repeats itself as the empire pushes outward
46The diffusion of the city from hearth areas Imposition of a foreign civilization on native peoples was often met with resistanceExamples of imperial city building dot historyAlexander the Great established at least 70 citiesThe Roman Empire built literally thousand of cities, changing the face of Europe, North Africa, and Asia minorThe Persians, the Maurya Empire of India, the Han civilization of China, and the Greeks performed the same city-spreading taskIn more recent times, European empires have used city resources to expand and consolidate their power in colonies in the Americas, Africa, and AsiaExpansion diffusion has been critical in dispersing urban life over the surface of the Earth
48Culture regions Urban Culture Region Origin and Diffusion of the City Evolution of Urban LandscapesThe Ecology of Urban LocationCultural Integration in Urban Geography
49IntroductionPatterns seen in the city today are a composite of past and present culturesTwo concepts underlie our examination of urban landscapesUrban morphology — physical form of the city, which consists of street patterns, building sizes and shapes, architecture, and densityFunctional zonation — refers to the pattern of land uses within a city, or existence of areas with differing functions
51The Greek cityWestern civilization and Western cities trace their roots to ancient GreeceBy 600 B.C., over five hundred towns and cities existed on the Greek mainland and surrounding islandsWith expansion, cities spread throughout the Mediterranean — to the north shore of Africa, to Spain, southern France, and ItalyCities rarely had more than 5,000 inhabitantsAthens may have reached 300,000 in the fifth century B.C., including perhaps 100,000 slaves
52The Greek cityCities had two distinctive functional zones —the acropolis and the agoraThe acropolis was similar in many ways to the citadel of Mesopotamian citiesHad the temples of worship, storehouse of valuables, and seat of powerServed as a place of retreat in time of siege
54The Greek city The agora was the province of the citizens A place for public meetings, education, social interaction, and judicial mattersIt was the civic center, the hub of democratic life for Greek menLater, after the classical period, it became the city’s major marketplace without losing its atmosphere of a social club
55The Greek cityPhysical separation of religious from secular functions implies the religious domain was no longer the only source of authorityTemples were located on sacred sites chosen to please the godsTemples were also sited and designed to please the human eye and harmonize with the natural landscape
56The Greek cityTension created between the religious and secular created what many consider to be one of the greatest achievements of Western architectureEarlier Greek cities probably grew spontaneously without formal guidelinesSome think many ceremonial areas were designed to be seen according to prescribed lines of visionThe human aesthetic was given a degree of authority not given in cosmomagical cities
57The Greek cityIn later Greek cities a more formalized city design and plan are apparent— example of Miletus in Ioma (present-day Turkey)Laid out in a rigid grid system imposing its geometry on the physical site conditionsLayout indicates an abstracted and highly rational notion of urban lifeSeems to fit well with the functional needs of a colonial cityGrid system shows religious and aesthetic needs had taken a secondary role to pressing demands of controlling an empire
59Roman citiesRomans adopted many urban traits from the Greeks and the Etruscans, whom the Romans had conquered and absorbed in northern ItalyAs the empire expanded, city life diffused into areas that had not previously experienced urbanizationFrance, Germany, England, interior Spain, the Alpine countries, and parts of eastern Europe
60Roman citiesAs the empire expanded, city life diffused into areas that had not previously experienced urbanizationMost cities were established as military (castra) and trading outpostsFocal points for collection of local agricultural productsSupply centers for the militaryService centers for long-distance trading networkIn England, the trail of city building can be found by looking for the suffixes -caster and -chester indicating cities founded as Roman camps
62Roman cities Roman city landscapes Gridiron street pattern was used in later Greek cities — example of Pavia, ItalyThe forum — a zone combining elements of the Greek acropolis and agoraPlaced at the intersection of a city’s two major thoroughfaresTemples of worship, administrative buildings , and warehousesAlso libraries, schools, and marketplaces serving the common people
64Roman cities Roman city landscapes Clustered around the forum were the palaces of the power eliteSanitary, well heated in winter, and spaciousNot until the twentieth century did such luxury again existRoman masses lived in shoddy apartment housesOften four or five stories high, called insulaSystem of aqueducts and underground sewers did not extend to the poorGarbage of perhaps a million Romans was thrown into open pitsEven in its best days, Rome’s population was always at the mercy of plagues
65Roman citiesRome’s most important legacy was the Roman method for choosing city sitesRemains applicable todayConsistently chose sites with transportation in mindEmpire held together by a complicated system of roads and highwaysIn choosing a new site for settlement Romans first considered access while other cultures placed emphasis on defensive locationsNumerous old Roman town sites were refounded centuries later — Paris, London, and Vienna
67Roman cities The Roman Empire was in major decline by A.D. 400 Cities and the highway system that linked them fell into disrepairThe administrative structure collapsedOutposts were either actively destroyed or simply left to decayWithin 200 years, many of the cities had withered away
68Roman citiesSome Roman cities in the Mediterranean area managed to surviveEstablished trade with the Byzantine EmpireAfter the eighth century, cities in Spain were infused with new vigor by the Moorish EmpireCities in northern regions became small villagesUrban decline occurred only in areas that had been under Roman rule
69The medieval cityMedieval period lasted roughly from A.D to 1500Time of renewed urban expansion in EuropeUrban life spread north and east in EuropeGermanic and Slavic people expanded their empiresIn only four centuries, 2,500 new German “cities” were foundedMost cities of present-day Europe were founded during this period
70The medieval cityRevival of local and long-distance trade resulted from a combination of factorsPopulation increasePolitical stability and unificationAgricultural expansion through new land reclamationsNew Agricultural technologiesTrading networks required protected markets and supply centers, functions that renewed life in citiesLong-distance trading led to the development of a new class of people — the merchant class
72Medieval Town: Hirschhorn am Neckar, Germany This town reveals three important features of urban morphology: castle, wall, and cathedral. Hirschhorn castle caps the summit of a fortified spur in the bend of the Neckar River, affording a clear view of the river and forested valley.
73Medieval Town: Hirschhorn am Neckar, Germany Site factors have also limited expansion forcing people to build onto the walls.Half-timbering is evident in a number of buildings.
74The medieval cityThe major functions of the medieval city are depicted in five symbolsThe fortressUsually cities were clustered around a fortified placeReflected in place names — German -burg, French -bourg, English-burgh all meaning a fortified castleThe terms burgher and bourgeoisie, originally referred to a citizen of the medieval city
76The medieval cityThe major functions of the medieval city are depicted in five symbolsThe fortressUsually cities were clustered around a fortified placeReflected in place names — German -burg, French -bourg, English-burgh all meaning a fortified castleThe terms burgher and bourgeoisie, originally referred to a citizen of the medieval city
77The medieval cityThe major functions of the medieval city are depicted in five symbolsThe charterGovernmental decree from a regional power granting political autonomy to the townFreed the population from feudal restrictionsMade the city responsible for its own defense and governmentAllowed cities to coin their own moneyThese freedoms contributed to development of urban social, economic, and intellectual life
78The medieval cityThe major functions of the medieval city are depicted in five symbolsThe wallSymbol of the sharp distinction between country and cityWithin the wall most inhabitants were free; outside most were serfsPeople inside were able to move about with little restrictionGoods entering the gates were inspected and taxed
79The medieval cityThe major functions of the medieval city are depicted in five symbolsThe wallNonresidents were issued permits for entry, but often required to leave by sundown when the gates were shutSuburbs called faubourgs sprang up, and in time demanded to be included into the cityIf the suburbs were allowed to be part of the city, the wall was extended to include them
80The medieval cityThe major functions of the medieval city are depicted in five symbolsThe marketplaceSymbolized role of economic activities in the cityCity depended on the countryside for food and produce was traded in the marketCenter for long-distance trade linking city to city
81The medieval cityThe major functions of the medieval city are depicted in five symbolsThe marketplaceAt one end stood the fairly tall town hailMeeting space for city’s political leadersMarket hail for storage and display of finer goodsBrugge, Belgium, had two distinct complexes of buildings at it centerTown hall and castle formed an enclosed squareNext to this was the wasserho.lle, so named because the building straddled a canal where goods could be directly brought directly in from bargesOn adjacent edge of marketplace was the great ball that served as meeting spot for merchant class
83The medieval cityThe major functions of the medieval city are depicted in five symbolsThe cathedralUsually the town’s crowning glorySymbol of the important role of the churchOften close to the marketplace and town ball, indicating close ties between religion, commerce, and politicsChurch was often prevailing political force
84The medieval cityProblems created for contemporary urban life by medieval city morphology and landscapeStreets were narrow, wandering lanes, rarely more than 15 feet wideToday, in 141 German cities, 77 percent of streets are too narrow for two- way traffic
86The medieval cityFunctional zonation of medieval cities differed from that of modern citiesDivided into small quarters, or districts, each containing its own cent that served as its focal pointWithin each district lived people engaged in similar occupations
87The medieval cityFunctional zonation of medieval cities differed from that of modern citiesExample of coopers — people who made and repaired wooden barrelsAttended the same church, and belonged to the same guildChurch and guildhall were in the small center area of their districtSurrounding the center were their houses and workshopsMany worked in the first story of their home and lived above the shopApprentices lived above the shop ownerMore prestigious groups lived in occupational districts near the city centerThose involved in noxious activities lived closer to city walls
88The medieval city Some districts were defined by ethnicity Jews were forced to live in their own district in most medieval citiesIn Frankfurt am Main, they lived on the Judengasse, a street formed from the dried-up moat that had run along the old wall to the cityThis area was enclosed by walls with only one guarded gateThe area was not allowed to expand, leading by 1610 to a population of 3,000 people and one of the densest districts in the city
89The Renaissance and baroque periods Form and function of the city changed significantly during the Renaissance (1500 — 1600) and baroque ( ) periodsAbsolute monarchs arose to preside over a unified nation-stateRising middle class slowly gave up their freedoms to join with the king in pursuit of economic gainCity size grew rapidly because bureaucracies of regional power structures came to dominate themTrade patterns expanded with the beginning of European imperial conquestCity planning and military technology acted to remold and constrain the physical form of the city
90The Renaissance and baroque periods A national capital city rose to prominence in most countriesProvincial cities were subjected to its tastesPower was centralized in its precinctsFirst office buildings were built to house a growing bureaucracyMost important, it was restructured to reflect the power of the central government and insure control over urban masses
91Capitalism in the Renaissance City: Amsterdam, Netherlands
92Capitalism in the Renaissance City: Amsterdam, Netherlands Amsterdam has always been a commercial city. Situated where dike crossed the Amstel, its harbor was easily accessed from the sea. Essentially at sea level, its quays and streets were flanked by canals.It flourished as a trading center and by the 17th century, had an extensive collection of warehouses and the largest public bank in northern Europe.
93Capitalism in the Renaissance City: Amsterdam, Netherlands As the city prospered, the walls were expanded and new canals dug to line residential streets designated for a prestigious, residential neighborhood with 30 foot (9.1 meter) lots.These 17th century merchant homes are only 20 feet (6.1 meters) wide because speculators purchased two 30 foot lots and sold them as three 20 foot lots. The upper story was used for storage of goods.
94The Renaissance and baroque periods Height of baroque planning between 1600 and 1800During the 1800s, Napoleon III carried out a building plan in ParisCobblestone streets carefully paved to prevent loose ammunition for rioting ParisiansStreets were straightened and widened, and cul-de-sacs broken down to give army space to maneuver
95Baroque Planning: Paris, France Parisians were always conscious of the beauty of the Seine and exploited it in the 16h and 17th centuries with bridges and promenades along its banks. These highlights aside, in 1840 the city remained a warren of narrow, filthy and crowded streets.But under the direction of Napoleon III and Baron Haussman, much of the city was transformed.
96Baroque Planning: Paris, France Masses of people were displaced as boulevards and avenues, squares and parks, bazaars and arcades, and luxurious housing blocks were installed.The 19th century was also an era of exhibitions where nations showed off their art and technology to the world.In 1889, Paris displayed Gustave Eiffel’s tower, the world’s highest structure, testament to the age of iron and steel.The photo is taken from Ile de la Cite, Parish’ original island site in the Seine River.
99The Renaissance and baroque periods Thousands were displaced as apartment buildings were demolishedMany ended up in congested working-class sections of east and north ParisThe east and north sections are still crowded todayIn these developments, we see the coming modern cityWashington, D.C., originally designed by a French planner