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The City in Space and Time

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1 The City in Space and Time
The Human Mosaic Chapter 10

2 Introduction Imagine humankind’s sojourn on Earth as a 24-hour day
Settlements of more than a hundred people are only about a half-hour old Towns and cities emerged only a few minutes ago Large-scale urbanization began less than 60 seconds ago

3 Introduction Urbanization in the last 200 years has strengthened links between culture, society, and the city “Urban explosion” has gone hand in hand with the industrial revolution Estimates demonstrate the world’s urban population more than doubled since 1950 Urban population doubled again by 2000 Over 50 percent of Earth’s population live in cities

4 Urbanization: Sao Paulo, Brazil

5 Urbanization: Sao Paulo, Brazil
Sao Paulo epitomizes the dynamics of urbanization, especially capitalism. Starting as a coffee exporting center, it had less than inhabitants by Today metropolitan Sao Paulo is a primate city of more than 20 million. Economic development and flat land engendered population increase and sprawl, rising land costs in the center, and a boom in construction.

6 Urbanization: Sao Paulo, Brazil
Economic success is denoted by the high-rises which are a mix of industrial, commercial and professional office blocks, as well as apartment complexes. City planning is only a recent phenomenon. Rural to urban migration is a serious problem and the city’s rapid growth has outstripped its ability to provide jobs, housing and adequate services.

7 Culture regions Urban Culture Region Origin and Diffusion of the City
Evolution of Urban Landscapes The Ecology of Urban Location Cultural Integration in Urban Geography

8 Problem of recognizing urban regions
Urbanized population—percentage of a nation’s population living in towns and cities Striking urbanization difference between countries Some close to 90 percent Others less than 20 percent Culture regions can be based on varying rates of urbanization We have a pattern of “urban” versus “rural” countries

9 Problem of recognizing urban regions
Within each nation, we can delimit formal and functional culture regions separating urban and rural domains There is no agreed-upon international definition of what constitutes a city India defines an urban center as 5,000 inhabitants, with adult males employed primarily in nonagricultural work The United States Census Bureau defines a city as a densely populated area of 2,500 people or more South Africa counts as a city any settlement of 500 or more people

10 Problem of recognizing urban regions
Some countries revise definitions of urban settlements to suit specific purposes China revised its census definitions with criteria that vary from province to province causing their urban population to swell by 13 percent in 1983

11 Generalizations Generalizations made about the differences in the world’s urbanized population Highly industrialized countries have higher rates of urbanized population than do less-developed countries Developing countries are rapidly urbanizing Caused by massive migration away from the country People flock to the cities searching for a better life


13 Generalizations Developing countries are rapidly urbanizing
City migration is often driven by desperation, as rural supply systems collapse For newcomers to the cities, unemployment rates are often over 50 percent One of the world’s ongoing crises will be this radical restructuring of population and culture as people move into the cities

14 Generalizations Urban growth comes from two sources
Migration of people to the cities Higher natural population growth rates for recent migrants Because employment is unreliable, large families construct a more extensive family support system Increases the chances of someone getting work Smaller families when a certain dimension of security is ensured Smaller families often occur when women enter the work force

15 World cities Cities over 5 million in population
Over half of the world’s 20 largest cities are in the developing world Thirty years ago, the list of world cities was dominated by Western, industrialized cities Now the list is even more dominated by the developing world

16 World cities Mexico City’s growth is linked to Mexico’s oil industry
Some countries are trying to regulate urban growth Problems with transportation, housing, and employment Failure or success of these policies will influence city size in the next ten to twenty years China closely regulates urban growth

17 World cities Accurate population projections are evasive because they depend on variables Primate city — a settlement city that dominates the economic, political, and cultural life of a country The target for much urban migration Rapid growth expands its primacy, or dominance Example of Mexico City — far exceeds Guadalajara, the second-largest city in Mexico, in size and importance Many developing countries are dominated by a primate city, which was often a former center of colonial power Primate cities are also found in developed countries —London and Paris

18 Culture regions Urban Culture Region Origin and Diffusion of the City
Evolution of Urban Landscapes The Ecology of Urban Location Cultural Integration in Urban Geography

19 The first cities In seeking explanation for the origin of cities, we find a relationship between: Areas of early agriculture Permanent village settlement The development of new social forms Urban life Early people were nomadic hunters and gatherers who constantly moved

20 The first cities As they became increasingly efficient in gathering resources, their campsites became semi-permanent As quantities of domesticated plants and animals increased settlement became more permanent The first cities appeared in the Middle East Developed about ten thousand years ago Farming villages modest in size, rarely with more than 200 people Probably organized on a kinship basis

21 The first cities The first cities appeared in the Middle East
Probably organized on a kinship basis Jarmo, one of the earliest villages Located in present-day Iraq Had 25 permanent dwellings clustered near grain storage facilities Lacked plows, but cultivated local grains — wheat and barley Domestic dogs, goats, and sheep may have been used for meat Food supplies augmented by hunting and gathering

22 The first cities In agricultural villages, all inhabitants were involved in some way in food procurement Cities were more removed, physically and psychologically, from everyday agricultural activities Food was supplied to the city Not all city dwellers were involved in actual farming Another class of city dwellers supplied services — such as technical skills, and religious interpretation

23 The first cities Two elements were crucial to this social change
Generation of agricultural surplus prerequisite for supporting nonfarmers Stratified social system Meaning the existence of distinct elite and lower classes Facilitates the collection, storage, and distribution of resources Well-defined channels of authority that exercise control over goods and people These two set the stage for urbanization

24 Models for the rise of cities
Technical The hydraulic civilization model, developed by Karl Wittfogel Large-scale irrigation systems as prime mover behind urbanization Higher crop yields resulted Food surplus supported development of a large nonfarming population Strong, centralized government, backed by an urban-based military Farmers who resisted new authority were denied water

25 Models for the rise of cities
Technical The hydraulic civilization model, developed by Karl Wittfogel Power elite needed for organizational coordination to ensure continued operation of the irrigation system Labor specialization developed The hydraulic model cannot be applied to all urban hearths Urban civilization blossomed without irrigation in parts of Mesoamerica The question of how or why a culture might first develop irrigation

26 Models for the rise of cities
Religious Paul Wheatley suggests religion was the motivating factor behind urbanization Knowledge of meteorological and climatic conditions was considered to be within the domain of religion Religious leaders decided when and how to plant crops Successful harvests led to more support for this priestly class Priestly class exercised political and social control that held the city together In this scenario, cities are religious spaces functioning as ceremonial centers First urban clusters and fortification seen as defenses against spiritual demons or souls of the dead

27 Models for the rise of cities
Multiple factors Distinction between economic, religious, and political functions were not always clear A king may have functioned as priest, healer, astronomer, and scribe In some ways secular and spiritual power was fused Attempting to isolate one trigger to urbanization is difficult, if not impossible It would be wiser to accept the role of multiple factors behind the changes leading to urban life Technical, religious, and political forces were often interlinked

28 Urban hearth areas Where the first cities appeared, for example:
Mesopotamia The Nile Valley Pakistan’s Indus River Valley The Yellow River valley (or Huang Ho) in China Mesoamerica Next slide gives general dates of urban life emergence for each region


30 Urban hearth areas Generally agreed first cities arose in Mesopotamia
River valley of the Tigris and Euphrates in what is now Iraq Cities, small by current standards, covered one-half to two square miles Populations rarely exceeded 30,000 Densities could reach 10,000 per square mile —comparable to today’s cities Early cities, also called cosmomagical cities, exhibited three spatial characteristics


32 Urban hearth areas Early cities, also called cosmomagical cities, exhibited three spatial characteristics Great importance accorded the symbolic center of the city, which was thought to be the center of the known world Often demarcated by a vertical structure of monumental scale representing the point on Earth closest to the heavens This symbolic center, or axis mundi, took different forms The ziggurat in Mesopotamia The palace or temple in China The pyramid in Egypt and Mesoamerica The Stupa in the Indus Valley

33 Cosmomagical City: Beijing, China

34 Cosmomagical City: Beijing, China
This is the Hall of Supreme Harmony, the most important ceremonial building in Beijing’s Forbidden City. The hall is set upon an auspicious number of three tiers. From the Gate of Supreme Harmony, the emperor would be carried on his palanquin above the “dragon pavement,” carved with his dragon and other auspicious symbols such as waves, mountains and clouds.

35 Cosmomagical City: Beijing, China
The Forbidden City marked the inner sanctum of the Imperial city, a model of harmony and moral order expressing the Will of Heaven. Ritual and cosmic correctness was imbued in city form through divination and orientation; cardinal axiality and concentricity; and, square configuration defined by walls and gates.

36 Urban hearth areas Early cities, also called cosmomagical cities, exhibited three spatial characteristics In Mesopotamia, this area was known as the citadel and housed the elite who lived in relative luxury Streets were paved, drains and running water were provided Private sleeping quarters, bathtubs, and water closets were provided Privileges did not extend to the city as a whole


38 Urban hearth areas Early cities, also called cosmomagical cities, exhibited three spatial characteristics The city was oriented toward the four cardinal directions Geometric form of city would reflect the order of the universe Walls around the city delimited the known and ordered world from the outside chaos Attempt to shape the form of the city according to the form of the universe Thought essential to maintain harmony between human and spiritual worlds Example of Ankor Thorn in India

39 Urban hearth areas Life in Mesopotamia’s early cities from archaeological evidence Dense housing, located just outside the citadel, was one or two stories tall composed of clay brick, and contained three or four rooms Narrow unsurfaced streets had no drainage, and served as the community dump At Ur, excavations show that garbage levels rose so high, new entrances were cut into second stories of the houses Just inside the city wall, huts of mud and reed housed the lower classes

40 Urban hearth areas Early cities of the Nile were not walled, suggesting a regional power structure kept cities from warring with each other In the Indus Valley, Mohenjo-Daro was laid out in a grid that consisted of 16 large blocks The most important variations in living conditions occurred in Mesoamerica Cities were less dense and covered large areas Cities arose without benefit of the wheel, plow, metallurgy, and draft animals Domestication of maize compensated for technological shortcomings Maize yields several crops a year without irrigation in tropical climates


42 The diffusion of the city from hearth areas
The two hypotheses of how cities spread in prehistoric times Cities evolved spontaneously as native peoples created new technologies and social institutions Preconditions for urban life are too specific for most cultures to invent without contact with other urban areas People must have learned these traits through contact with city dwellers This scenario emphasized the diffusion of ideas and techniques

43 The diffusion of the city from hearth areas
Diffusionists believe ideas and techniques from Mesopotamia were shared with people in the Nile and the Indus River valley Archaeological evidence documents trade ties between the three regions Soapstone objects made in Tepe Yahyã, 500 miles east of Mesopotamia, have been found in ruins of both Mesopotamia and Indus Valley cities Indus Valley writing and seals have been found in Mesopotamian urban sites An alternate view is that trading took place only after these cities were well established

44 The diffusion of the city from hearth areas
There is evidence of contacts across the oceans between early urban dwellers of the New World and those of Asia and Africa Unclear if this means urbanization was diffused to Mesoamerica Maybe some trade routes existed between these peoples

45 The diffusion of the city from hearth areas
Little doubt diffusion is responsible for the dispersal of the city in historical times City used as vehicle for imperial expansion Urban life is carried outward in waves of conquest as empires expand Initially, military controls newly won lands and sets up collection points for local resources As collection points lose some military atmosphere they begin to show the social diversity of a city Native people are slowly assimilated into the settlement as workers and may eventually control the city The process repeats itself as the empire pushes outward

46 The diffusion of the city from hearth areas
Imposition of a foreign civilization on native peoples was often met with resistance Examples of imperial city building dot history Alexander the Great established at least 70 cities The Roman Empire built literally thousand of cities, changing the face of Europe, North Africa, and Asia minor The Persians, the Maurya Empire of India, the Han civilization of China, and the Greeks performed the same city-spreading task In more recent times, European empires have used city resources to expand and consolidate their power in colonies in the Americas, Africa, and Asia Expansion diffusion has been critical in dispersing urban life over the surface of the Earth


48 Culture regions Urban Culture Region Origin and Diffusion of the City
Evolution of Urban Landscapes The Ecology of Urban Location Cultural Integration in Urban Geography

49 Introduction Patterns seen in the city today are a composite of past and present cultures Two concepts underlie our examination of urban landscapes Urban morphology — physical form of the city, which consists of street patterns, building sizes and shapes, architecture, and density Functional zonation — refers to the pattern of land uses within a city, or existence of areas with differing functions


51 The Greek city Western civilization and Western cities trace their roots to ancient Greece By 600 B.C., over five hundred towns and cities existed on the Greek mainland and surrounding islands With expansion, cities spread throughout the Mediterranean — to the north shore of Africa, to Spain, southern France, and Italy Cities rarely had more than 5,000 inhabitants Athens may have reached 300,000 in the fifth century B.C., including perhaps 100,000 slaves

52 The Greek city Cities had two distinctive functional zones —the acropolis and the agora The acropolis was similar in many ways to the citadel of Mesopotamian cities Had the temples of worship, storehouse of valuables, and seat of power Served as a place of retreat in time of siege


54 The Greek city The agora was the province of the citizens
A place for public meetings, education, social interaction, and judicial matters It was the civic center, the hub of democratic life for Greek men Later, after the classical period, it became the city’s major marketplace without losing its atmosphere of a social club

55 The Greek city Physical separation of religious from secular functions implies the religious domain was no longer the only source of authority Temples were located on sacred sites chosen to please the gods Temples were also sited and designed to please the human eye and harmonize with the natural landscape

56 The Greek city Tension created between the religious and secular created what many consider to be one of the greatest achievements of Western architecture Earlier Greek cities probably grew spontaneously without formal guidelines Some think many ceremonial areas were designed to be seen according to prescribed lines of vision The human aesthetic was given a degree of authority not given in cosmomagical cities

57 The Greek city In later Greek cities a more formalized city design and plan are apparent— example of Miletus in Ioma (present-day Turkey) Laid out in a rigid grid system imposing its geometry on the physical site conditions Layout indicates an abstracted and highly rational notion of urban life Seems to fit well with the functional needs of a colonial city Grid system shows religious and aesthetic needs had taken a secondary role to pressing demands of controlling an empire


59 Roman cities Romans adopted many urban traits from the Greeks and the Etruscans, whom the Romans had conquered and absorbed in northern Italy As the empire expanded, city life diffused into areas that had not previously experienced urbanization France, Germany, England, interior Spain, the Alpine countries, and parts of eastern Europe

60 Roman cities As the empire expanded, city life diffused into areas that had not previously experienced urbanization Most cities were established as military (castra) and trading outposts Focal points for collection of local agricultural products Supply centers for the military Service centers for long-distance trading network In England, the trail of city building can be found by looking for the suffixes -caster and -chester indicating cities founded as Roman camps


62 Roman cities Roman city landscapes
Gridiron street pattern was used in later Greek cities — example of Pavia, Italy The forum — a zone combining elements of the Greek acropolis and agora Placed at the intersection of a city’s two major thoroughfares Temples of worship, administrative buildings , and warehouses Also libraries, schools, and marketplaces serving the common people


64 Roman cities Roman city landscapes
Clustered around the forum were the palaces of the power elite Sanitary, well heated in winter, and spacious Not until the twentieth century did such luxury again exist Roman masses lived in shoddy apartment houses Often four or five stories high, called insula System of aqueducts and underground sewers did not extend to the poor Garbage of perhaps a million Romans was thrown into open pits Even in its best days, Rome’s population was always at the mercy of plagues

65 Roman cities Rome’s most important legacy was the Roman method for choosing city sites Remains applicable today Consistently chose sites with transportation in mind Empire held together by a complicated system of roads and highways In choosing a new site for settlement Romans first considered access while other cultures placed emphasis on defensive locations Numerous old Roman town sites were refounded centuries later — Paris, London, and Vienna


67 Roman cities The Roman Empire was in major decline by A.D. 400
Cities and the highway system that linked them fell into disrepair The administrative structure collapsed Outposts were either actively destroyed or simply left to decay Within 200 years, many of the cities had withered away

68 Roman cities Some Roman cities in the Mediterranean area managed to survive Established trade with the Byzantine Empire After the eighth century, cities in Spain were infused with new vigor by the Moorish Empire Cities in northern regions became small villages Urban decline occurred only in areas that had been under Roman rule

69 The medieval city Medieval period lasted roughly from A.D to 1500 Time of renewed urban expansion in Europe Urban life spread north and east in Europe Germanic and Slavic people expanded their empires In only four centuries, 2,500 new German “cities” were founded Most cities of present-day Europe were founded during this period

70 The medieval city Revival of local and long-distance trade resulted from a combination of factors Population increase Political stability and unification Agricultural expansion through new land reclamations New Agricultural technologies Trading networks required protected markets and supply centers, functions that renewed life in cities Long-distance trading led to the development of a new class of people — the merchant class

71 Medieval Town: Hirschhorn am Neckar, Germany

72 Medieval Town: Hirschhorn am Neckar, Germany
This town reveals three important features of urban morphology: castle, wall, and cathedral. Hirschhorn castle caps the summit of a fortified spur in the bend of the Neckar River, affording a clear view of the river and forested valley.

73 Medieval Town: Hirschhorn am Neckar, Germany
Site factors have also limited expansion forcing people to build onto the walls. Half-timbering is evident in a number of buildings.

74 The medieval city The major functions of the medieval city are depicted in five symbols The fortress Usually cities were clustered around a fortified place Reflected in place names — German -burg, French -bourg, English -burgh all meaning a fortified castle The terms burgher and bourgeoisie, originally referred to a citizen of the medieval city


76 The medieval city The major functions of the medieval city are depicted in five symbols The fortress Usually cities were clustered around a fortified place Reflected in place names — German -burg, French -bourg, English -burgh all meaning a fortified castle The terms burgher and bourgeoisie, originally referred to a citizen of the medieval city

77 The medieval city The major functions of the medieval city are depicted in five symbols The charter Governmental decree from a regional power granting political autonomy to the town Freed the population from feudal restrictions Made the city responsible for its own defense and government Allowed cities to coin their own money These freedoms contributed to development of urban social, economic, and intellectual life

78 The medieval city The major functions of the medieval city are depicted in five symbols The wall Symbol of the sharp distinction between country and city Within the wall most inhabitants were free; outside most were serfs People inside were able to move about with little restriction Goods entering the gates were inspected and taxed

79 The medieval city The major functions of the medieval city are depicted in five symbols The wall Nonresidents were issued permits for entry, but often required to leave by sundown when the gates were shut Suburbs called faubourgs sprang up, and in time demanded to be included into the city If the suburbs were allowed to be part of the city, the wall was extended to include them

80 The medieval city The major functions of the medieval city are depicted in five symbols The marketplace Symbolized role of economic activities in the city City depended on the countryside for food and produce was traded in the market Center for long-distance trade linking city to city

81 The medieval city The major functions of the medieval city are depicted in five symbols The marketplace At one end stood the fairly tall town hail Meeting space for city’s political leaders Market hail for storage and display of finer goods Brugge, Belgium, had two distinct complexes of buildings at it center Town hall and castle formed an enclosed square Next to this was the wasserho.lle, so named because the building straddled a canal where goods could be directly brought directly in from barges On adjacent edge of marketplace was the great ball that served as meeting spot for merchant class


83 The medieval city The major functions of the medieval city are depicted in five symbols The cathedral Usually the town’s crowning glory Symbol of the important role of the church Often close to the marketplace and town ball, indicating close ties between religion, commerce, and politics Church was often prevailing political force

84 The medieval city Problems created for contemporary urban life by medieval city morphology and landscape Streets were narrow, wandering lanes, rarely more than 15 feet wide Today, in 141 German cities, 77 percent of streets are too narrow for two- way traffic


86 The medieval city Functional zonation of medieval cities differed from that of modern cities Divided into small quarters, or districts, each containing its own cent that served as its focal point Within each district lived people engaged in similar occupations

87 The medieval city Functional zonation of medieval cities differed from that of modern cities Example of coopers — people who made and repaired wooden barrels Attended the same church, and belonged to the same guild Church and guildhall were in the small center area of their district Surrounding the center were their houses and workshops Many worked in the first story of their home and lived above the shop Apprentices lived above the shop owner More prestigious groups lived in occupational districts near the city center Those involved in noxious activities lived closer to city walls

88 The medieval city Some districts were defined by ethnicity
Jews were forced to live in their own district in most medieval cities In Frankfurt am Main, they lived on the Judengasse, a street formed from the dried-up moat that had run along the old wall to the city This area was enclosed by walls with only one guarded gate The area was not allowed to expand, leading by 1610 to a population of 3,000 people and one of the densest districts in the city

89 The Renaissance and baroque periods
Form and function of the city changed significantly during the Renaissance (1500 — 1600) and baroque ( ) periods Absolute monarchs arose to preside over a unified nation-state Rising middle class slowly gave up their freedoms to join with the king in pursuit of economic gain City size grew rapidly because bureaucracies of regional power structures came to dominate them Trade patterns expanded with the beginning of European imperial conquest City planning and military technology acted to remold and constrain the physical form of the city

90 The Renaissance and baroque periods
A national capital city rose to prominence in most countries Provincial cities were subjected to its tastes Power was centralized in its precincts First office buildings were built to house a growing bureaucracy Most important, it was restructured to reflect the power of the central government and insure control over urban masses

91 Capitalism in the Renaissance City: Amsterdam, Netherlands

92 Capitalism in the Renaissance City: Amsterdam, Netherlands
Amsterdam has always been a commercial city. Situated where dike crossed the Amstel, its harbor was easily accessed from the sea. Essentially at sea level, its quays and streets were flanked by canals. It flourished as a trading center and by the 17th century, had an extensive collection of warehouses and the largest public bank in northern Europe.

93 Capitalism in the Renaissance City: Amsterdam, Netherlands
As the city prospered, the walls were expanded and new canals dug to line residential streets designated for a prestigious, residential neighborhood with 30 foot (9.1 meter) lots. These 17th century merchant homes are only 20 feet (6.1 meters) wide because speculators purchased two 30 foot lots and sold them as three 20 foot lots. The upper story was used for storage of goods.

94 The Renaissance and baroque periods
Height of baroque planning between 1600 and 1800 During the 1800s, Napoleon III carried out a building plan in Paris Cobblestone streets carefully paved to prevent loose ammunition for rioting Parisians Streets were straightened and widened, and cul-de-sacs broken down to give army space to maneuver

95 Baroque Planning: Paris, France
Parisians were always conscious of the beauty of the Seine and exploited it in the 16h and 17th centuries with bridges and promenades along its banks. These highlights aside, in 1840 the city remained a warren of narrow, filthy and crowded streets. But under the direction of Napoleon III and Baron Haussman, much of the city was transformed.

96 Baroque Planning: Paris, France
Masses of people were displaced as boulevards and avenues, squares and parks, bazaars and arcades, and luxurious housing blocks were installed. The 19th century was also an era of exhibitions where nations showed off their art and technology to the world. In 1889, Paris displayed Gustave Eiffel’s tower, the world’s highest structure, testament to the age of iron and steel. The photo is taken from Ile de la Cite, Parish’ original island site in the Seine River.

97 Baroque Planning: Paris, France


99 The Renaissance and baroque periods
Thousands were displaced as apartment buildings were demolished Many ended up in congested working-class sections of east and north Paris The east and north sections are still crowded today In these developments, we see the coming modern city Washington, D.C., originally designed by a French planner


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