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Chapter 20 Organic Chemistry

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1 Chapter 20 Organic Chemistry
Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 1st Ed. Nivaldo Tro Chapter 20 Organic Chemistry Roy Kennedy Massachusetts Bay Community College Wellesley Hills, MA 2008, Prentice Hall

2 Structure Determines Properties
Organic compounds all contain carbon CO, CO2 , carbonates and carbides are inorganic other common elements are H, O, N, (P, S) Carbon has versatile bonding patterns chains, rings, multiple bonds chain length nearly limitless Carbon compounds generally covalent molecular; gases, liquids, or low melting solids; varying solubilities; nonconductive in liquid C - C bonds unreactive (very stable) Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

3 Bond Energies and Reactivities
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

4 Allotropes of Carbon - Diamond
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

5 Allotropes of Carbon - Graphite
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

6 Carbon Bonding mainly forms covalent bonds
C is most stable when it has 4 single covalent bonds, but does form double and triple bonds C=C and C≡C are more reactive than C−C C with 4 single bonds is tetrahedral, 2 singles and 1 double is trigonal planar 2 doubles or 1 triple and 1 single is linear Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

7 Hydrocarbons hydrocarbons contain only C and H insoluble in water
aliphatic or aromatic insoluble in water no polar bonds to attract water molecules aliphatic hydrocarbons saturated or unsaturated aliphatics saturated = alkanes, unsaturated = alkenes or alkynes may be chains or rings chains may be straight or branched aromatic hydrocarbons Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

8 Uses of Hydrocarbons Number of C atoms State Major Uses 1-4 gas
heating and cooking fuel 5-7 liquids, (low boiling) solvents, gasoline 6-18 liquids gasoline 12-24 jet fuel; camp stove fuel 18-50 (high boiling) diesel fuel, lubricants, heating oil 50+ solids petroleum jelly, paraffin wax 1-4 gas heating and cooking fuel 5-7 liquids, (low boiling) solvents, gasoline 6-18 liquids gasoline 12-24 liquids jet fuel; camp stove fuel 18-50 liquids, (high boiling) diesel fuel, lubricants, heating oil 50+ solids petroleum jelly, paraffin wax

9 Saturated Hydrocarbons
a saturated hydrocarbon has all C-C single bonds it is saturated with hydrogens saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons are called alkanes chain alkanes have the general formula CnH2n+2 Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

10 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
unsaturated hydrocarbons have one of more C=C double bonds or CC triple bonds unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons that contain C=C are called alkenes the general formula of a monounsaturated chain alkene is CnH2n remove 2 more H for each additional unsaturation unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons that contain CC are called alkynes the general formula of a monounsaturated chain alkyne is CnH2n-2 remove 4 more H for each additional unsaturation Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

11 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

12 Aromatic Hydrocarbons
contain benzene ring structure even though they are often drawn with C=C, they do not behave like alkenes Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

13 alkynes alkanes alkenes Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

14 Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

15 Formulas molecular formulas just tell you what kinds of atoms are in the molecule, but they don’t tell you how they are attached structural formulas show you the attachment pattern in the molecule models not only show you the attachment pattern, but give you an idea about the shape of the molecule

16 Condensed Structural Formulas
attached atoms listed in order central atom with attached atoms follow normal bonding patterns use to determine position of multiple bonds () used to indicate more than 1 identical group attached to same previous central atom unless () group listed first in which case attached to next central atom Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

17 Line-Angle Formulas each angle, and beginning and end represent a C atom H omitted on C included on functional groups multiple bonds indicated double line is double bond, triple line is triple bond Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

18 Formulas Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

19 Formulas Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

20 Isomerism Isomers = different molecules with the same molecular formula Structural Isomers = different pattern of atom attachment Constitutional Isomers Stereoisomers = same atom attachments, different spatial orientation Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

21 Structural Isomers of C4H10
Butane, BP = 0°C Isobutane, BP = -12°C Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

22 Rotation about a bond is not isomerism
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

23 Possible Structural Isomers
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

24 Ex 20.1 – Write the structural formula and carbon skeleton formula for C6H14
start by connecting the carbons in a line determine the C skeleton of the other isomers Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

25 Ex 20.1 – Write the structural formula and carbon skeleton formula for C6H14
fill in the H to give each C 4 bonds

26 Ex 20.1 – Write the structural formula and carbon skeleton formula for C6H14
convert each to a carbon skeleton formula – each bend and the ends represent C atoms

27 Stereoisomers stereoisomers are different molecules whose atoms are connected in the same order, but have a different spatial direction optical isomers are molecules that are nonsuperimposable mirror images of each other geometric isomers are stereoisomers that are not optical isomers Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

28 Nonsuperimposable Mirror Images
mirror image cannot be rotated so all its atoms align with the same atoms of the original molecule Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

29 Chirality any molecule with a nonsuperimposable mirror image is said to be chiral any carbon with 4 different substituents will be a chiral center a pair of nonsuperimposable mirror images are called a pair of enantiomers Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

30 Optical Isomers of 3-methylhexane
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

31 Plane Polarized Light light that has been filtered so that only those waves traveling in a single plane are allowed through Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

32 Optical Activity a pair of enantiomers have all the same physical properties except one – the direction they rotate the plane of plane polarized light each will rotate the plane the same amount, but in opposite directions dextrorotatory = rotate to the right levorotatory = rotate to the left an equimolar mixture of the pair is called a racemic mixture rotations cancel, so no net rotation Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

33 Chemical Behavior of Enantiomers
a pair of enantiomers will have the same chemical reactivity in a non-chiral environment but in a chiral environment they may exhibit different behaviors enzyme selection of one enantiomer of a pair Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

34 Alkanes aka paraffins aliphatic general formula CnH2n+2 for chains
very unreactive come in chains or/and rings CH3 groups at ends of chains, CH2 groups in the middle chains may be straight or branched saturated branched or unbranched Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

35 Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

36 Naming each name consists of 3 parts prefix parent suffix
indicates position, number, and type of branches indicates position, number, and type of each functional group parent indicates the length of the longest carbon chain or ring suffix indicates the type of hydrocarbon ane, ene, yne certain functional groups Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

37 Naming Alkanes Find the longest continuous carbon chain
Number the chain from end closest to a branch if first branches equal distance use next in Name branches as alkyl groups locate each branch by preceding its name with the carbon number on the chain List branches alphabetically do not count n-, sec-, t-, count iso Use prefix if more than one of same group present di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa do not count in alphabetizing

38 Alkyl Groups C H 3 - , M E T Y L 2 P R O ( ) I S
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

39 More Alkyl Groups C H 3 ( ) 2 - , I S O B U T Y L s e c n tert- B U T
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

40 Examples of Naming Alkanes
H H H H H H C C C C C H H CH3 H H H 2-methylpentane H CH3 H H H H H C C C C C C H H CH3 CH H H H CH3 CH3 3-isopropyl-2,2-dimethylhexane Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

41 Example – Name the alkane
find the longest continuous C chain and use it to determine the base name since the longest chain has 5 C the base name is pentane Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

42 Example – Name the alkane
identify the substituent branches there are 2 substituents both are 1 C chains, called methyl Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

43 Example – Name the alkane
number the chain from the end closest to a substituent branch if first substituents equidistant from end, go to next substituent in then assign numbers to each substituent based on the number of the main chain C it’s attached to both substituents are equidistant from the end Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

44 Example – Name the alkane
write the name in the following order substituent number of first alphabetical substituent followed by dash substituent name of first alphabetical substituent followed by dash if it’s the last substituent listed, no dash use prefixes to indicate multiple identical substituents repeat for other substituents alphabetically name of main chain 2,4 – dimethyl pentane Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

45 Practice – Name the Following
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

46 Practice – Name the Following
3-ethyl-2-methylpentane Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

47 Drawing Structural Formulas
4-ethyl-2-methylhexane draw and number the base chain carbon skeleton add the carbon skeletons of each substituent on the appropriate main chain C add in required H’s Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

48 Practice – Draw the structural formula of 4-isopropyl-2-methylheptane
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

49 Practice – Draw the structural formula of 4-isopropyl-2-methylheptane
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

50 Alkenes also known as olefins aliphatic, unsaturated
C=C double bonds formula for one double bond = CnH2n subtract 2 H from alkane for each double bond trigonal shape around C flat much more reactive than alkanes polyunsaturated = many double bonds Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

51 Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

52 Alkenes ethene = ethylene propene Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

53 Physical Properties of Alkenes
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

54 Alkynes also known as acetylenes aliphatic, unsaturated
CºC triple bond formula for one triple bond = CnH2n-2 subtract 4 H from alkane for each triple bond linear shape more reactive than alkenes Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

55 Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

56 Alkynes ethyne = acetylene propyne
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

57 Physical Properties of Alkynes
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

58 Naming Alkenes and Alkynes
change suffix on main name from -ane to -ene for base name of alkene, or to -yne for the base name of the alkyne number chain from end closest to multiple bond number in front of main name indicates first carbon of multiple bond Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

59 Examples of Naming Alkenes
H H H H C C C C C H H CH3 H H H 2-methyl-1-pentene H CH H H H C C C C C C H H CH3 CH H H H CH3 CH3 3-isopropyl-2,2-dimethyl-3-hexene Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

60 Examples of Naming Alkynes
H H H H C C C C C H CH3 H H 3-methyl-1-pentyne H CH3 H H H C C C C C C H H CH3 CH H CH3 CH3 4-isopropyl-5,5-dimethyl-2-hexyne Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

61 since the longest chain with the double bond has 6 C
Name the Alkene find the longest, continuous C chain that contains the double bond and use it to determine the base name since the longest chain with the double bond has 6 C the base name is hexene Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

62 Name the Alkene identify the substituent branches
there are 2 substituents one is a 1 C chain, called methyl the other one is a 2 C chain, called ethyl Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

63 Name the Alkene number the chain from the end closest to the double bond then assign numbers to each substituent based on the number of the main chain C it’s attached to 4 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

64 Name the Alkene write the name in the following order 3–ethyl–
substituent number of first alphabetical substituent – substituent name of first alphabetical substituent – use prefixes to indicate multiple identical substituents repeat for other substituents number of first C in double bond – name of main chain 4 3 3–ethyl– 4–methyl– 2–hexene 1 2 3 4 5 6 Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

65 Practice – Name the Following
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

66 Practice – Name the Following
3 4 5 6 2 1 3,4-dimethyl-3-hexene Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

67 Name the Alkyne find the longest, continuous C chain that contains the triple bond and use it to determine the base name since the longest chain with the triple bond has 7 C the base name is heptyne Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

68 Name the Alkyne identify the substituent branches
there are 2 substituents one is a 1 C chain, called methyl the other one is called isopropyl Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

69 Name the Alkyne number the chain from the end closest to the triple bond then assign numbers to each substituent based on the number of the main chain C it’s attached to 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4 6 Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

70 Name the Alkyne write the name in the following order 4–isopropyl–
substituent number of first alphabetical substituent – substituent name of first alphabetical substituent – use prefixes to indicate multiple identical substituents repeat for other substituents number of first C in double bond – name of main chain 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4 6 4–isopropyl– 6–methyl– 2–heptyne Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

71 Practice – Name the Following
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

72 Practice – Name the Following
3 2 1 4 5 3,3-dimethyl-1-pentyne Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

73 Geometric Isomerism because the rotation around a double bond is highly restricted, you will have different molecules if groups have different spatial orientation about the double bond this is often called cis-trans isomerism when groups on the doubly bonded carbons are cis, they are on the same side when groups on the doubly bonded carbons are trans, they are on opposite sides Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

74 Free Rotation Around C─C
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

75 Cis-Trans Isomerism Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

76 Reactions of Hydrocarbons
all hydrocarbons undergo combustion combustion is always exothermic about 90% of U.S. energy generated by combustion 2 CH3CH2CH2CH3(g) + 13 O2(g) → 8 CO2(g) + 10 H2O(g) CH3CH=CHCH3(g) + 6 O2(g) → 4 CO2(g) + 4 H2O(g) 2 CH3CCCH3(g) + 11 O2(g) → 8 CO2(g) + 6 H2O(g) Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

77 Other Alkane Reactions
Substitution replace H with a halogen atom initiated by addition of energy in the form of heat or ultraviolet light to start breaking bonds generally get multiple products with multiple substitutions Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

78 Other Alkene and Alkyne Reactions
Addition reactions adding a molecule across the multiple bond Hydrogenation = adding H2 converts unsaturated molecule to saturated alkene or alkyne + H2 → alkane Halogenation = adding X2 Hydrohalogenation = adding HX HX is polar when adding a polar reagent to a double or triple bond, the positive part attaches to the carbon with the most H’s

79 Addition Reactions Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

80 Aromatic Hydrocarbons
contain benzene ring structure even though they are often drawn with C=C, they do not behave like alkenes Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

81 Resonance Hybrid the true structure of benzene is a resonance hybrid of two structures Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

82 Naming Monosubstituted Benzene Derivatives
(name of substituent)benzene halogen substituent = change ending to “o” fluorobenzene propylbenzene or name of a common derivative Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

83 Naming Benzene as a Substituent
when the benzene ring is not the base name, it is called a phenyl group 4-phenyl-1-hexene Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

84 Naming Disubstituted Benzene Derivatives
number the ring starting at attachment for first substituent, then move toward second order substituents alphabetically use “di” if both substituents the same 1 2 3 1-bromo-3-fluorobenzene 1 2 1,2-dimethylbenzene Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

85 Naming Disubstituted Benzene Derivatives
alternatively, use relative position prefix ortho- = 1,2; meta- = 1,3; para- = 1,4 2-chlorotoluene ortho-chlorotoluene o-chlorotoluene 3-chlorotoluene meta-chlorotoluene m-chlorotoluene 4-chlorotoluene para-chlorotoluene p-chlorotoluene Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

86 Practice – Name the Following
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

87 Practice – Name the Following
1-chloro-4-fluorobenzene 1,3-dibromobenzene or meta-dibromobenzene or m-dibromobenzene Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

88 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
contain multiple benzene rings fused together fusing = sharing a common bond Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

89 Reactions of Aromatic Hydrocarbons
most commonly, aromatic hydrocarbons undergo substitution reactions – replacing H with another atom or group Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

90 Functional Groups other organic compounds are hydrocarbons in which functional groups have been substituted for hydrogens a functional group is a group of atoms that show a characteristic influence on the properties of the molecule generally, the reactions that a compound will perform are determined by what functional groups it has since the kind of hydrocarbon chain is irrelevant to the reactions, it may be indicated by the general symbol R CH3—OH R group functional group Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

91

92 Alcohols R-OH ethanol = CH3CH2OH isopropyl alcohol = (CH3)2CHOH
grain alcohol = fermentation of sugars alcoholic beverages proof number = 2X percentage of alcohol gasohol isopropyl alcohol = (CH3)2CHOH 2-propanol rubbing alcohol poisonous methanol = CH3OH wood alcohol = thermolysis of wood paint solvent Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

93 Naming Alcohols main chain contain OH
number main chain from end closest to OH give base name ol ending and place number of C on chain where OH attached in front name as hydroxy group if other higher precedence group present 1 2 3 4 5 6 4-ethyl-4-methyl-3-hex-5-enol Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

94 Reactions of Alcohols CH3 OH + HCl ® CH3Cl + H2O
Nucleophilic Substitution CH3 OH HCl ® CH3Cl + H2O Acid Catalyzed Elimination (Dehydration) CH CH2OH ® CH2 CH H2O H2SO4 Oxidation CH CH2OH ® CH CHO ® CH COOH - 2 H with Reactive Metals CH3 OH Na ® CH3O−Na ½ H2 Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

95 Aldehydes and Ketones contain the carbonyl group
aldehydes = at least 1 side H ketones = both sides R groups many aldehydes and ketones have pleasant tastes and aromas some are pheromones formaldehyde = H2C=O pungent gas formalin = a preservative wood smoke, carcinogenic acetone = CH3C(=O)CH3 nail-polish remover formaldehyde acetone Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

96 Aldehyde Odors and Flavors
butanal = butter vanillin = vanilla benzaldehyde = almonds cinnamaldehyde = cinnamon

97 Ketone Odors and Flavors
acetophenone = pistachio carvone = spearmint ionone = raspberries muscone = musk

98 Reactions aldehydes and ketones are generally synthesized by the oxidation of alcohols therefore, reduction of an aldehyde or ketone results in an alcohol Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

99 Carbonyl Group C=O group is highly polar
many reactions involve addition across C=O, with positive part attached to O Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

100 Addition to C=O Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

101 Carboxylic Acids RCOOH sour tasting weak acids citric acid
found in citrus fruit ethanoic acid = acetic acid vinegar methanoic acid = formic acid insect bites and stings Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

102 Carboxylic Acids made by the oxidation of aldehydes and alcohols
OH on the end of the chain always on main chain has highest precedence C of group always C1 position not indicated in name change ending to oic acid Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

103 Naming Carboxylic Acids
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

104 Esters R–COO–R sweet odor
methyl butanoate R–COO–R sweet odor made by reacting carboxylic acid with an alcohol RaCOOH + RbOH  RaCOORb + H2O name alkyl group from alcohol, then acid name with oate ending precedence over carbonyls, but not carboxylic acid number from end with ester group aspirin Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

105 Naming Esters Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

106 Condensation Reactions
a condensation reaction is any organic reaction driven by the removal of a small molecule, like water acid anhydrides are made by the condensation reaction between 2 carboxylic acid molecules the reaction is driven by heat esters are made by the condensation reaction between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol the reaction is acid catalyzed Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

107 Synthesis of Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic Acid)
Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

108 Ethers R– O – R ether = diethyl ether = CH3CH2OCH2CH3
anesthetic to name ethers, name each alkyl group attached to the O, then add the word ether to the end diethyl ether Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

109 Amines N containing organic molecules very bad smelling
form when proteins decompose organic bases name alkyl groups attached to the N, then add the word amine to the end putrescine ethylamine ethylmethylamine cadaverine Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

110 Amines many amines are biologically active
dopamine – a neurotransmitter epinephrine – an adrenal hormone pyridoxine – vitamin B6 alkaloids are plant products that are alkaline and biologically active toxic coniine from hemlock cocaine from coca leaves nicotine from tobacco leaves mescaline from peyote cactus morphine from opium poppies Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

111 RCOOH + HNHR’  RCONHR’ + H2O
Amine Reactions weak bases react with strong acids to form ammonium salts RNH2 + HCl → RNH3+Cl− react with carboxylic acids in a condensation reaction to form amides RCOOH + HNHR’  RCONHR’ + H2O Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

112 Macromolecules polymers are very large molecules made by repeated linking together of small molecules monomers natural modified natural polymers synthetic plastics, elastomers (rubber), fabrics, adhesives composites additives such as graphite, glass, metallic flakes Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

113 Natural Polymers polysaccharides proteins nucleic acids (DNA)
cellulose (cotton) starch proteins nucleic acids (DNA) natural latex rubber, etc. shellac amber, lignin, pine rosin asphalt, tar Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

114 Modified Natural Polymers
Cellulose Acetate Rayon film Vulcanized Rubber Gun Cotton Celluloid ping-pong balls Gutta Percha fill space for root canal Casein buttons, mouldings, adhesives Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

115 Polymerization the process of linking the monomer units together
two processes are addition polymerization and condensation polymerization monomers may link head-to-tail, or head-to-head, or tail-to-tail head-to-tail most common regular pattern gives stronger attractions between chains than random arrangements Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

116 Head-to-Tail Head-to-Head, Tail-to-Tail Cl C H H C Cl Head Tail Head

117 Addition Polymerization
monomers add to the growing chain in such a manner that all the atoms in the original monomer wind up in the chain no other side products formed, no atoms eliminated first monomer must “open” to start reaction done with heat or addition of an initiator chain reaction each added unit ready to add another Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

118 Addition Polymerization
initiator etc. initiator C H Cl Cl C H + Cl C H +

119 Condensation Polymerization
monomer units are joined by removing small molecules from the combining units polyesters, polyamides lose water no initiator needed chain reaction each monomer has two reactive ends, so chain can grow in two directions Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

120 Condensation Polymerization
+ C O H + H O C 2 H C O 2 + H2O Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

121 Nylon polyamides good physical properties very good heat resistance
affected by moisture very good heat resistance excellent chemical resistance excellent wear resistance nylon 6,6 made by condensing ,6–hexandiamine, H2N–(CH2)6–NH2, with hexandioic acid, HOOC–(CH2)4–COOH ( C H 2 ) 6 N O 4 Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

122 Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach


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