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Age of Faith, Renaissance and Reformation

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1 Age of Faith, Renaissance and Reformation


3 Middle Ages 500-1000 AD-churches looted, priests uneducated
People lived in small towns for protection Worked and lived on Manor- castle, church, farmland- people did not own anything… Dark Ages: classical works, philosophies deemed inappropriate for Godly life Age of Faith 1000 AD- monasteries refurbished, popes sought power Problems of Church Priests were married with families Church positions were sold- simony Kings controlled Bishops

4 Church Abuses Friars wandered, lived in poverty, but corrupt
Some were uneducated, unable to read or write Church leaders spent on pleasure- common people lived in poverty Sought Indulgences- pay for forgiveness Called for high taxes

5 Reform of Church Cluny, France (910): Benedictine monastary founded- studied virtue and devotion to God Popes restructured Church to act as Kingdom-Pope Leo IX 1049 Ruling Class, territory, taxation to pay for land Forbade Simony and marriage of priests Advisors for Pope (Curia) established to act as court- developed canon law Curia traveled to deal w/ Bishops, Kings Church collected Taxes 1/10 of personal income

6 Crusades: Holy War Pope Urban II: issued a call of arms to protect Constantinople from invading Muslim Turks Crusades to take back Holy Land launched Economic & Religious motivations Church and Kings happy to send Knights away: they were a threat to King and Church power Some Knights looking for land & opportunity Merchants leased ships to transport armies; provided loans to finance wars Children’s Crusade: 1212

7 The Crusades ‘Come then, with all your people and give battle with all your strength, so that all this treasure shall not fall into the hands of the Turks…Therefore, act while there is still time lest the kingdom of the Christians shall vanish from your sight and, what is more important, the Holy Tomb shall vanish. And in your coming you will find your reward in heaven, and if you do not come, God will condemn you.’ Emperor Alexius Comnenus-Byzantine Empire


9 Four Crusades 1st & 2nd (1097): Knights primarily French- German, Scots, Italians, Spaniards too No great strategy; quarreled, didn’t understand geography Finally conquered small portion in Jerusalem (1099) Area near Jerusalem reconquered in 1144

10 Effects of Crusades 3rd Crusade led by Richard the Lion-Hearted
Agreement w/ Muslim leader, Saladin (1192) Jerusalem would remain in hands of Muslims, Christians could travel freely Another Crusade (4th) began in 1198: Knights who took part sacked Constantinople A permanent divide would ensue: Roman Catholics and Eastern Orthodox Byzantine Empire was weakened Pope’s power weakened Kings became stronger Religious intolerance grows Trade increases between Europe & M. East Muslim distrust of Christians European technology improves: learned from Muslims

11 Historical Perspectives
Let the holy sepulcher of our Lord and Savior, which is possessed by the unclean nations, especially arouse you… This royal city [Jerusalem], situated at the center of the earth is now held captive the enemies of Christ and is subjected, by those who do not know God, to the worship of the heathen. Accordingly, undertake this journey eagerly for the remission of your sins, with the assurance of the reward of imperishable glory in the kingdom of heaven. - Pope Urban II, 1095 The most important legacy of the crusading movement was the sanctification [making holy] of violence in pursuit of ideas. This was not a new concept, but it took on new force when the Pope and the flower of Christian chivalry acted it out in the holy wars. The underlying concept out-lived its religious origin, ..and the state gradually replaced the Church as a holy cause. - Norman Cantor, Historian

12 Renaissance: Set the Stage
People suffered during Middle Ages- disease, corruption, death Church taught that life was not joyous, but a devotion to God Social Advancement during Middle Ages was discouraged

13 Renaissance and Italy 1300-1600: explosion of creativity
Rebirth of art and learning- moving away from dark period in Europe Renaissance fostered in Italy: Thriving cities Wealthy merchants Classical heritage of Greece & Rome Latin language still taught at universities

14 Artists Reflected Renaissance Ideals
Chancellor Rolin of Burgandy (later France) commissioned a painting of himself by Jan van Eyck (Flemish) Renaissance painters influenced by classical art Renaissance painters captured the importance of individuals Artists included objects in painting that depicted beauty Renaissance artists portrayed biblical characters in modernity People sought relevancy of religion in their own lives

15 Urban Centers Crusades opened up overseas trade
Towns grew in size- Northern Italy Cities are a place of new ideas and new products Cities hit hard by plague- survivors could demand higher wages Merchants grew wealthy- pursued interests in art and literature

16 Merchants Merchants became powerful politicians in Italian city-states
Did not inherit social class- earned it through shrewd business deals Merchants became lenders Merchants increased trade and banking

17 Classical Heritage Scholars looked down on Middle Ages
Artists drew inspiration from classical Rome ruins Scholars studied Latin manuscripts & ancient Greek manuscripts Humanists: focused on human potential and achievements Humanists popularized subjects of classical education: history, literature, philosophy

18 The Reformation- Extension of New Thoughts
Renaissance challenged Church authority Kings resented Pope’s attempts at control Germany (not unified) was chalk-full of competing royals Pope struggled to implement absolute authority in Germany A new movement that sought freedom from the Church began in Germany

19 Reformation Background
Church corruption Popes fought wars, spent extravagantly & disregarded spiritual duties John Wycliffe of England and Jan Hus of Czechoslovakia Denied the Popes had worldly powers Taught bible had more authority than religious leader Wycliffe exonerated from Church, Hus burned at the stake

20 Martin Luther Luther was a Monk, studied theology & taught at the University of Wittenberg Sought to reform Catholic Church, not revolt against it Unhappy w/ his path in life- prayed, fasted, did penance Felt rejected by God Determined the only way to salvation was faith and good deeds

21 Wittenberg Worms

22 Luther’s Reforms Johann Tetzel: Friar selling indulgences in Wittenberg, 1517 Money was used to rebuild St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome Indulgences gave the impression that man could buy his way into heaven Luther angered by the acts of indulgence Sought to reform the practices of the Catholic Church

23 Luther’s 95 Theses October 31, 1517 nailed 95 formal arguments against the Catholic Church to the church doors in Wittenberg Luther opened the way for a debate about Church practices Luther went beyond attacking indulgences- he sought a reform of the church People could win salvation thru faith alone All church teaching should be based on the words in the Bible All people with faith are equal- no need for Priests to determine faith for a person Denied authority of Pope

24 Luther’s Message Spreads
95 Theses not meant to spread beyond Wittenberg Printing Press added to Luther’s message- soon 95 Theses were spread thru Germany w/in weeks Pope labeled Luther a viable threat- sent word for him to recant his teachings- known as the Papal Bull In defiance- Luther burned Pope’s message in front of students

25 Diet of Worms Charles V (King of Spain and Holy Roman Empire) feared Luther’s influence Luther put on trial in Worms, Germany Trial demanded Luther recant Luther didn’t recant, saying “Here I stand, God help me” Charles V issued the Edict of Worms: Luther is a heretic and outlaw No one should provide food or shelter to him All his books were to be burned

26 The Reformation takes Hold
Luther went into hiding at Wartburg Castle in Eisenach, Germany Spent a year translating Bible into German New Testament published in 1522 Churches across Germany did away w/ Mass & implemented new Communion Services done in German, not Latin Ministers began to wed Separatists became Lutherans Luther did not preach violence- commoners revolted though across Germany

27 German Response to Luther

28 The Counter Reformation or Catholic Reformation
This information, as well as an analysis of artists and thinkers during the Renaissance period will be examined in your homework assignment. The assignment is for you to do over the next few days. We will discuss when you come back after Thanksgiving break.

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