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Integrated Enterprise Architecture Conference th/10th March 2010

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Presentation on theme: "Integrated Enterprise Architecture Conference th/10th March 2010"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Integrated Enterprise Architecture Conference 2010 9th/10th March 2010
Use of an Activity Model to Underpin Enterprise Evolution in Capability Management Integrated Enterprise Architecture Conference 2010 9th/10th March 2010 Copyright © 2010 BAE Systems. All rights reserved.

3 Authors Malcolm Touchin, Principal Consultant, Systems Engineering Innovation Centre Alan Harding, Consultant Systems Engineer, BAE Systems Integrated System Technologies Stewart Leinster-Evans, ISBM Architect, BAE Systems Doug Westphal, Electronics, Intelligence and Support Operating Group, BAE Systems David Hawken, Systems Engineering Integration Group, UK MoD MoD Slides have been provided by the UK MoD Systems Engineering and Integration Group, under Crown Copyright. All other material is copyright to BAE Systems plc

4 Contents Introduction The Need for Enterprise Structures The Cube
The Activity Model Illustrations and Example Summary

5 Hurricane Katrina – USA 2005
WASHINGTON (CNN) -- After being roundly criticized in a slew of media, congressional and government reports, the Federal Emergency Management Agency's internal watchdog Friday returned its own verdict on the handling of Hurricane Katrina: The criticism against FEMA is largely deserved.

6 UK 2007 Floods

7 So what’s the Problem? Enterprises have many, often diverse, assets:
Equipment Infrastructure People Process/procedures Cultures and behaviours Often organised into ‘Functions’: “Blue-light" emergency services Health Services Telecommunications Recovery Transport Experience and financial imperatives suggest that the operations of the Enterprise should be managed to optimise overall outcomes Outcomes are achieved through realising the Enterprise's capability(ies)

8 Capability and Functional Groupings
88 Sample text slide Capability and Functional Groupings Enterprise Goal Outcome Enterprise Capability Enterprise Function Grouping Operational Grouping Business Function System Copyright © 2005 BAE Systems. All rights reserved.

9 System of Systems Approach
In principle, any suitably connected (sub)set of the assets can be regarded as forming a System of Systems (SoS), but on which of the many possible SoS should the Enterprise focus: Operational Groupings to achieve Outcomes Functional Groupings Specific assets (equipment, repair facilities, e.g.) Cost centres Geographic Locations? Importance of outcomes is gaining recognition; this means understanding the capabilities of the enterprise

10 Definitions - System A system is a combination of interacting elements organized to achieve one or more stated purposes [INCOSE Systems Engineering Handbook] A system is an open set of complementary, interacting parts with properties, capabilities, and behaviours emerging both from the parts and from their interactions [Hitchins, ‘Putting Systems to Work’]

11 Definitions - System of Systems (SoS)
A set or arrangement of systems that results when independent and useful systems are integrated into a larger system that delivers unique capabilities [DoD Defense Acquisition Guidebook 2004] System of Systems applies to a System-of-Interest (SoI) whose system elements are themselves systems; typically these entail large scale inter-disciplinary problems with multiple, heterogeneous, distributed systems [INCOSE-TP , Systems Engineering Handbook V.3] Key properties of the SoS: Each of the systems of interest (SoI) is independently capable of achieving a stated purpose But, as a System, the SoS has emergent behaviour that is realised through the integrating functions of the SoS The other elements of the SoS are infrastructure that either provide connectivity or support of the SoI

12 Definitions - Capability
(noun) - The power or ability to do something (OED) Capability is the enduring ability to generate a desired operational outcome or effect, and is relative to the threat, physical environment and the contributions of coalition partners (UK MoD) Capability is the ability to achieve a desired effect under specified standards and conditions through combinations of means and ways to perform a set of tasks (US DoD)

13 Enterprise Capability
An Enterprise may have many specific capabilities Need to structure them, e.g.: Transport Road, rail, air, etc Passenger, freight, courier, etc. Local, long distance, international, etc. Defence Anti-submarine warfare, surveillance, etc. Homeland, expeditionary, disaster relief, etc. Responses to Emergencies Dealing with mass casualties Evacuation and Shelter Humanitarian Assistance in Emergencies Security and Policing

14 Levels of Engineering Experience shows that Systems Engineering needs to be applied at differing levels – with potential variations in approach: Capability Engineering – focussing on the capabilities needed to achieve the Enterprise goal System of Systems Engineering – focussing on how system-of-systems can be engineered to optimise capability and on coherence across all Enterprise functions Project Systems Engineering – focussing on project delivery of specific systems and services

15 Ways and Means Need a range of different ways and means*, or functions, to realise capability, such as: People Equipment Procedures Infrastructure Support Contributions from all of these need to be integrated and harmonised effectively to enable each specific capability (*UK MoD – DLoDs, US DoD – DOTMLPF, and so on)

16 Enterprise Functional Organisation
Contributions must be managed individually and co-ordinated overall to ensure that intended capabilities are achieved Generally managed through functional groups, such as: People (including Training and Organisational structures) Process (including Legislation, Strategy, Management Information) Equipment & Technology Infrastructure Sustainment They also need to be integrated and harmonised across all capabilities of the Enterprise, while recognising the many constraints, including for example: Resources Physical space Time and Funds

17 Lifecycle Time and lifecycle phase affect how systems engineering is applied Enduring nature of Capability implies a lifecycle/time dimension Phases/timing vary with level and Enterprise function Synchronisation and communication needed between levels/functions Levels Capability Management – recognising endurance, and distinction between planning and deployment System of Systems Engineering – co-ordinates between lifecycles of disparate functions Systems Engineering – various (project) lifecycles: ISO/IEC 15288 Service lifecycles (e.g. ITIL) Concept Development Production Utilisation / Support Retirement

18 Capability Engineering Model
People Process Equipment & Technology Infrastructure Sustainment Concept Development Production Utilisation Support Retirement Capability Management Systems of Systems Engineering Systems Engineering

19 Capability Determination & Planning Capability Analysis
System of Systems Architecting & Analysis System Architecting & Analysis System Design, Build & Integration Component Design, Build & Integration Concept Exploration & Technology Development Element Sustainment & Engineering Operational Package Integration & Deployment Element Integration Operations Concept/Plans Development/Production Utilisation/Support Disposal/Retirement Capability System of Systems Systems Component Concept and Technology Development

20 Architecting across Capabilities
There are areas (activities) in the model where there will be ‘touch points’ across the capabilities, including: Search and Rescue Establishing capability needs Architecting within individual functions Deploying capabilities to an operation Emergency Accommodation Security

21 Underpinning Enterprise Evolution
When planning for a change in operational capability, the model supports identifying: What steps (activities) to undertake to make the change What impact specific changes might have across the Enterprise What each Enterprise Function needs to contribute The change implementation plan When deploying a change in operational capability, the model supports identifying: How the change will integrate with other deployed capability What will be needed to sustain the capability How lessons learnt influence future deployment

22 Using the Model The model is a framework within which the full set of activities needed to realise a given operational capability, and their interrelationships, can be derived and visualised. This allows: Identification of priorities for change Taking different perspectives, e.g. PESTLE*, to support trade-off decisions An holistic, Enterprise-wide view to ensure that activities are optimised to achieve the desired outcomes Suppliers to: Identify business opportunities and risks Establish appropriate contracting and partnering arrangements (*PESTLE – Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal, Environmental)

23 Application of the Model
BAE Systems is using this model to explore the skills and competencies needed to support TLCM UK MoD (SEIG) is developing a System of Systems Approach based on similar thinking Illustration by way of a Hypothetical Disaster Relief Scenario BAE Systems is using this model to explore the skills and competencies needed to support TLCM UK MoD (SEIG) is developing a System of Systems Approach based on similar thinking Illustration by way of a Hypothetical Disaster Relief Scenario

24 Scenario Driven Capability Analysis System of System Architecting
Capability Determination & Planning Capability Analysis System of Systems Architecting & Analysis System Architecting & Analysis System Design, Build & Integration Component Design, Build & Integration Concept Exploration & Technology Development Element Sustainment & Engineering Operational Package Integration & Deployment Element Integration Operations Concept/Plans Development/Production Utilisation/Support Disposal/Retirement Capability System of Systems Systems Component Concept and Technology Development Scenario Driven Capability Analysis System of System Architecting Need to understand customers' capability needs and plans Need for new/additional skills in architecting and complex system modelling at the SoS level Ongoing system design and development, but with increased understanding of the wider picture Growing importance of sustainment business

25 Application of the Model
BAE Systems is using this model to explore the skills and competencies needed to support TLCM UK MoD (SEIG) is developing a System of Systems Approach based on similar thinking Illustration by way of a Hypothetical Disaster Relief Scenario

26 MoD’s Approach to System-of-Systems
David Hawken

27 System-of-Systems Approach (SOSA) Overview
Creation of a “SOSA rulebook” and associated processes, which together will provide a shared context across architecting domains on how MOD is to achieve the appropriate level of interoperability, reuse, standardisation and commonality. Affects: Heads of Capability Through-Life Capability Management Programme Boards and Programme Support Functions Domain Architects & Delivery Teams must actively use and contribute to the development of the SOSA operating model and rulebook A SOSA centric organisation will only be delivered by MOD working collaboratively No single organisation can deliver it on their own

28 The SOSA Model

29 Scope Incremental Programme SOSA 1.0
Focus on support to programme boards Systems & Services Equipment and Information DLODs only – Interoperability Aspects Programme Boards associated with NEC Key NEC Domain Architectures C4, ISTAR, Logs & (Alexin) Future SOSA Increments Expansion into other Domains Expansion into support for Capability Architecture Definition Expansion into Target Architecture and (necessary) Component Aspects

30 Application of the Model
BAE Systems is using this model to explore the skills and competencies needed to support TLCM UK MoD (SEIG) is developing a System of Systems Approach based on similar thinking Illustration by way of a Hypothetical Disaster Relief Scenario

31 Hypothetical Disaster Relief Scenario
First World country subject to flooding Informed by UK, Netherlands, USA Fairly typical example Localised – Lynmouth 1952, Boscastle 2004 Widespread – Netherlands 1953, Katrina 2005 National Emergency Planning Cell Government organisation Works with Government and Non-Governmental organisations Focus on: Risk assessment Planning and preparedness Capability management

32 Instantiating the Entity Model
Instantiating the Entity Model To protect life, property and return to normal living conditions as quickly as possible Search and recovery complete for specified area, appropriate re-visit rate National Emergency Planning Cell 24/7 search and rescue in complex flooded terrain Healthcare, Emergency Services, Army, Coastguard, Broadcast Media Flood rescue teams, casualty stations, asset protection Inshore boat, helicopter, pumping, communications, crew, flood maps, launch and recovery Strategy, Planning, Management Copyright © 2005 BAE Systems. All rights reserved.

33 Capability Determination & Planning
Capability Analysis System of Systems Architecting & Analysis System Architecting & Analysis System Design, Build & Integration Component Design, Build & Integration Concept Exploration & Technology Development Element Sustainment & Engineering Operational Package Integration & Deployment Element Integration Operations Concept/Plans Development/Production Utilisation/Support Disposal/Retirement Capability System of Systems Systems Component Concept and Technology Development Establish strategic needs for predicted flooding scenarios Analyse likely scenarios – causes, effects, likelihood Identify and prioritise required capabilities Consider results of previous and any ongoing emergencies Capability Determination & Planning Capability Analysis

34 System of Systems Architecting & Analysis
Capability Determination & Planning Capability Analysis System of Systems Architecting & Analysis System Architecting & Analysis System Design, Build & Integration Component Design, Build & Integration Concept Exploration & Technology Development Element Sustainment & Engineering Operational Package Integration & Deployment Element Integration Operations Concept/Plans Development/Production Utilisation/Support Disposal/Retirement Capability System of Systems Systems Component Concept and Technology Development System of Systems Architecting & Analysis Identify and select architectural approach Embody as generic planning guidance Manage constraints, governance, command and control Levy requirements on individual organisations and systems Monitor system developments for effects on planned capability Plan and conduct any specific integration, trials and exercises

35 Individual organisations manage developments or change:
Capability Determination & Planning Capability Analysis System of Systems Architecting & Analysis System Architecting & Analysis System Design, Build & Integration Component Design, Build & Integration Concept Exploration & Technology Development Element Sustainment & Engineering Operational Package Integration & Deployment Element Integration Operations Concept/Plans Development/Production Utilisation/Support Disposal/Retirement Capability System of Systems Systems Component Concept and Technology Development Individual organisations manage developments or change: New or modified in-shore boats Create or update to operating procedures Up-skill all crews in emergency first aid Establish interoperable communications systems System Architecting & Analysis System Design, Build & Integration Component Design, Build & Integration Element Integration

36 Operational Package Integration & Deployment
Capability Determination & Planning Capability Analysis System of Systems Architecting & Analysis System Architecting & Analysis System Design, Build & Integration Component Design, Build & Integration Concept Exploration & Technology Development Element Sustainment & Engineering Operational Package Integration & Deployment Element Integration Operations Concept/Plans Development/Production Utilisation/Support Disposal/Retirement Capability System of Systems Systems Component Concept and Technology Development Operations Operational Package Integration & Deployment Refine predictions of timing, location, severity with weather forecast Confirm and monitor required capabilities Develop harmonised architecture to deploy based on: Generic architecture Actual assets available Physical situation Monitor response and match between capabilities and needs Escalate immediate capability needs (e.g. from third party)

37 Element Sustainment & Engineering
Capability Determination & Planning Capability Analysis System of Systems Architecting & Analysis System Architecting & Analysis System Design, Build & Integration Component Design, Build & Integration Concept Exploration & Technology Development Element Sustainment & Engineering Operational Package Integration & Deployment Element Integration Operations Concept/Plans Development/Production Utilisation/Support Disposal/Retirement Capability System of Systems Systems Component Concept and Technology Development Monitor effective support to on-going operation Fuel, consumables Food and shelter Repair and maintenance Maps and information Ensure that operations are sustainable Confirm post-operation recovery Identify new/changed requirements Element Sustainment & Engineering

38 Concept Exploration & Technology Development
Capability Determination & Planning Capability Analysis System of Systems Architecting & Analysis System Architecting & Analysis System Design, Build & Integration Component Design, Build & Integration Concept Exploration & Technology Development Element Sustainment & Engineering Operational Package Integration & Deployment Element Integration Operations Concept/Plans Development/Production Utilisation/Support Disposal/Retirement Capability System of Systems Systems Component Concept and Technology Development Identify needs for new technology or innovation from long-term planning or operations Major infrastructure Specific portable rescue technology Models and predictions Improved operational concepts Concept Exploration & Technology Development

39 Summary Enterprises need to identify, engineer and manage the Systems of Systems that matter; increasingly the emphasis is moving towards consideration of outcomes or capability Some of the Systems of Systems must be optimised if the required capability is to emerge, while others must be optimised to allow the Enterprise to function efficiently Three key dimensions allow the problem to be visualised in terms of: Appropriate levels of engineering (and management) How each Enterprise function should contribute Synchronisation across disparate lifecycles The Activity Model allows key insights into how the activities essential to shaping and deconflicting the Systems of Systems should be organised

40 Copyright © 2010 BAE Systems. All rights reserved.
Thank you Any Questions? Copyright © 2010 BAE Systems. All rights reserved.


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