2Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. The Ancient IsraelitesChapter IntroductionSection 1 The First IsraelitesSection 2 The Kingdom of IsraelSection 3 The Growth of JudaismReading ReviewChapter AssessmentClick on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
3The Ancient Israelites Chapter ObjectivesDescribe the Israelites’ beliefs and their early history.Discuss the history of the kingdom of Israel.Discuss Judaism during the period when Jews were ruled by other people.
6The First Israelites Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section discusses the early history of the ancient Israelites, including their relationship with God, their escape from slavery, and their conflicts with the Canaanites over land.
7Get Ready to Read (cont.) The First IsraelitesGet Ready to Read (cont.)Focusing on the Main IdeasThe Israelites believed in one God who set down moral laws for his people. They recorded their history in the Bible.The Israelites had to fight the Canaanites to return to their promised land.
8Get Ready to Read (cont.) The First IsraelitesGet Ready to Read (cont.)Locating PlacesCanaan (KAY·nuhn)Mount Sinai (SY·NY)Meeting PeopleAbrahamDeborahJacobPhoenician (fih·NEE·shuhn)Moses
9Get Ready to Read (cont.) The First IsraelitesGet Ready to Read (cont.)Building Your Vocabularymonotheism (MAH·nuh·thee·IH·zuhm)tribeTorah (TOHR·UH)covenant (KUHV·nuhnt)alphabet
10Get Ready to Read (cont.) The First IsraelitesGet Ready to Read (cont.)Reading StrategySequencing Information Create a sequence chart to help trace the movement of the Israelites.
11The First Israelites The Early Israelites The Israelites built a kingdom in Canaan, along the Mediterranean Sea in southwest Asia, in 1000 B.C.Today, Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan occupy the land that was once Canaan.Israelites believed in one God.The belief in one god is called monotheism.(pages 81–83)
12The Early Israelites (cont.) The First IsraelitesThe Early Israelites (cont.)The Israelite faith became the religion of Judaism.Judaism influenced Christianity and Islam and helped shape the beliefs of European and American societies.Israelites spoke Hebrew and wrote their history and beliefs in what later became the Hebrew Bible.(pages 81–83)
13The Early Israelites (cont.) The First IsraelitesThe Early Israelites (cont.)The Israelites believed they were descended from a man named Abraham.The Israelites believed God told Abraham to settle in Canaan and worship the one true God.Abraham’s grandson, named Jacob, raised sons in Canaan.(pages 81–83)
14The Early Israelites (cont.) The First IsraelitesThe Early Israelites (cont.)Their families became the 12 tribes of Israel.After 100 years in Canaan, the Israelites suffered a long drought.To survive, some Israelites went to Egypt.The Egyptian pharaoh enslaved the Israelites.To prevent the Israelites from rebelling, the pharaoh ordered all baby boys to be thrown into the Nile River.(pages 81–83)
15The Early Israelites (cont.) The First IsraelitesThe Early Israelites (cont.)The pharaoh’s daughter found a baby boy in a basket on the riverbank.She named the baby Moses.When Moses grew up, he herded sheep in the hills outside Egypt.In those hills, he saw a burning bush and heard a voice.He believed it was God telling him to lead the Israelites out of Egypt.(pages 81–83)
16The Early Israelites (cont.) The First IsraelitesThe Early Israelites (cont.)The Hebrew Bible says that God sent 10 plagues to trouble Egypt.The last plague killed all the first-born children, except for those Israelites who marked their doors with lamb’s blood.The plague convinced the pharaoh to let the Israelites leave Egypt.After the Israelites left, the pharaoh changed his mind.(pages 81–83)
17The Early Israelites (cont.) The First IsraelitesThe Early Israelites (cont.)He sent soldiers after the Israelites.The Hebrew Bible says that God parted the Red Sea, so the Israelites could pass.The water flowed back when the soldiers tried to cross, and they drowned.(pages 81–83)
18The Early Israelites (cont.) The First IsraelitesThe Early Israelites (cont.)On the way back to Canaan, Moses went to the top of Mount Sinai and received laws from God.These laws were known as the Torah, which became the first part of the Hebrew Bible.The Ten Commandments—what God believes to be right and wrong—are an important part of the Torah.The Ten Commandments helped form the basic moral laws of many nations.(pages 81–83)
19The First IsraelitesWhat promise did god make in the covenant with the Israelites?God promised to return the Israelites to Canaan if they followed the laws of the Torah.
20The First Israelites The Promised Land It took the Israelites about 40 years to reach Canaan.Along the way, Moses died, and Joshua took over.When the Israelites reached Canaan, they found a group of people, the Canaanites, living there.The Israelites believed it was God’s will to conquer the Canaanites.(pages 84–85)
21The Promised Land (cont.) The First IsraelitesThe Promised Land (cont.)Joshua led the Israelites into battle.They marched around the walls of the city of Jericho for six days.On the seventh day, the Israelites let out a great shout, and the wall of Jericho crumbled.(pages 84–85)
22The Promised Land (cont.) The First IsraelitesThe Promised Land (cont.)Joshua led the Israelites in three more wars.The land they seized was divided among the 12 tribes.After Joshua’s death, the Israelites looked to judges for leadership.Judges were usually military leaders who led one or two tribes.(pages 84–85)
23The Promised Land (cont.) The First IsraelitesThe Promised Land (cont.)Eventually, the Israelites won the hilly region of Canaan, and the Canaanites kept the coastal areas.The Israelites built walled towns to protect themselves.The Phoenicians were a group of Canaanites who developed an alphabet.An alphabet is a group of letters that stands for sounds.(pages 84–85)
24The First IsraelitesHow did the Phoenicians affect other cultures of the world?The Phoenicians passed on their alphabet to the Greeks and Romans. This alphabet is the basis for most Western alphabets of today.
25The First IsraelitesWhy was the religion of Israel unique in the ancient world?Unlike most other religions, it had only one God.
26The First IsraelitesWhat is the Torah, and how did the Israelites obtain it?The Torah is the collection of laws which God gave to Moses on top of Mount Sinai.
27The First IsraelitesAnalyze What was the importance of the Phoenician alphabet?It made writing simpler and helped in keeping records.
28The First IsraelitesSummarize What problems did the Israelites face when they returned to Canaan?The Israelites had to fight a number of wars to get back part of the lands of Canaan from the Canaanites who lived there.
29The First IsraelitesExpository Writing Which one of the Ten commandments do you think is most important today? Write a short essay to explain your selection.Answers will vary.
30The Nile ValleyExplain the most important contribution made by the Israelites.
32Get Ready to Read Section Overview The Kingdom of Israel This section focuses on the creation of the kingdom of Israel; its great kings Saul, David, and Solomon; and the challenges Israel faced.
33Get Ready to Read (cont.) The Kingdom of IsraelGet Ready to Read (cont.)Focusing on the Main IdeasThe Israelites chose a king to unite them against their enemies.King David built an Israelite empire and made Jerusalem his capital city.The Israelites were conquered and forced to leave Israel and Judah.
34Get Ready to Read (cont.) The Kingdom of IsraelGet Ready to Read (cont.)Locating PlacesJerusalem (juh·ROO·suh·luhm)Judah (JOO·duh)Meeting PeoplePhilistine (FIH·luh·STEEN)DavidSolomon (SAHL·uh·muhn)Saul (SAWL)Nebuchadnezzar (NEH·byuh·kuhd·NUH·zuhr)
35Get Ready to Read (cont.) The Kingdom of IsraelGet Ready to Read (cont.)Building Your Vocabularyprophet (PRAH·fuht)empire (EHM·PYR)tribute (TRIH·byoot)proverb (PRAH·VUHRB)
36Get Ready to Read (cont.) The Kingdom of IsraelGet Ready to Read (cont.)Reading StrategyCategorizing Information Complete a chart like the one on page 86 of your textbook, identifying characteristics of Israel and Judah.
37The Israelites Choose a King The Kingdom of IsraelThe Israelites Choose a KingThe Philistines were the strongest people in Canaan around 1000 B.C.The Israelites began to think a king would unite the tribes and help them fight off the Philistines.The 12 tribes asked Samuel, a prophet, to choose a king.(page 87)
38The Israelites Choose a King (cont.) The Kingdom of IsraelThe Israelites Choose a King (cont.)A prophet is a person who was believed to be instructed by God.Samuel warned the Israelites against a king and did not choose one.The Israelites named Saul as king.King Saul displeased God, so God chose another king, David.(page 87)
39The Israelites Choose a King (cont.) The Kingdom of IsraelThe Israelites Choose a King (cont.)God told Samuel to anoint David in secret.(page 87)
40The Kingdom of IsraelWhy did Samuel refuse to choose a king?Samuel told the Israelites that a king would enslave them and make them pay taxes.
41David and Solomon The Kingdom of Israel David was a famous warrior. He killed a giant Philistine named Goliath with a slingshot and stones.King Saul put David in charge of the army but later grew envious of David and plotted to have him killed.David hid until Saul and his sons were killed.Then, David took the throne.(pages 89–90)
42David and Solomon (cont.) The Kingdom of IsraelDavid and Solomon (cont.)David drove the Philistines out and conquered other countries, building his empire.The conquered people had to pay tribute to David.The Israelites also had to pay heavy taxes.David used the money to expand the capital, Jerusalem.(pages 89–90)
43David and Solomon (cont.) The Kingdom of IsraelDavid and Solomon (cont.)Solomon was David’s son who took the throne after David’s death.Solomon built the stone temple in Jerusalem that David wanted to build.(pages 89–90)
44David and Solomon (cont.) The Kingdom of IsraelDavid and Solomon (cont.)When Solomon died, the 12 tribes began fighting.Ten of the tribes moved to the north and called their nation the kingdom of Israel.The other two tribes moved to the south and called their kingdom Judah.The capital of Judah was Jerusalem, and the people of Judah were called Jews.(pages 89–90)
45The Kingdom of IsraelWhy did David want to build a temple in Jerusalem?David wanted the Israelites to have a permanent place for their sacred religious objects.
46A Troubled Time The Kingdom of Israel After creating the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, many Israelites faced troubled times.The prophets told the Israelites to please God by leading a moral life and helping others.The kingdoms of Israel and Judah felt threatened by the Assyrians and Chaldeans, who had powerful empires in southwest Asia.(pages 90–92)
47A Troubled Time (cont.) The Kingdom of Israel The Assyrians conquered Israel and dispersed the 10 tribes throughout their empire.These Israelites lost contact with those who remained in Israel and Judah and were often called the lost tribes of Israel.The Assyrians brought people to live in Samaria. A new culture developed, and the people became known as Samaritans.(pages 90–92)
48A Troubled Time (cont.) The Kingdom of Israel The Samaritans adopted many Israelite beliefs. Over time, however, their religious practices developed separately from those of Judah.To appease God, they offered sacrifices and began following the Israelites’ religion.The people of Judah believed that God only accepted sacrifices from the temple at Jerusalem.(pages 90–92)
49A Troubled Time (cont.) The Kingdom of Israel They believed they were God’s only people.The Egyptians conquered the kingdom of Judah in 620 B.C.The Chaldeans conquered Egypt in 605 B.C.The Jews joined forces with the Egyptians to conquer the Chaldeans.(pages 90–92)
50A Troubled Time (cont.) The Kingdom of Israel King Nebuchadnezzar and the Chaldeans captured Jerusalem and punished the Jews.He sent 10,000 Jews to Babylon and appointed a new Jewish king.In 586 B.C., the Jews revolted against the Chaldeans, and the Chaldean ruler crushed Jerusalem.(pages 90–92)
51A Troubled Time (cont.) The Kingdom of Israel The Chaldeans took the king and thousands of Jews to Babylon.This period is known as the Babylonian Captivity.(pages 90–92)
52The Kingdom of IsraelWhat message did the prophets bring to the Israelites?The prophets warned the Israelites that being faithful to God was more than simply going to temple to worship. It meant working for a just society and dealing fairly with other people.
53The Kingdom of IsraelWhy was David anointed king while Saul was still in charge of the Israelites?Saul displeased God by disobeying some of God’s commands, so God chose another king.
54The Kingdom of IsraelWho were the prophets, and why were they important to the Israelites?Prophets were messengers who claimed to be instructed by God and who taught the Israelites how to live properly.
55The Kingdom of IsraelSummarize What happened to the Israelites after the death of Solomon?Fighting broke out among the Israelites, and they formed two separate kingdoms.
56The Kingdom of IsraelDescribe Who were the Samaritans, and what did the people of Judah think of them?Assyrian settlers who settled around Samaria; the people of Judah looked down on them
57The Kingdom of IsraelInfer Why do you think the Assyrians, and later the Chaldeans, moved Jews away from Israel and Judah after those areas were conquered?The Chaldeans moved the Jews to decrease the chance for revolt.
58The Kingdom of IsraelBrainstorm: Brainstorm how the events described in this section influenced our lives today.
60Get Ready to Read Section Overview The Growth of Judaism This section focuses on the growth of Judaism, including the challenges it overcame and the setbacks it suffered.
61Get Ready to Read (cont.) The Growth of JudaismGet Ready to Read (cont.)Focusing on the Main IdeasThe Jews continued their religion during their exile in Babylon.Jews spread their beliefs to the Greek world and regained control of Judah.Religion shaped the Jewish way of life.Under Roman rule, the Jews were divided and rebellious. In response, the Romans destroyed the temple and exiled the Jews.
62Get Ready to Read (cont.) The Growth of JudaismGet Ready to Read (cont.)Locating PlacesBabylon (BA·buh·luhn)Meeting PeopleJudas Maccabeus(JOO·duhs MAK·uh·BEE·uhs)Herod (HEHR·uhd)Zealot (ZEH·luht)
63Get Ready to Read (cont.) The Growth of JudaismGet Ready to Read (cont.)Meeting People (cont.)Johanan ben Zakkai(YOH·kah·nahn behn·zah·KY)Building Your Vocabularyexile (EHG·ZYL)Sabbath (SA·buhth)synagogue (SIH·nuh·GAHG)
64Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary The Growth of JudaismGet Ready to Read (cont.)Building Your VocabularyDiaspora (dy·AS·pruh)messiah (muh·SY·uh)rabbi (RA·BY)Reading StrategySummarizing Information Use a diagram like the one on page 93 of your textbook to describe the Maccabees.
65Exile and Return The Growth of Judaism Exile occurs when people are forced to leave their homeland.During the Israelites’ exile in Babylon, their religion became what we call Judaism.Jews met each week on the Sabbath, a day of worship and rest, in a synagogue, or house of worship.(pages 94–95)
66Exile and Return (cont.) The Growth of JudaismExile and Return (cont.)After the Persians defeated the Chaldeans and took control of Babylon, the Persian king, Cyrus, allowed the Jews to return to Judah.Persian officials still controlled the Jews in Judah, so Jews looked to their religious leaders to run society.(pages 94–95)
67Exile and Return (cont.) The Growth of JudaismExile and Return (cont.)The Hebrew Bible consists of the Torah, the Prophets, and 34 other books.Some of these books describe Jewish history.(pages 94–95)
68Exile and Return (cont.) The Growth of JudaismExile and Return (cont.)The book of Genesis tells how God punished people for their bad behavior.The story of Noah is in the book of Genesis.Genesis also explains why the world has different languages.The book of Daniel reminds Jews that God will rescue them.Jews, Christians, and Muslims share the idea that good will triumph over evil.(pages 94–95)
69The Growth of JudaismHow does the book of Genesis explain different languages of the world?Genesis tells that the people of Babel tried to build a tower to heaven. God disapproved of the tower and made all the people speak different languages and scattered them across the earth.
70The Jews and the Greeks The Growth of Judaism Judah came under the control of Alexander the Great in 331 B.C.He introduced the Greek language and ways to the Jews who stayed in Judah.The Diaspora refers to Jews who lived outside of Judah.The word diaspora means “scattered.”(pages 95–96)
71The Jews and the Greeks (cont.) The Growth of JudaismThe Jews and the Greeks (cont.)The Greek ruler Antiochus wanted the Jews to worship Greek gods and goddesses.A priest named Judas Maccabeus and his followers formed an army known as the Maccabees to fight the Greeks.The Maccabees drove the Greeks out of Judah.They removed evidence of the gods and goddesses from their temple.(pages 95–96)
72The Jews and the Greeks (cont.) The Growth of JudaismThe Jews and the Greeks (cont.)Each year Jews recall the cleansing of the temple when they celebrate Hanukkah.(pages 95–96)
73The Growth of JudaismHow did Jewish ideas spread at the time of Alexander the Great?Some Jews who learned the Greek language but were loyal to Judaism copied the Hebrew Bible in the Greek language. In this way, people who were not Jews could read about and understand Judaism.
74The Jewish Way of Life The Growth of Judaism Jewish laws influenced Jews’ education, food, and clothes.Sons were valuable in Jewish society.Sons carried on the family name and became the head of the family after the death of their fathers.Sons learned how to earn a living and how to worship God from their fathers.(pages 97–98)
75The Jewish Way of Life (cont.) The Growth of JudaismThe Jewish Way of Life (cont.)They later learned how to read the Torah from religious leaders.Girls learned how to be good wives, mothers, and housekeepers.They also learned about Jewish laws and strong women of ancient Israel.Jewish laws stated that Jews could eat only certain animals, such as beef, lamb, and certain scaly fish.(pages 97–98)
76The Jewish Way of Life (cont.) The Growth of JudaismThe Jewish Way of Life (cont.)Today, food that is prepared according to Jewish law is called kosher.Jewish laws also applied to clothing.Men wore tunics, caps or turbans, and sandals.Women wore dresses and covered their heads with shawls.Wealthy women wore shoes, makeup, and jewelry.(pages 97–98)
77The Growth of JudaismHow is kosher meat prepared?To be kosher, the animal is killed in a certain way. Then the meat is inspected, salted, and soaked. Jewish laws instruct Jews not to cook or eat milk products with the meat.
78The Jews and the Romans The Growth of Judaism In 63 B.C., the Romans conquered Judah and renamed it Judaea.King Herod, the most famous ruler of Judaea, was known for the additions he made to the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem.After Herod’s death, the Romans replaced Jewish kings with Roman officials.The Jews were divided over how to deal with the Romans.(pages 100–102)
79The Jews and the Romans (cont.) The Growth of JudaismThe Jews and the Romans (cont.)One group was the Pharisees, who stressed oral traditions and were supported by the common people.Another group was the Sadducees, who emphasized the written law and did not agree with many of the Pharisees’ teachings.A third group was the Essenes. They lived in the desert and waited for God to deliver the Jews from the Romans.(pages 100–102)
80The Jews and the Romans (cont.) The Growth of JudaismThe Jews and the Romans (cont.)The Dead Sea Scrolls were found near the Dead Sea in A.D They describe Judaism during Roman times.The Jews hated Roman rule.Some Jews, known as the Zealots, wanted to fight the Romans.They revolted in A.D. 66 and drove the Romans out of Jerusalem.(pages 100–102)
81The Jews and the Romans (cont.) The Growth of JudaismThe Jews and the Romans (cont.)The Romans regained control four years later.They killed thousands of Jews and forced many others to leave.The Romans also destroyed the temple in Jerusalem.(pages 100–102)
82The Jews and the Romans (cont.) The Growth of JudaismThe Jews and the Romans (cont.)What remains today is the Western Wall.(pages 100–102)
83The Jews and the Romans (cont.) The Growth of JudaismThe Jews and the Romans (cont.)The Jews revolted again, but the Romans stopped the revolt.This time, they forbade Jews to visit Jerusalem and gave Judah the name of Palestine, referring to the Philistines.Rabbis, teachers of the Torah, became important leaders.Rabbis wanted to pass on the teachings of the Torah.(pages 100–102)
84The Jews and the Romans (cont.) The Growth of JudaismThe Jews and the Romans (cont.)They combined the teachings into books called commentaries. The Talmud is an important commentary dealing with many laws about daily life.For 2,000 years most Jews lived outside Palestine and faced persecution.In A.D Palestine was divided, and a new Jewish nation called Israel was created in 1948.(pages 100–102)
85What was the difference between the Pharisees and the Sadducees? The Growth of JudaismWhat was the difference between the Pharisees and the Sadducees?The Pharisees stressed oral traditions and were concerned with applying the Torah to daily life and the Jewish home and family. The Sadducees were concerned with the written law and commandments and how the Torah applied to priests in the Temple.
86The Growth of Judaism What was the Diaspora? The diaspora was scattered Jews living outside of their homeland in Judah.
87The Growth of Judaism What was education like within a Jewish family? Mothers taught young children. Fathers taught older boys religion and the father’s trade. Boys also learned the Torah from religious teachers. Mothers taught girls the basic skills of being good wives, mothers, and housekeepers.
88The Growth of JudaismSummarize How did the Jews practice their religion during the exile in Babylon?The Jews worshiped on the Sabbath and met in synagogues to pray and discuss their religion and history.
89The Growth of JudaismIdentify Who were the Zealots, and why were they important?Jews who revolted and drove the Romans out of Jerusalem
90The Growth of JudaismDraw Conclusions Do you think that Jewish beliefs and values would have spread so widely if the lands of Israel and Judah had not been conquered by other peoples? Explain.Answers will vary.
91The Growth of JudaismPersuasive Writing Imagine you are living in Judaea during the Roman conquest. Write a letter to a friend describing how you might have felt about the Romans and what actions you would like to see taken to make Judaea free again.Letters will vary.
92The Growth of JudaismIdentify influences of the civilization of early Israel on life today.
94The Ancient Israelites Section 1: The First IsraelitesFocusing on the Main IdeasThe Israelites believed in one God who set down moral laws for his people. They recorded their history in the Bible.The Israelites had to fight the Canaanites to return to their promised land.
95The Ancient Israelites Section 2: The Kingdom of IsraelFocusing on the Main IdeasThe Israelites chose a king to unite them against their enemies.King David built an Israelite empire and made Jerusalem his capital city.The Israelites were conquered and forced to leave Israel and Judah.
96The Ancient Israelites Section 3: The Growth of JudaismFocusing on the Main IdeasThe Jews continued their religion during their exile in Babylon.Jews spread their beliefs to the Greek world and regained control of Judah.Religion shaped the Jewish way of life.Under Roman rule, the Jews were divided and rebellious. In response, the Romans destroyed the temple and exiled the Jews.
98The Ancient Israelites Review VocabularyDefine Match the vocabulary words on the right with the definitions on the left.__ 1. Jewish house of worship__ 2. claims to be inspired by God__ 3. family group__ 4. holy day of worship and rest__ 5. forced absence__ 6. belief in one god__ 7. deliverer sent by God__ 8. agreementCA. tribeB. prophetC. synagogueD. SabbathmessiahmonotheismcovenantexileBADHFEG
99The Ancient Israelites Review Main IdeasSection 1 The First IsraelitesWhere did the Israelites record their history and religious beliefs?in the Hebrew Bible
100The Ancient Israelites Review Main IdeasSection 1 The First IsraelitesWhy did the Israelites fight the Canaanites?They believed it was God’s will that they conquer the Canaanites and return to their Promised Land.
101The Ancient Israelites Review Main IdeasSection 1 The First IsraelitesWhy did the Israelites choose a king?to unite them against their enemies, the Philistines
102The Ancient Israelites Review Main IdeasSection 2 The Kingdom of IsraelWhat happened when the Israelites were conquered?They were forced to leave Israel and Judah.
103The Ancient Israelites Review Main IdeasSection 3 The Growth of JudaismHow did Jewish ideas spread throughout the Mediterranean world?Some Jews of the Diaspora copied the Hebrew Bible into Greek, which helped others learn about Jewish ideas.
104The Ancient Israelites Review Main IdeasSection 3 The Growth of JudaismHow did Romans respond to Jewish rebellions?The Jewish rebellions were forcefully put down, and the Romans destroyed the temple in Jerusalem and exiled the Jews.
105The Ancient Israelites Contrast How was the Jewish religion different from religions of other ancient cultures?The Jewish religion had one God, while other religions had many gods and goddesses. The Jews could not create images of their God. The Ten Commandments applied to everyone equally.
106The Ancient Israelites Analyze Why do you think the Israelites felt so strongly about a Promised Land?The Jews believed they had received the Promised Land through a covenant with God.
107The Ancient Israelites Compare and Contrast How were Saul and David similar, and how were they different?Both led the Israelites to victory against their enemies. Saul displeased God by disobeying him. He plotted to kill David and was eventually killed in battle. David defeated Goliath, drove the Philistines out of Israel, and built Jerusalem.
108The Ancient Israelites Explain How did the Jewish religion survive during the exile of the Jews?The Jews worshiped on the Sabbath and met in synagogues.
109The Ancient Israelites Describe What is celebrated on the Jewish holiday of Hanukkah?the Maccabees’ defeat of the Greeks and the reclaiming and cleansing of the temple in Jerusalem
111Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter. Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Journey Across Time Web site. Click on Chapter 3-Chapter Overviews to preview information about this chapter. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to
112Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. MapAncient IsraelChartsAlphabetsMajor Hebrew ProphetsMajor Jewish HolidaysClick on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
117The First IsraelitesThe peak of Mount Sinai, where—according to the Hebrew Bible—Moses received the Ten Commandments, can be reached by climbing 3,750 stone steps. The steps were created by the monks of St. Catherine’s Monastery.
118The Kingdom of IsraelJerusalem has had different names throughout history. Before King David conquered Jerusalem, the city was called Jebus. King David renamed the city the City of David. Accounts of the Assyrians’ conquering of the city referred to Jerusalem as the City of Judah.
119The Growth of JudaismThe Jewish Sabbath, or Shabbat, begins on Friday evening at sundown and ends at sunset Saturday evening. Jews commemorate the separation of Shabbat from the rest of the week with special ceremonies.
120Reading Social Studies Learn It!Finding the Main IdeaMain ideas are the most important ideas in a paragraph, section, or chapter. Supporting details are facts or examples that explain the main idea. Read the paragraph from Section 1 on page 78 of your textbook and notice how the author explains the main idea. The main idea is identified for you. The supporting details are highlighted in color.
121Reading Social Studies Through trade, the Phoenicians spread ideas and goods.One of their most important ideas was an alphabet, or a group of letters that stood for sounds. The letters could be used to spell out the words in their language.Main ideaSupporting details—from page 85
122Reading Social Studies Practice It!Create a Graphic OrganizerRead the paragraph from Chapter 3 on page 79 of your textbook.Draw a graphic organizer like the one shown on page 79 of your textbook.Write the main ideas in a box and supporting details in circles around the box.
130Education in Ancient Israel and Judah Young People In…Education in Ancient Israel and JudahEarly Israelites placed a high value on education. Rabbis—Jewish religious teachers—taught their followers, “If you have knowledge, you have everything.” Unfortunately, only boys were allowed to go to school. Fathers taught their young sons the commandments. They also taught them about the meaning of Jewish traditions and holy feasts. At age five, boys went to a school that was connected with the synagogue. There, the hazan, or minister of the synagogue, taught them the Torah. Everything the students learned—from the alphabet to Jewish history—they learned from the Torah. Jewish laws decided the stages of students’ education. Different subjects were introduced at the ages, of 5, 10, and Most Jewish boys finished their education at age 13. At that age, boys became adults.
131Young People In…1. Why was education important to the ancient Israelites?They believed that those who have knowledge have everything, meaning it gave great abilities and wisdom.2. What was a father’s role in his son’s education?It was the father’s role to begin his son’s education, teaching the commandments and about Jewish religious traditions and holy feasts.
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