Organizational Behavior: Chapter 193 Chapter 19 Change, Innovation, and Stress Study questions. – What is organizational change? – What change strategies are used in organizations? – What can be done about resistance to change? – How do organizations innovate? – How does stress affect people at work?
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 194 What is organizational change? Forms of change. – Radical change. Also known as frame-breaking change. Change that results in a major overhaul of the organization or its component systems. – Incremental change. Also known as frame-bending change. Change that is part of the organization’s natural evolution.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 195 What is organizational change? Change agents. – Individuals and groups who take responsibility for changing the existing behavior patterns of another person or social system. – Sometimes hired as outside consultants. – Managers and leaders in contemporary organizations are expected to be change agents.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 196 What is organizational change? Unplanned change. – Occurs spontaneously or randomly. – May be disruptive or beneficial. – The appropriate goal is to act quickly to minimize any negative consequences and maximize any possible benefits.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 197 What is organizational change? Planned change. – The result of specific efforts by a change agent. – A performance gap is a direct response to a perceived performance gap. A discrepancy between the actual and desired state of affairs. May reflect problems or opportunities.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 198 What is organizational change? Organizational forces for change. – Organization-environment relationships. – Organizational life cycle. – Political nature of organizations.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 199 What is organizational change? Organizational targets for change. – Purpose. – Objectives. – Strategy. – Culture – People. – Tasks. – Structure – Technology.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1910 What is organizational change? Phases of planned change. – Unfreezing. Preparing a situation for change by disconfirming existing attitudes and behaviors. Susceptibility to “boiled frog phenomenon.” – Changing. Taking action to modify a situation by altering the targets of change. – Refreezing. Maintaining and eventually institutionalizing the change.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1911 What change strategies are used in organizations? Force-coercion strategy. – Draws on reward power, coercive power, and legitimate power as primary inducements to change. – Change agent acts unilaterally to command change. – Usually results in temporary compliance.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1912 What change strategies are used in organizations? Rational persuasion strategy. – Also known as an empirical-rational strategy. – Draws on expert power as primary inducement to change. – Change agent uses special knowledge, empirical support, or rational arguments. – Usually results in long-term internalization.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1913 What change strategies are used in organizations? Shared power strategy. – Also known as a normative-reeducative approach. – Draws on referent power as primary inducement to change. – Change agent empowers people affected by the change and involves them in decision making related to the change. – Usually results in long-term internalization.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1914 What can be done about resistance to change? Resistance to change. – Any attitude or behavior that indicates unwillingness to make or support a desired change. – Alternative views of resistance. Something that must be overcome for change to be successful. Feedback that can be used to facilitate achieving change objectives.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1915 What can be done about resistance to change? Why people resist change. – Fear of the unknown. – Lack of good information. – Fear for loss of security. – No reason to change. – Fear for loss of power. – Lack of resources. – Bad timing. – Habit.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1916 What can be done about resistance to change? Ways in which resistance is experienced. – Resistance to the change itself. – Resistance to the change strategy. – Resistance to the change agent.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1917 What can be done about resistance to change? How to deal with resistance. – Education and communication. – Participation and involvement. – Facilitation and support. – Negotiation and agreement. – Manipulation and cooptation. – Explicit and implicit coercion.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1918 What can be done about resistance to change? Education and communication. – Educates people about change prior to implementation and helps them understand the logic of change. – Use when people lack information or have inaccurate information. – Advantage — creates willingness to help with the change. – Disadvantage — can be very time consuming.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1919 What can be done about resistance to change? Participation and involvement. – Allows people to help design and implement the changes. – Use when other people have important information and/or power to resist. – Advantages — adds information to change planning; builds commitment to change. – Disadvantage — can be very time consuming.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1920 What can be done about resistance to change? Facilitation and support. – Provides emotional and material assistance for people experiencing the hardships of change. – Use when resistance traces to resource or adjustment problems. – Advantage — directly satisfies specific resource or adjustment needs. – Disadvantages — can be time consuming; can be expensive.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1921 What can be done about resistance to change? Negotiation and agreement. – Offers incentives to actual or potential change resistors. – Use when a person or group will lose something because of the change. – Advantage — helps avoid major resistance. – Disadvantages — can be expensive; can cause others to seek similar deals.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1922 What can be done about resistance to change? Manipulation and cooptation. – Use covert attempts to influence others by selectively providing information and consciously structuring events. – Use when other methods don’t work or are too expensive. – Advantages — can be quick and inexpensive. – Disadvantage — can create future problems if people sense manipulation.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1923 What can be done about resistance to change? Explicit and implicit coercion. – Employ the force of authority to implement change. – Use when speed is important and the change agent has power. – Advantages — quick; overpowers resistance. – Disadvantage — risky if people get mad.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1924 How do organizations innovate? Innovation. – The process of creating new ideas and putting them into practice. Product innovations. – The introduction of new or improved goods or services to better meet customer needs. Process innovations. – The introduction of new and better work methods and operations.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1925 How do organizations innovate? The innovation process. – Idea creation. – Initial experimentation. – Feasibility determination. – Final application.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1926 How do organizations innovate? Features of innovative organizations. – Strategies and cultures that are built around a commitment to innovation. – Structures that support innovation. – Staffing with a clear commitment to innovation. – Top management support for innovation.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1927 How does stress affect people at work? Stress. – A state of tension experienced by individuals facing extraordinary demands, constraints, or opportunities.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1928 How does stress affect people at work? Source of stress. – Stressors. The wide variety of things that cause stress for individuals. – Types of stressors. Work-related stressors. Nonwork and personal stressors.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1929 How does stress affect people at work? Work-related stressors. – Task demands. – Role ambiguities. – Role conflicts. – Ethical dilemmas. – Interpersonal problems. – Career developments. – Physical setting.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1930 How does stress affect people at work? Nonwork and personal stressors. – Family events. – Economic difficulties. – Personal affairs. – Individual’s needs. – Individual’s capabilities. – Individual’s personality.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1931 How does stress affect people at work? Stress and performance. – Constructive stress. Also known as eustress. Moderate levels of stress act in a positive way for both individuals and organization. – Destructive stress. Also known as distress. Low and especially high levels of stress act in a negative way for both individuals and organization.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1932 How does stress affect people at work? Stress can harm people’s physical and psychological health. – Health problem associated with stress. Heart attack. Stroke. Hypertension. Migraine headache. Ulcers. Substance abuse. Overeating. Depression. Muscle aches.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1933 How does stress affect people at work? Key symptoms of excessive stress. – Changes from: Regular attendance to absenteeism. Punctuality to tardiness. Diligent work to careless work. A positive attitude to a negative attitude. Openness to change to resistance to change. Cooperation to hostility.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1934 How does stress affect people at work? Stress prevention. – The best first-line strategy in battling stress. – Involves taking action to keep stress from reaching a destructive level. – Need to monitor personal and nonwork stressors and to be proactive in preventing their adverse impact.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1935 How does stress affect people at work? Stress management. – Used once stress has reached a destructive point. – Begins with the recognition of stress symptoms and continues with actions to maintain a positive performance edge.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1936 How does stress affect people at work? Wellness. – Personal wellness involves the pursuit of one’s physical and mental potential through a personal health promotion program. – Recognizes individual responsibility for maintaining and enhancing one’s physical and mental health.