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CPA Implementation: Status and Challenges Luka Biong Deng Office of the President Minister of Presidential Affairs, GoSS Sudan Consortium Oslo, Norway,

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Presentation on theme: "CPA Implementation: Status and Challenges Luka Biong Deng Office of the President Minister of Presidential Affairs, GoSS Sudan Consortium Oslo, Norway,"— Presentation transcript:

1 CPA Implementation: Status and Challenges Luka Biong Deng Office of the President Minister of Presidential Affairs, GoSS Sudan Consortium Oslo, Norway, 5 th – 7 th May 2008

2 1. Introduction: CPA Prospects Post-independent Sudan and violent conflicts Many peace agreements signed but not honoured. Violent conflict vs. peace as normal phenomenon CPA offers a unique opportunity to making “peace” not only a reality but a normal phenomenon in Sudan CPA brought peace not only to Sudan but also to the region. CPA provides a framework for transforming Sudan based on the values of justice, equality, democracy and human rights

3 2. CPA and Its Components 1. Chapeau: 2. Machakas Protocol: 3. Power Sharing Protocol 4. Wealth Sharing Protocol 5. Security Arrangements Protocol 6. Abyei Area Protocol 7. Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile States Protocol. 8. Implementation Modalities and Global Matrix

4 3.a CPA and Aspirations of People Overwhelming support (NDI Focus Group) New definition of Sudan identity (diversity) Sovereign authority of state rests with people Rule of law and bill of rights Decentralization and devolution of powers Rights of self-determination Popular consultation and referendum to Abyei Democratic transformation and national reconciliation.

5 3.b CPA and People’s Concerns Statement by A War Widow “This peace of ours is like a sick man in the hospital. You don’t want to say for sure that he is going to be coming home because as long as he is in the hospital and sick, he still might die.” Despite people’s optimism there are genuine concerns as many agreements were dishonured before.

6 4. Why CPA may not be Dishonoured? Organic Guarantees – Party basis as CPA is a win-win position – Implementation matrix – Constitutional guarantees – Security guarantees – Economic guarantees – People’s agreement External Guarantees: – Witnesses to CPA – Assessment and Evaluation Commission – Ceasefire Political Commission – Ceasefire Joint Military Committees and Teams – Development Assistance and Peace Dividends Not the choice of the Parties signatory to CPA

7 5.a Status of CPA Implementation Sources of information: – Reports from the SPLM-NCP Joint Executive and Political Committees – Reports from the Institution of Presidency – Reports from the Assessment and Evaluation Commission – Monthly UN CPA Monitor Reports – Reports from International Crisis Group (ICG) – Other secondary sources from media and press.

8 5.b Status of CPA Implementation, March 2008 Table 2: Status of CPA Implementation Status of ImplementationMarch, 2007 (%)March, 2008 (%)Difference (%) Implemented56%58%2% Partially Implemented14%17%3% Not Implemented30%25%-5% Total100% 0%

9 5.c Status of CPA Implementation Table 3: Status of Implementation of CPA Protocols ProtocolsStatus of Provisions Not Implemented (%) March, 2007March, 2008Difference Machakas/Power Sharing20%19%-01% Wealth Sharing36%21%-15% Security Arrangements06%03%-03% Abyei65% 00% S. Kordofan and Blue Nile32%30%-02%

10 5.d Partnership Crisis, October 2007 SPLM Main Concerns Abyei Protocol Redeployment of Forces. Oil sector management. The national reconciliation Basic rights and fundamental freedoms (unlawful detention) Independence of judiciary Unilateral decisions (foreign policy, expulsion of diplomats). Assessment and Evaluation Commission Population census questionnaire

11 5.e Renewed Commitment, December 2007 Table 5: Status of Implementation of Presidential Decrees and Directives Matrix, March 2008 Status of ImplementationNumber of Decrees and/or Directives Percentage (%) of Decrees and or Directives Implemented417% Partially Implemented417% Not Implemented1666% Not Due3 Total27100%

12 6.a CPA Monitoring Challenges: General elections Abyei Protocol Demarcation of North-South Border Oil sector management National reconciliation Making unity an attractive option Making institutions and arrangements made under CPA functioning and delivering Popular Consultation Referenda (Southern Sudan and Abyei) Mid-term review

13 6.b. CPA Monitoring Mechanisms CPA Mechanisms: – Assessment and Evaluation Commission – Ceasefire Political Commission – Ceasefire Joint Military Committees and Teams Parties Mechanism: – Joint Leadership Committee – Joint Political Committee – Joint Executive Committee Other independent mechanisms: – UN CPA Monitor – National Democratic Institute (NDI) Focus Group Discussion – International Crisis Group (ICG) Periodic Review

14 7. Conclusion Considerable progress in the implementation of the CPA. CPA and peace are genuine choice of the people of Sudan. We may witness more periodic differences between SPLM and NCP over the CPA implementation, but the bottom line is that SPLM and NCP will keep the dialogue as their political survival rests with peace not with war. Assessment and Evaluation Commission and other monitoring mechanisms to be made more effective. International community to increase its support and scaled up its monitoring role during the next critical phase of CPA implementation. Development assistance is key to sustaining peace


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