5 Is Your Diet Healthy and Balanced? Carbohydrate - Is it a large proportion of your intake?Fat - Is it too high?Fat - Are you avoiding animal fat?Fibre - Do you include brown or wholemeal starchy foods?- Do you eat five fruit or vegetable portions a day?Is your diet varied?
6 BALANCED EATING Bread, cereals, potatoes, rice 55-65% of daily food. Fruit & vegetablesEat 5 portions every day (include variety)3,4. Meat & fish / dairy products10-15% of daily food -choose low fat versionsFats and sugars20-25% of daily food - unsaturated fat rather than saturated fat18.104.22.168.5.
7 1. BREAD, CEREALS, POTATOES, RICE Complex carbohydratesShould form basis for mealsCombine different forms for each mealReplace fuel storesOptimise performance
8 2. FRUIT & VEGETABLES Performance & recovery Vitamins & minerals Iron, potassium, calcium, chromium, niacin, phosphorous, biotin, zinc, vits A, C, E, B1, B2, B6, B12.
9 3. MEAT, FISH & ALTERNATIVES Meat & meat products, poultry, fish & fish products, offal, eggs, beans & lentils, nuts, textured veg.Performance & recoveryProteinBone, skin, muscles, hormones, enzymes, haemoglobin and plateletsMuscle growth, repair and maintenance
10 4. MILK & DAIRY FOODS Performance & recovery Fat and protein Energy source, bone & teeth strength, muscle & tissue repair
11 5. FATTY & SUGARY FOODS Use fats sparingly! Sweets may be used to aid recovery!
13 How can food and drink affect performance? Provide and replace fuel storesRepair and strengthen damaged muscle tissueReplace fluid losses
14 HOW DO YOU KNOW HOW MUCH ENERGY YOU USE? Daily Calorie IntakeENERGY BALANCEFood Intake and Energy UsedGenerally…Male young athletes : 3000kcalFemale young athletes : 2500kcalHOW DO YOU KNOW HOW MUCH ENERGY YOU USE?Every day at restExercise training and competition
15 Fuel for Sport High Intensity Exercise: (eg field events, sprints) Fat CarbohydrateCarbohydrate is the only provider of energy for high intensity activities
16 Fuel for Sport Medium Intensity Exercise (eg middle distance running) FatCarbohydrateCarbohydrate is the main provider of energy during mediumintensity activities
17 Fuel for Sport Low intensity Exercise: OHT 5Fuel for SportLow intensity Exercise:(eg long distance running/cycling)FatCarbohydrateAs duration continues the contribution of fat increases
18 The effect of different amounts of carbohydrates on muscle glycogen levels after exercise (Costill et al. 1981)High CHO dietMuscleGlycogenLevelsInsufficient CHO in dietTimeh h h
19 Practical Recommendations for Carbohydrate Intake ConsiderationsTypeAmountRateTiming
20 Daily Requirements 125 - 175g 55-65% total intake Complex (⅔) and simple CHO (⅓)Limited stores of glycogen ( kcal)Dependent on:Exercise intensityExercise durationDietBody sizeFitness status
21 Type Glucose, sucrose, maltodextrins (6-8% solution) 2. Liquid versus solid3. Low versus high glycaemic index foods
22 Practical Recommendation (Type) Within first 6h, high glycaemic index foods or simple carbohydrates (glucose, sucrose, maltodextrin) provide the best glycogen replacementProvide a CHO-replacement fluid containing 70-90g of CHO immediately after exercise if the athlete is unable to consume solid food
25 Adverse effects Injury Irritability Decreased ability to train DizzinessFluid lossG-I disturbanceWeight gain
26 Practical Recommendation (Amount) B. DURINGReplace fluid / sweat lossesTemperatureHumidityWind velocityDuration / type / intensity of eventUp to 2 litres per hourSip every 15 minutes
27 Practical Recommendation (Amount) C. AFTERDependent upon type of recoveryActivePassive restMuscle damage / sorenessTime-course of recoverySee ‘Rate’ for recommendations
28 Rate Factors determining rate of glycogen synthesis Degree of muscle glycogen depletionDegree of insulin activation of glycogen synthaseCHO content of post-exercise diet
29 Practical Recommendations (Rate) Frequent feedings over first 4-h0.4g maltodextrin, every 15minsHighest level of glycogen resynthesis
30 Timing A. Immediately post-exercise B. First 2 hours post-exercise C. Immediate versus Delayed intakeD. 4 hours post-exercise
31 Practical Recommendation (Timing) g carbohydrate within the first hour after exercise, depending on body size. Combine this carbohydrate with some dietary protein if possible.Over 24h, feed 6-8g/kg (f), 8-10g/kg (m)
32 Inappropriate CHO Intake Excess (simple)Nutritional deficienciesObesityHigh cholesterolDental problemsGastrointestinal irritationDeficiency (complex)Tissue wasting (extreme)Homeostatic imbalanceSevere fatigueLack of alertness
33 FLUID INTAKE Identify the purpose of fluid intake in the diet Summarise the difference between pre-, during and post-exercise fluid intakeAssess problems associated with excess or deficient fluid intake
34 Water ~60% of total body weight Functions Intracellular and extracellularFunctionsTransport mediumStructural part of body tissuesA lubricantComponent of chemical reactions
35 Water and Exercise Optimal fluid balance depends on: Environment Type, intensity, duration of exercisePersonal palatabilityContent of fluid intakeRates of gastric emptyingIntestinal absorption
36 Dehydration Decrease in total body water Rapid fatigue Performance reduction
37 Hypohydration Aesthetic appearance / weight category sports Athletes voluntarily dehydrateNegative affects upon performanceShort-term adverse health effects
38 Hyponatraemia During exercise Low plasma sodium concentrations Consumption of excess waterSodium intake is low / losses are highFatigueNausea
39 Electrolytes Function Losses Maintain distribution of water within and outside cellsBalance of water and electrolytes is maintained by endocrine and neurological mechanismsLossesSweatProlonged exerciseHot / humid environment
40 Practical Recommendations Isotonic drinkscontain the same amount of particles as blooddo not prevent the absorption of fluidcontain small but useful amounts of energy (5-8% carbohydrate solution)contain a small amount of sodium (salt) to assist the absorption of fluidcan be drunk before, during or after exercise without problem.
41 Hypotonic drinks contain fewer particles than blood do not prevent the absorption of fluidcontain very small amount of energy – not sufficient in most cases to be usefulcan be drunk before, during or after exercise but will not contribute sufficient energy to be useful in most cases
42 Hypertonic drinks contain more particles than blood prevent the absorption of fluidcontain high levels of energyshould not be drunk during exercise generally as can result in dehydration.
43 Practical Recommendations BEFORE2 h : 500ml fluidGlucose / water solution with saltsDURINGml.h.-1Maintain plasma volumeControl electrolyte balanceAFTERReplace water and electrolyte lossesSolid and fluid intakeContinue until urine is pale yellow
44 Recipes for home-made sports drinks 60g of glucose dissolved in 1 L of water or diluted sugar free squash. Add 1/5th of tsp of salt.60-100g glucose polymer dissolved in 1 L of water or diluted sugar free squash. Add 1/5th of a tsp of salt.Fruit juice diluted in the ratio 50:50 with water. Add 1/5th of a tsp of salt to every litre.Fruit squash diluted in the ratio of one part squash to 4 or 5 parts water. Add 1/5th of a tsp of salt to every litre.Chill drinks before serving. Remember that good dental care isnecessary when using sweetened drinks.
45 Other Athlete Considerations Travel Within the UKFitting in time to eat uses travel timePack food, snacks and drinksDo not rely on venue at competitionsRemember to drinkTravel AbroadFussy eaters are hard to feedSome foods may need to be takenCheck the venue and foods availableCheck the water is safeAvoid certain foods (shell-fish, ice-cream, curries)
46 Iron and Anaemia Populations at risk include: females teenagers Vitamin C helps absorptionathletesvegetariansIron is well absorbed from animal sources- less well absorbed from plant sources
47 Calcium Risk of osteoporosis is increased if: Body weight is low Periods are missed or stoppedCalcium intake is low due to milk intolerance or low food intakeThere is an absence of weight bearing exercise.
48 Eating Disorders Anorexia nervosa Bulimia nervosa Anorexia athletica Individuals will be thinBody weight is maintained by:- very low food intakeBulimia nervosaIndividuals may not be thinBody weight is maintained by:- use of laxatives- vomitingFood is eaten in very large quantities during bingesAnorexia athleticaIndividuals will be leanBody weight is maintained by:- very low food intake- excessive exercise- use of laxatives- vomiting
49 SUMMARY Always eat a balanced diet Drink 2 litres of water each day Eat plenty of carbs before, during and after exerciseAvoid fried and fatty foods where possibleAvoid large gaps between meals – ‘little and often’
50 THAT’S ALL FOLKS!!Compiled by:Mistrelle BakerAny Questions?
51 For further information / advice…. Mistrelle Baker