COMPARING CELLS The size & shape of a cell relates to its function (job it does).
CELLS There are two kinds of cells: Animal & Plant Some organisms are unicellular (single-celled) and some organisms are multicellular (many cells). All cells do three activities or things: 1. Bring materials into the cell. 2. Use the materials for life activities and processes. 3. Get rid of waste.
Nucleus DNA Mitochondria Vacuole Cytoplasm Ribosomes
NUCLEUS Controls all cell activities Contains the instructions for everything the cell does These instructions are found on a material called DNA Usually the largest organelle
CELL MEMBRANE Protective layer around ALL cells Controls what enters and leaves the cell For cells with a cell wall, the cell membrane is on the inside of the cell wall Allows water, gases (O 2 & CO 2 ), and materials into the cell & waste materials out of the cell.
CYTOPLASM The cytoplasm is the gel-like substance that fills the entire cell. This is where all cell activities take place. Main ingredient: WATER
MITOCHONDRIA Inside a chemical reaction takes place to release energy for the cell to use. This process is called CELLULAR RESPIRATION Takes in O 2 and sugar; Releases energy, CO 2 and H 2 O Energy is released by breaking down food AKA the powerhouse b/c it releases energy from food.
VACUOLES Temporary storage spaces Store water, material, & waste Small sized in Animal Cells Large sized in Plant Cells
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM The ER transports materials around the cell. ( like a conveyor belt) Smooth ER – ribosomes not attached to ER Rough ER – ribosomes attached to ER
RIBOSOMES Make proteins for the cell to use Float freely or are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ribosomes are made in the nucleus
Plant cells have many of the same organelles that an animal cell does…plus a few more _______________________
CELL WALL found outside the cell membrane gives shape, structure, and support to organism – does what bones do for humans!
CHLOROPLASTS This is where photosynthesis takes place. Contains chlorophyll, a green chemical, making the plant green. Chlorophyll absorbs the sun’s energy to change carbon dioxide and water into sugar and oxygen. CO 2 + H 2 O = C 6 H 12 O 6 (sugar) + O 2
VACUOLES Does the exact same thing in plant cells that it does in animal cells…only MUCH BIGGER.
All organisms need Carbon, but how do they get it?
All organisms need Carbon to do their life activities Plants absorb carbon out of the air Animals get carbon when they eat plants or other animals Animals release carbon into the air when they breath
All organisms need Carbon to do their life activities Bacteria and Fungi get carbon from waste and dead organisms and put it into the air Anything burning also puts carbon back into the air for the plants to use and start the cycle all over again This cycle is call the Carbon Cycle
NAME THE ORGANELLE d. Mitochondriab. Chloroplast c. Ribosomesa. Nucleus c.
1- Nucleus 2- DNA 3- Mitochondria 4- Ribosomes 5- Chloroplasts 6- Vacuoles 7- ER 8- Cell Membrane