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Cell Differentiation Mrs. Harlin. 1.1.3 Explain how instructions in DNA lead to cell differentiation and result in cells specialized to perform specific.

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Presentation on theme: "Cell Differentiation Mrs. Harlin. 1.1.3 Explain how instructions in DNA lead to cell differentiation and result in cells specialized to perform specific."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cell Differentiation Mrs. Harlin

2 1.1.3 Explain how instructions in DNA lead to cell differentiation and result in cells specialized to perform specific functions in multicellular organisms. Explain how instructions in DNA lead to cell differentiation and result in cells specialized to perform specific functions in multicellular organisms.

3 Specialized Cells Multicellular organisms begin as undifferentiated masses of cells and variation in DNA expression and gene activity determines the differentiation of cells and ultimately their specialization. Multicellular organisms begin as undifferentiated masses of cells and variation in DNA expression and gene activity determines the differentiation of cells and ultimately their specialization.

4 Differentiation Only specific parts of the DNA are activated; the parts of the DNA that are activated determine the function and specialized structure of a cell. Only specific parts of the DNA are activated; the parts of the DNA that are activated determine the function and specialized structure of a cell. Because all cells contain the same DNA, all cells initially have the potential to become any type of cell; however; once a cell differentiates, the process cannot be reversed. Because all cells contain the same DNA, all cells initially have the potential to become any type of cell; however; once a cell differentiates, the process cannot be reversed.

5 DNA Nearly all the cells in an organism contain the same chromosomes and DNA. Nearly all the cells in an organism contain the same chromosomes and DNA. Different parts of the genetic instructions are used in different types of cells, influenced by the cell’s environment and past history. Different parts of the genetic instructions are used in different types of cells, influenced by the cell’s environment and past history.

6 Hormones Hormones are chemical signals that are released by cells that influence the development and activity of other cells. Hormones are chemical signals that are released by cells that influence the development and activity of other cells.

7 Stem Cells Unspecialized cells that continually reproduce themselves and have, under appropriate conditions, the ability to differentiate into one or more types of specialized cells. Unspecialized cells that continually reproduce themselves and have, under appropriate conditions, the ability to differentiate into one or more types of specialized cells.

8 Types of Stem Cells Embryonic stem cells Embryonic stem cells Adult stem cells- found in bone marrow Adult stem cells- found in bone marrow Research has demonstrated both types of stem cells can be differentiated into specialized cells. Research has demonstrated both types of stem cells can be differentiated into specialized cells.

9 Specialized cells in Animals Nerve cells- eukaryotic, but have dendrites and axons for electrochemical communication in the body. Nerve cells- eukaryotic, but have dendrites and axons for electrochemical communication in the body. They are never replaced when they die. They are never replaced when they die.

10 Specialized cells in Animals Muscle cells- eukaryotic; used for movement. Muscle cells- eukaryotic; used for movement. –Skeletal muscles contain many nuclei and are striated- voluntary movement. –Smooth muscles only have 1 nucleus- involuntary movement

11 Specialized cells in Animals Blood cells Blood cells –Red blood cells- the hemoglobin protein transports oxygen and carbon dioxide (influenced by temperature and pH)  Do not divide  No mitochondria or nucleus –Plasma- transports materials  Insulin regulates glucose levels  Lipids, amino acids, and other ions also transported from digestive system. –White blood cells- protects the body from infection  Has a nucleus

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13 Specialized cells in Animals Gametes- Sperm and egg cell Gametes- Sperm and egg cell –Used in sexual reproduction –Only contain half the DNA as the rest of the cells in an organisms. –Haploid number for humans= 23 chromosomes

14 Specialized Cells in Plants Xylem- transports water from roots Xylem- transports water from roots Phloem- transports water and sugars Phloem- transports water and sugars

15 References htm htm htm htm heal-thyself.us heal-thyself.us scles2.php scles2.php health-niche.com health-niche.com ap-bio-patrick-steed.wikispaces.com ap-bio-patrick-steed.wikispaces.com


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