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 Since the cell cycle is known, now we must ask what controls it  Noted that healthy cells in contact will not divide ◦ Essentially, this is how our.

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Presentation on theme: " Since the cell cycle is known, now we must ask what controls it  Noted that healthy cells in contact will not divide ◦ Essentially, this is how our."— Presentation transcript:

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2  Since the cell cycle is known, now we must ask what controls it  Noted that healthy cells in contact will not divide ◦ Essentially, this is how our skin heals  But what drives the cycle?  Sequential control?  Experiments have shown that proteins control it

3 Experiment 1 Experiment 2 S S S G1G1 G1G1 M M M When a cell in the M phase was fused with a cell in G 1, the G 1 cell immediately began mitosis—a spindle formed and chromatin condensed, even though the chromosome had not been duplicated. Something in M phase induced interphase cells to divide. When a cell in the S phase was fused with a cell in G 1, the G 1 cell immediately entered the S phase—DNA was synthesized. S cells contained something that induced regulation in G 1 cells.

4  Conclusion: the S phase proteins work on G 1 nuclei, M phase works on everything  Biologists named these proteins “cyclins”  These are used in all three portions of interphase  Each is referred to as a “checkpoint”  Collectively, they are called growth factors  The cell has mechanisms that ensure each phase is complete before moving onto the next  We have seen this already with the possibility of a cell entering G 0

5 G1G1 G 1 checkpoint G1G1 G0G0 If a cell receives a go- ahead signal at the G 1 checkpoint, the cell continues on in the cell cycle. If a cell does not receive a go-ahead signal at the G 1 checkpoint, the cell exits the cell cycle and goes into G 0, a nondividing state.

6  Overall, it appears as though there are many factors, internal and external that control the cell cycle  Ex. Kinetochores not attached to microtubules  Ex. Density dependent inhibition  Ex. Anchorage dependence, where cells have to be attached to a substratum (solid surface) to divide

7 Cells anchor to dish surface and divide (anchorage dependence). When cells have formed a complete single layer, they stop dividing (density-dependent inhibition). If some cells are scraped away, the remaining cells divide to fill the gap and then stop (density-dependent inhibition). 25 µm Normal mammalian cells

8  Cancer can be thought of as uncontrolled growth of cells ◦ They can lack the mechanisms, do not respond properly to them, or have an error in the pathways  If they stop, it is at a random point

9 Cancer cells do not exhibit anchorage dependence or density-dependent inhibition. Cancer cells 25 µm

10  A mass of cancer cells is known as a tumor ◦ If this tumor stays in the original site – benign ◦ If it spreads to surrounding tissue - malignant  A individual tumor cell can break free from the group and invade other organs ◦ It is said to have metastasized ◦  Unfortunately, these cells can continue to grow if supplied with nutrients ◦ Normal cells divide before dying

11 Cancer cell Blood vessel Lymph vessel Tumor Glandular tissue Metastatic tumor A tumor grows from a single cancer cell. Cancer cells invade neighboring tissue. Cancer cells spread through lymph and blood vessels to other parts of the body. A small percentage of cancer cells may survive and establish a new tumor in another part of the body. Cancer

12  The two most common treatments we have are chemotherapy and radiation treatments Chemotherapy  By definition, treatment of any condition via chemicals  Our focus is on antineoplastic drugs – cancer fighters  Act by targeting rapidly dividing cells ◦ However, this also includes healthy cells such as bone marrow (blood cells), hair follicles, and sex cells

13  Common side effects – hair loss and an compromised immune system  Essentially theory is the drugs will kill the cancer faster than the patient  If not discovered soon enough, treatment would take too long Radiation Therapy  Beam of subatomic particles that damages DNA  Has to focus on a tumor

14  With more knowledge on mechanisms of cancer, new treatments are being proposed  Viruses are being designed to specifically target cancer cells


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