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This presentation contains a simple scheme of the cell cycle and shows nanoparticle uptake in a single cell, as it progresses through its cell cycle and.

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Presentation on theme: "This presentation contains a simple scheme of the cell cycle and shows nanoparticle uptake in a single cell, as it progresses through its cell cycle and."— Presentation transcript:

1 This presentation contains a simple scheme of the cell cycle and shows nanoparticle uptake in a single cell, as it progresses through its cell cycle and undergoes cell division. The generation of the ranking (Fig. 1c) of the intracellular nanoparticle concentration for cells in the different cell cycle phases is also illustrated. Role of cell cycle on the cellular uptake and dilution of nanoparticles in a cell population Jong Ah Kim, Christoffer Åberg, Anna Salvati, Kenneth A. Dawson Supplementary Discussion

2 Cell Cycle The cell cycle is a series of events that lead to cell division and replication, consisting of four phases: G1, S, G2 and M. The activation of each phase depends on the proper completion of the previous one. The cell cycle commences with the G1 phase, during which the cell increases its size. During the S phase the cell synthesizes DNA, and in the G2 phase it synthesizes proteins to prepare for cell division. Finally during the M phase the cell divides and the two daughter cells enter the G1 phase. Cells that have temporarily stopped dividing can enter a resting phase called G0.

3 G0/G1 G1 phase: cell growth, protein synthesis Cell Cycle

4 S G0/G1 S phase: DNA synthesis G1 phase: cell growth, protein synthesis Cell Cycle

5 S G2/M G0/G1 G2 phase: preparation for cell division, protein synthesis S phase: DNA synthesis G1 phase: cell growth, protein synthesis Cell Cycle

6 M phase: mitosis (cell division) S G2/M G0/G1 G2 phase: preparation for cell division, protein synthesis S phase: DNA synthesis G1 phase: cell growth, protein synthesis Cell Cycle

7 S G2/M G0/G1 Two new daughter cells in G1 phase M phase: mitosis (cell division) G2 phase: preparation for cell division, protein synthesis S phase: DNA synthesis Cell Cycle

8 Time A cell culture is a mixture of cells in different phases of their cell cycle, simultaneously undergoing progression and cell division. G0/G1 G2/M S S G0/G1 Proliferation of a cell culture

9 G0/G1 S G2/M Cell division Time A cell culture is a mixture of cells in different phases of their cell cycle, simultaneously undergoing progression and cell division. G0/G1 G2/M S S G0/G1 Proliferation of a cell culture

10 G0/G1 S G2/M Cell division Time A cell culture is a mixture of cells in different phases of their cell cycle, simultaneously undergoing progression and cell division. G0/G1 G2/M S S G0/G1 S G2/M Cell division Proliferation of a cell culture

11 Nanoparticle uptake in a cycling cell: example of a cell in G1 phase at the moment of exposure to nanoparticles S G2/M G0/G1

12 Nanoparticle uptake in a cycling cell: example of a cell in G1 phase at the moment of exposure to nanoparticles S G2/M G0/G1 Nanoparticles enter the cells and accumulate in the lysosomes.

13 Nanoparticle uptake in a cycling cell: example of a cell in G1 phase at the moment of exposure to nanoparticles S G2/M G0/G1 Nanoparticles are taken up throughout the cell cycle. Nanoparticles enter the cells and accumulate in the lysosomes.

14 Nanoparticle uptake in a cycling cell: example of a cell in G1 phase at the moment of exposure to nanoparticles S G2/M G0/G1 Nanoparticles enter the cells and accumulate in the lysosomes. Nanoparticles are taken up throughout the cell cycle. Uptake rate in the different phases is similar.

15 Nanoparticles enter the cells and accumulate in the lysosomes. Nanoparticles are taken up throughout the cell cycle. Uptake rate in the different phases is similar. S G2/M G0/G1 Upon cell division, cells dilute their intracellular nanoparticle concentration. Nanoparticle uptake in a cycling cell: example of a cell in G1 phase at the moment of exposure to nanoparticles

16 Daughter cells will have (on average) half of the amount of nanoparticles compared to the parent cell. Nanoparticles are taken up throughout the cell cycle. Uptake rate in the different phases is similar. S G2/M G0/G1 Upon cell division, cells dilute their intracellular nanoparticle concentration. Nanoparticle uptake in a cycling cell: example of a cell in G1 phase at the moment of exposure to nanoparticles

17 G0/G1 G2/M S Nanoparticle uptake in a cell population Time

18 G0/G1 G2/M S Nanoparticle uptake in a cell population During the first 10 hours of uptake there is no major difference between the concentrations of nanoparticles in cells in the different phases. Time

19 G0/G1 G2/M S Nanoparticle uptake in a cell population Time Cell division G0/G1 S G2/M Once a significant fraction of the cells in G0/G1 are cells that divided during the exposure to nanoparticles, then the G0/G1 cells show a reduced nanoparticle concentration in comparison to the other phases.

20 G0/G1 S G2/M Time G0/G1 S G2/M Cell division When cells that have divided begin to populate the S phase, then those cells also show a reduced intracellular nanoparticle concentration (compared to the cells in G2/M). Nanoparticle uptake in a cell population


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