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EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY REFLECTION FOR ACTION Canadian Edition EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY REFLECTION FOR ACTION Canadian Edition ODonnell, DAmico, Schmid, Reeve,

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Presentation on theme: "EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY REFLECTION FOR ACTION Canadian Edition EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY REFLECTION FOR ACTION Canadian Edition ODonnell, DAmico, Schmid, Reeve,"— Presentation transcript:

1 EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY REFLECTION FOR ACTION Canadian Edition EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY REFLECTION FOR ACTION Canadian Edition ODonnell, DAmico, Schmid, Reeve, Smith

2 CHAPTER 2 Cognitive Development

3 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Chapter 2 Cognitive Development Themes of the ChapterThemes of the Chapter –Biology and maturation underlie all developmental processes –Growth-promoting experience must occur in order for cognitive development to be fully realized –There are many school-related experiences that help learners realize their developmental potentials

4 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Guiding Questions How does education enrich brain development?How does education enrich brain development? How does Piaget explain cognitive development?How does Piaget explain cognitive development? What are the stages of cognitive development?What are the stages of cognitive development? How can teachers apply Piagets theory in the classroom?How can teachers apply Piagets theory in the classroom?(continued)

5 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Guiding Questions (continued) How does Vygotsky explain sociocognitive development?How does Vygotsky explain sociocognitive development? How can teachers apply Vygotskys theory in the classroom?How can teachers apply Vygotskys theory in the classroom? How does language develop?How does language develop? How can teachers use their knowledge of cognitive development when working with diverse learners and students with special needs?How can teachers use their knowledge of cognitive development when working with diverse learners and students with special needs?

6 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Brain Development Brain structure and functionBrain structure and function How does experience (education) affect brain development?How does experience (education) affect brain development?

7 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Brain Structure and Function – processes a persons new experiencesHippocampus – processes a persons new experiences – generate negative emotions as the brains warning systemAmygdala – generate negative emotions as the brains warning system – make all brain functions possibleNeurons – make all brain functions possible

8 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Figure 2.1 Brain Structures and Their Functions

9 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Brain Structure and Function Exposure to a stimulating environment will stimulate neuronsExposure to a stimulating environment will stimulate neurons When stimulated, neurons reach out to neighbouring neuronsWhen stimulated, neurons reach out to neighbouring neurons With repeated stimulation, the number of connections between neurons increases and the neurons bond togetherWith repeated stimulation, the number of connections between neurons increases and the neurons bond together This pattern of connections is known as memoryThis pattern of connections is known as memory

10 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Brain Structure and Function

11 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition How Education Affects Brain Development – brains capacity for structural change as the result of experienceNeural plasticity – brains capacity for structural change as the result of experience Stimulating environments give the brain a great deal of information to process, store, remember, and later use to solve problemsStimulating environments give the brain a great deal of information to process, store, remember, and later use to solve problems The information may facilitate greater neuronal connectivityThe information may facilitate greater neuronal connectivity

12 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Cognitive Development Piagets TheoryPiagets Theory – are inborn process of adjusting to the demands of the environment –Adaptations are inborn process of adjusting to the demands of the environment – are basic structures for organizing information –Schemas are basic structures for organizing information Behavioural schemas are mental representations of physical actionsBehavioural schemas are mental representations of physical actions Symbolic schemas are language-based mental representations of objects and eventsSymbolic schemas are language-based mental representations of objects and events Operations are mental actions to solve a problemOperations are mental actions to solve a problem

13 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Assimilation and Accommodation Assimilation is a process of incorporation in which some outside event is brought into a persons way of thinkingAssimilation is a process of incorporation in which some outside event is brought into a persons way of thinking Accommodation is a modification process in which an existing schema is changed or modified to make sense of something that is new and differentAccommodation is a modification process in which an existing schema is changed or modified to make sense of something that is new and different

14 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Disequilibrium Disequilibrium is a state of cognitive conflict that arises when ones existing way of thinking is not confirmed by experienceDisequilibrium is a state of cognitive conflict that arises when ones existing way of thinking is not confirmed by experience –Using a person can move from disequilibrium to equilibrium –Using adaptation a person can move from disequilibrium to equilibrium

15 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Figure 2.3 Origins and Consequences of Disequilibrium

16 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Piagets Stages in Cognitive Development

17 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Sensorimotor Stage (1-4 months) Some actions are satisfying and repeatedPrimary circular reactions (1-4 months) Some actions are satisfying and repeated (4-8 months) Some actions are found to have interesting effects on the environmentSecondary circular reactions (4-8 months) Some actions are found to have interesting effects on the environment (8-12 months) Intentions replace reflexesGoal-directed behaviour (8-12 months) Intentions replace reflexes (12-18 months) Curiosity leads to experimenting with objectsTertiary circular reactions (12-18 months) Curiosity leads to experimenting with objects (18-24 months) Symbolic images of environmental objects are createdSymbolic problem solving (18-24 months) Symbolic images of environmental objects are created

18 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition – understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be seen or detected by other sensesObject Permanence – understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be seen or detected by other senses Sensorimotor Stage

19 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Preoperational Stage Children create symbolic schemas to represent the objects and events around themChildren create symbolic schemas to represent the objects and events around them Children take part in pretend playChildren take part in pretend play

20 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Concrete Operations Stage Children can develop an internal mental activity that allows them to revise or alter a symbol or image to reach a logical conclusionChildren can develop an internal mental activity that allows them to revise or alter a symbol or image to reach a logical conclusion This mental manipulation can only be with concrete objects and events that lie in front of themThis mental manipulation can only be with concrete objects and events that lie in front of them

21 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Capacities of Concrete- Operational Thinking Animism –Belief that all things are alive and living –In concrete operations children can tell the difference between animate and inanimate objects Centration –Focusing on an objects most salient feature while neglecting equally important but less perceptually salient features –In concrete operations children can focus on more than one item at a time (continued)

22 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Capacities of Concrete-Operational Thinking (continued) Transductive reasoning –Causal understanding in which a child thinks that when two events occur simultaneously, one must have caused the other –In concrete operations children have a better understanding of cause-and- effect relationships than in the preoperational stage (continued)

23 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Egocentrism –Viewing the world from ones own perspective while failing to recognize that other people might have a different perspective or point of view –In concrete operations children are more aware of others perspectives than they were in the preoperational stage (continued) Capacities of Concrete-Operational Thinking (continued)

24 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Reversibility –Capability to reverse an action by mentally performing its opposite –In concrete operations children can mentally undo an action Classification –Grouping objects into categories –In concrete operations children advance to two-dimensional classifications (continued) Capacities of Concrete-Operational Thinking (continued)

25 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Seriation –Mentally arranging or ordering a set of objects along a quantifiable dimension, such as height –In concrete operations children arrange objects in serial order from shortest to longest Capacities of Concrete-Operational Thinking (continued)

26 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Conservation This is the crucial operational schema that defines the concrete operations stageThis is the crucial operational schema that defines the concrete operations stage –It is the understanding that appearance alterations do not change the essential properties of an object

27 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Figure 2.5 Three Piagetian Tests of a Childs Capacity to Conserve

28 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Generate a list of classroom activities that will involve the following:Generate a list of classroom activities that will involve the following: –Transductive reasoning –Conservation –Animism –Reversibility –Classification –Seriation Capacities of Concrete-Operational Thinking

29 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Formal Operations Stage With formal-operational thinking, thinking can be independent of concrete reality and involve systematic problem solvingWith formal-operational thinking, thinking can be independent of concrete reality and involve systematic problem solving – is the abstraction of a general principle from a variety of examples –Inductive reasoning is the abstraction of a general principle from a variety of examples – is drawing information or hypotheses out of a general premise or a sample of evidence –Deductive reasoning is drawing information or hypotheses out of a general premise or a sample of evidence

30 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Your Turn Develop a task for each stage of Piagets theory of cognitive developmentDevelop a task for each stage of Piagets theory of cognitive development Justify why each task is appropriate for each stageJustify why each task is appropriate for each stage (See p. 49 in your textbook for teaching techniques to enrich formal operations in the classroom)

31 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Three Applications of Piagets Theory Be sensitive to individual differencesBe sensitive to individual differences Motivate by stimulating curiosityMotivate by stimulating curiosity –Guessing and feedback –Suspense –Controversy Promote discovery-based learningPromote discovery-based learning

32 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Limitations of Piagets Theory Sometimes underestimates the intellectual capacity of infants, preschoolers, and elementary school studentsSometimes underestimates the intellectual capacity of infants, preschoolers, and elementary school students Errs when it says that development is marked by qualitative changesErrs when it says that development is marked by qualitative changes Robbie Case at University of TorontoRobbie Case at University of Toronto –Studied the development of learning strategies in terms of changes in involved in the solution of specific problems –Studied the development of learning strategies in terms of changes in control structures involved in the solution of specific problems

33 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Limitations of Piagets Theory Discovery learning is not as effective as guided discovery learningDiscovery learning is not as effective as guided discovery learning Neglects the importance of culture and social guidance in cognitive developmentNeglects the importance of culture and social guidance in cognitive development

34 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Sociocognitive Development Vygotsky argued that cognitive development emerges mostly out of the childs social interactions with parents, teachers, peers, and other competent members of societyVygotsky argued that cognitive development emerges mostly out of the childs social interactions with parents, teachers, peers, and other competent members of society Vygotsky advocated guided participation instead of discovery learningVygotsky advocated guided participation instead of discovery learning

35 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Zone of Proximal Development is a level of competence at which a student is unable to solve problems in that domainPredevelopment is a level of competence at which a student is unable to solve problems in that domain is a level of competence on a task in which the student cannot yet master the task on his or her own but can accomplish that same task with appropriate guidance from a more capable partnerZone of proximal development is a level of competence on a task in which the student cannot yet master the task on his or her own but can accomplish that same task with appropriate guidance from a more capable partner is a level at which students are capable of solving problems independentlyActual development is a level at which students are capable of solving problems independently

36 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Scaffolding The guidance, support, and tutelage provided by a teacher during social interaction designed to advance students current level of skill and understandingThe guidance, support, and tutelage provided by a teacher during social interaction designed to advance students current level of skill and understanding –Provides support –Extends the range of what a learner can do –Allows the learner to accomplish tasks otherwise impossible –Used only when needed

37 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Instructional Conversations with Groups of Learners IRE discourse model: conversation during teaching that follows an nitiate, espond, valuate scriptIRE discourse model: conversation during teaching that follows an initiate, respond, evaluate script PQS discourse model: conversation during teaching that follows a robe, uestion, caffold scriptPQS discourse model: conversation during teaching that follows a probe, question, scaffold script

38 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Socially Shared Cognition A shared understanding of a problem that emerges during group interaction that would not have been achieved by any individual member of the group acting aloneA shared understanding of a problem that emerges during group interaction that would not have been achieved by any individual member of the group acting alone

39 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Intersubjectivity The unique product that arises from social interaction in which the interaction partners come to a shared understanding of how to manage the problem-solving situationThe unique product that arises from social interaction in which the interaction partners come to a shared understanding of how to manage the problem-solving situation What are some examples of intersubjective experiences?What are some examples of intersubjective experiences?

40 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Transfer of Responsibility Transfer of responsibility occurs as the student accomplished subgoals of the activity, gains skill and understanding, and shows less need for assistanceTransfer of responsibility occurs as the student accomplished subgoals of the activity, gains skill and understanding, and shows less need for assistance

41 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Role of Language in Cognitive Development For Piaget, thought precedes language, and language is a by-product of cognitive developmentFor Piaget, thought precedes language, and language is a by-product of cognitive development For Vygotsky, language is a social bridge to connect a mentors advanced development with a novices immature development, and language creates cognitive developmentFor Vygotsky, language is a social bridge to connect a mentors advanced development with a novices immature development, and language creates cognitive development

42 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Three Types of Private Speech Self-guidance – remarks about ones own activity that are public but not directed to anyone in particularSelf-guidance – remarks about ones own activity that are public but not directed to anyone in particular Reading aloud – reading books or other materials aloud, sounding out words, or silently mouthing wordsReading aloud – reading books or other materials aloud, sounding out words, or silently mouthing words Inaudible muttering – quiet remarks that cannot be heard by an observerInaudible muttering – quiet remarks that cannot be heard by an observer

43 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Influence of Cultural Tools First level of sociocognitive development – face-to-face, one-on-one interaction between a competent member of the culture and a less competent memberFirst level of sociocognitive development – face-to-face, one-on-one interaction between a competent member of the culture and a less competent member Second level of sociocognitive development – through the cultures history and technology, effective for solving problemsSecond level of sociocognitive development – through the cultures history and technology, effective cultural tools for solving problems

44 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Importance of Peers to Development Sociocognitive development (Vygotsky) – more able peers can help as much as a teacher and are usually closer to the learners zone of proximal developmentSociocognitive development (Vygotsky) – more able peers can help as much as a teacher and are usually closer to the learners zone of proximal development Cognitive development (Piaget) – peers can create cognitive conflict and thus promote developmentCognitive development (Piaget) – peers can create cognitive conflict and thus promote development

45 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Applications of Vygotskys Theory Teacher as a guide, mentorTeacher as a guide, mentor Peers as guides, mentorsPeers as guides, mentors Culture as guide, mentorCulture as guide, mentor A new view of motivationA new view of motivation

46 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition

47 Canadian Research into Practice –Kieran Egan at Simon Fraser University, proposes a modified Vygotskian approach that draws upon and extends the notion of cognitive tools By definition, oral experience has to precede literacyBy definition, oral experience has to precede literacy Cognitive Toolkits enable us to make sense of the worldCognitive Toolkits enable us to make sense of the world Teachers should draw upon the sense of wonderTeachers should draw upon the sense of wonder

48 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Language Development Innate language acquisition deviceInnate language acquisition device –Children learn the language of their culture naturally, mostly by listening (18 months to six years of age) –: children have a biological preparedness for structure of language –Syntax: children have a biological preparedness for structure of language –: these develop rapidly from age 2 through preschool –Phonology and semantics: these develop rapidly from age 2 through preschool Role of a teacher: to provide many opportunities for children to use language to interact sociallyRole of a teacher: to provide many opportunities for children to use language to interact socially

49 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Language Disabilities and Brain Functioning – reading disability in which words are read from right to left and letters of the same configuration are reversedDyslexia – reading disability in which words are read from right to left and letters of the same configuration are reversed – language disability in which the person has difficulty understanding or producing speechAphasia – language disability in which the person has difficulty understanding or producing speech

50 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Technology Support for Young Readers & Readers with Special Needs Talking books for young readersTalking books for young readers –Digital or computerized versions of traditional picture storybooks can promote phonological awareness, vocabulary development, and reading comprehension Electronic books for students with special needsElectronic books for students with special needs –Books with large print or audio and text-to- speech capabilities function as assistive technology

51 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Text-Based Scaffolding Devices – convert text to speech or definitionsTransitional resources – convert text to speech or definitions – add pictures, charts and videos to the textIllustrative resources – add pictures, charts and videos to the text – overview of text with concept map or chapter outlineSummarizing resources – overview of text with concept map or chapter outline – promote interaction with note taking or outliningNotational resources – promote interaction with note taking or outlining – informational sidebars, historical background, and links to primary resourcesEnrichment resources – informational sidebars, historical background, and links to primary resources

52 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Second Language Acquisition and Bilingualism Second language acquisitionSecond language acquisition –Relatively easy during childhood –Noticeably more difficult after puberty BilingualismBilingualism –The use of two or more languages in everyday life –Proficiency in one language is highly related to proficiency in a second language

53 Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition Copyright Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Access Copyright (the Canadian copyright licensing agency) is unlawful. Requests for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his or her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The author and the publisher assume no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of these files or programs or from the use of the information contained herein.


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