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Yr 9 RE Moral Decisions, Justice and Peace Mater Dei Catholic College 2013.

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1 Yr 9 RE Moral Decisions, Justice and Peace Mater Dei Catholic College 2013

2 Moral Decisions, Justice and Peace Unit Overview: This unit focuses on moral decision- making and justice and peace, in relation to: moral maturity one theory of moral development the beliefs, values and actions of Christians of exemplary moral integrity Jesus teachings and Church doctrine on morality Catholic moral principles; and the application of the principles of Christian moral decision making, including a properly formed conscience, Scripture, and Church teaching, to one contemporary moral issue. The unit also includes a brief study of a Hindu or Buddhist person of exemplary moral integrity.

3 Moral Decisions, Justice and Peace Unit Outcomes: A student: C5.6 explains links between Christian life, fidelity to Church teaching, conscience, and inspiring people of faith C5.9 gathers and analyses information about religion, independently and in teams C5.10 communicates information, ideas and issues in appropriate forms to different audiences and in different contexts C5.11 uses appropriate terminology related to religion and belief systems C5.12 names, reflects on and integrates life experience, within a response to the Christian story and vision

4 Moral Decisions, Justice and Peace Unit Summary: People's actions are generally motivated by their attitudes and values. Sometimes external pressures from the expectations of peers or others influence a person's values. The Ten Commandments, a summary of the implications of the Covenant between God and God's people, protected the values of the People of the Old Testament because they clearly spell out fundamental aspects of a law which safeguards full human integrity and happiness. Jesus taught that love of God and oneself and neighbour is the greatest of all commandments. Sin is the deliberate and freely chosen refusal to keep any of God's commandments and especially Jesus' supreme commandment which obliges us to love God and neighbour.

5 Moral Decisions, Justice and Peace Unit Summary: Jesus' teaching in the Beatitudes promised happiness (or blessedness) to those who choose to live by Kingdom values, a blessedness which begins in this life and is fulfilled in the life to come. Conscience is an inner judgement that evaluates our choices and the way we have used our freedom, before, during and after an action. Everyone is obliged to develop an informed conscience and to live according to its dictates. For the Catholic Christian, the life and teaching of Jesus and that of the Church are the norms for morality. Christian morality is based on the intrinsic value of the human person made in the image of God. Persons are morally responsible for their actions according to their degree of freedom, knowledge of right and wrong and their intention or motivation.

6 Free will – Ultimate power If you had the 'Power' to change anything. What would you change? (You must name just one thing/aspect in your life) Describe the actions you must implement in your lifestyle, cultural, friendship circles and family situations to use this power so its most affective. Then evaluate the effects of this change on various groups in society. Was it to the benefit of everyone? OR was it merely selfish in nature?

7 Body Vote Its OK to pay people less than the award wage? Every child should get pocket money regardless of his/her responsibilities at home. Uniforms should not be worn in schools Stealing is always wrong Young people do not need curfews How do you make decisions? How do you know if youve made a positive/negative decision?

8 Moral Decisions, Justice and Peace Words to Understand Use the web to research definitions for the following terms and post on Wall Wisher Morality Immorality Conscience Moral Maturity

9 Moral Decisions, Justice and Peace Words to Understand Morality- the area of life concerning right and wrong and the moral legitimacy of our actions Immorality – Conscience – the sense or inner voice regarding ones own moral actions and motives. The innate knowledge of the natural law in the human heart. Moral Maturity –

10 Discovering Our Values How do we normally decide what to do in a given situation? In some cases we might act out of habit. At times we might make a decision based on the fear of punishment. Sometimes our decisions come from the attitudes we have towards something or someone. Many times we decide to do a particular thing on the basis of the happiness it will give us, the 'kick' we'll get out of doing it. We are normally being motivated to act by the values that we hold.

11 Considering Our Values In a word document, make three columns. Use the following headings for each column, as shown below: Arrange each of the following 20 items in the list below, according to your own evaluation of the worth of the item. Place the item in the appropriate column eg: if you consider 'sports' to be an important value, place as shown above. GoodValuableImportantNeutralUnimportant Not Good or Bad BadUnwholesomeDangerous e.g. Sports

12 Considering Our Values Tally the items to see which are the top 5 values of the class. Discuss how it is that our values affect the way we act. 1. developing the mind11. religion 2. physical appearance12. alcoholic drinks 3. money13. love of Country 4. a nice house14. drugs 5. attending Eucharist on Sundays15. a job 6. acceptance by those of the same sex 16. marriage 7. sports17. good grades in school 8. sex18. belief in God 9. nice clothes 19. acceptance by those of the opposite sex 10. helping others20. being true to yourself.

13 Defining Value Very simply, a value is a motive for action. For instance, if a person values money highly, that value will have a direct effect on the choices he or she will make in life. If it is the chief value, it will be the overriding reason for action. For example: if you find a wallet with one hundred dollars in it on school grounds, there are a number of choices available. You can: 1. keep the money and return the wallet Or 2. look for the owner Or 3. turn it over to a lost and found department If money is your number one value, you will probably keep the money. If honesty is a stronger value, you will return the wallet. If the wallet belongs to a friend and friendship is a stronger value, you will obviously find your friend and give back the wallet and money. In this way, values determine our moral decisions.

14 How Do We Form Our Values? As a child our values are largely those of our parents. The way we feel about ourselves – our self-esteem is largely our parents view of us. As we move out from the family into the bigger world we find that not everyones values are the same as our familys. The values of our peer group become more important to us. As our circle of friends grows larger we begin to think of alternatives to the way things are – different ways to live and act.

15 How Do We Form Our Values? New experiences help us to re-examine our values and adjust them. In some cases we may question or challenge the beliefs and values our parents have. Some of these beliefs may grow stronger, others may remain questions or even discarded. It is therefore natural for us to change our values as we grow older. It is part of becoming an individual.

16 Values In Conflict Focus: Value conflicts occur when individuals experience uncertainty about what values they really believe or want Ranking or prioritising is one of the best ways to help a person decide on their primary values Words to Understand Conflict - opposing ideas or interests Sensitive - able to arouse strong feelings

17 Values In Conflict External Pressures which can Influence our Values What effect can peer pressure have upon values? Can you give some examples of behaviour that are a result of peer pressure? Is peer pressure a reality here at this school? Why? In what ways? Are there any ways of overcoming undue pressure from a peer group? How? How can peer pressure exert the most influence positively? Who else can have an influence on your values, and therefore, motivations for actions?

18 Piaget & Kohlbergs Theories of Moral Development Piaget studied many aspects of moral judgment, but most of his findings fit into a two-stage theory. Stage 1: Children younger than 10 or 11 years think about moral dilemmas one way; older children consider them differently. Younger children regard rules as fixed and absolute. They believe that rules are handed down by adults or by God and that one cannot change them.

19 Piaget & Kohlbergs Theories of Moral Development Stage 2: The older child's view is more relative to their world. He or she understands that it is permissible to change rules if everyone agrees. Rules are not sacred and absolute but are devices which humans use to get along cooperatively

20 Piaget & Kohlbergs Theories of Moral Development You only need to write the first dot point… Kohlberg wanted to test this theory and see how people responded to different moral circumstances and decisions. In 1958 he took a core sample comprised of 72 boys, from both middle- and lower-class families in Chicago. They were ages 10, 13, and 16. He later added to his sample younger children, delinquents, and boys and girls from other American cities and from other countries (1963, 1970). Kohlberg posed them the Heinz delimma…

21 The Heinz dilemma Lets consider this dilemma… In Europe, a woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to make. He paid $200 for the radium and charged $2,000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about $ 1,000 which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said: "No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money from it." So Heinz got desperate and broke into the man's store to steal the drug-for his wife (Kohlberg, 1963, p. 19)You Tube:

22 Questions to answer on Heinz 1. Should Heinz steal the drug? Why or why not? 2. If Heinz doesn't love his wife, should he steal the drug for her? Why or why not? 3. Suppose the person dying is not his wife but a stranger. Should Heinz steal the drug for a stranger? Why or why not? 4. Suppose it is a pet animal he loves. Should Heinz steal to save the pet animal? Why or why not? 5. Why should people do everything they can to save another's life?

23 Questions to answer on Heinz 6. It is against the law for Heinz to steal? Does that make it morally wrong? Why or why not? 7. Why should people generally do everything they can to avoid breaking the law? How does this relate to Heinz's case? 8. Why are laws made? 9. On what basis should one decide whether a law is just or unjust? If one decides to break a law intentionally, does a person have a responsibility to accept the consequences?"

24 Piaget & Kholbergs Theories of Moral Development Kohlberg is not really interested in whether the subject says "yes" or "no" to this dilemma but in the reasoning behind the answer. The interviewer wants to know why the subject thinks Heinz should or should not have stolen the drug. The interview schedule then asks new questions which help one understand the child's reasoning. For example, children are asked if Heinz had a right to steal the drug, if he was violating the druggist's rights, and what sentence the judge should give him once he was caught. Once again, the main concern is with the reasoning behind the answers. The interview then goes on to give more dilemmas in order to get a good sampling of a subject's moral thinking.

25 Stages of Moral Reasoning – Kohlberg Pre-Conventional Morality Stage 1 Obedience or Punishment Orientation This is the stage that all young children start at (and a few adults remain in). Rules are seen as being fixed and absolute. Obeying the rules is important because it means avoiding punishment. Stage 2 Self-Interest Orientation As children grow older, they begin to see that other people have their own goals and preferences and that often there is room for negotiation. Decisions are made based on the principle of "What's in it for me?" For example, an older child might reason: "If I do what mom or dad wants me to do, they will reward me. Therefore I will do it." Conventional Morality Stage 3 Social Conformity Orientation By adolescence, most individuals have developed to this stage. There is a sense of what "good boys" and "nice girls" do and the emphasis is on living up to social expectations and norms because of how they impact day-to-day relationships. Stage 4 Law and Order Orientation By the time individuals reach adulthood, they usually consider society as a whole when making judgments. The focus is on maintaining law and order by following the rules, doing one's duty and respecting authority. Post-Conventional Morality Stage 5 Social Contract Orientation At this stage, people understand that there are differing opinions out there on what is right and wrong and that laws are really just a social contract based on majority decision and inevitable compromise. People at this stage sometimes disobey rules if they find them to be inconsistent with their personal values and will also argue for certain laws to be changed if they are no longer "working". Our modern democracies are based on the reasoning of Stage 5. Stage 6 Universal Ethics Orientation Few people operate at this stage all the time. It is based on abstract reasoning and the ability to put oneself in other people's shoes. At this stage, people have a principled conscience and will follow universal ethical principles regardless of what the official laws and rules are.

26 Moral Maturity What personal characteristics makes someone Morally Mature – how does someone behave? Describe what it means to be morally mature with reference to one theory of moral development (which stage would you be at?).

27 Ethical Principles and Actions – Christian Lives Focus: Christians achieve what they do by trusting in God, following Jesus and being open to the Holy Spirit. Christians inspire others when their lives clearly show the important human and Christian virtues. Words to Understand Inspiration – something that encourages or enthuses or inspires a person to achieve or act in a positive way

28 Ethical Principles and Actions – Christian Lives The Power of God Christians believe that everything they are and do comes about through the power of God. By trusting in God, following the example of Jesus, and being open to the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, Christians are able to lead meaningful lives. Even in the face of opposition, disappointment, failure, sickness, and death Christians can achieve wonders.

29 Ethical Principles and Actions – Christian Lives Christian Virtues The Church highlights seven Christian virtues that bring us closer to God. These help us grow into fully loving human beings. Faith – our ability to believe in the truth about God's goodness and in the Good News. Faith tells us that God is a God of love and forgiveness who offers us the fullness of life. Hope – believing the message of the Gospel gives us hope. Hope is a deep trust in God that keeps us going and stops us from becoming completely discouraged during life's dark moments. Love – is at the heart of all virtue and from it springs all that is good. It inspires us to lead good and holy lives. Love unites us with God and neighbour. Prudence – is the ability to know what needs to be done and how to do it in a particular situation. It is called the 'rudder virtue' because it steers all the other virtues.

30 Ethical Principles and Actions – Christian Lives Christian Virtues Justice – this is having a sense of the dignity and the rights of others and a willingness to give to each person what is due to them. This includes a willingness to do something about injustice. Fortitude – this virtue is like courage. It is a quality that helps a person to endure hardships and overcome fears that might turn them away from living a good Christian life. Temperance – is related to self-control. It is a quality of character that allows a person to be balanced and in control of their desires (for example, for food or drink). It helps a person to act for the good in the face of temptations.

31 Ethical Principles and Actions – Christian Lives Christian Lives - Two Outstanding Christians At the beginning of the twenty-first century there are many outstanding men and women whose lives are based on Christian virtues. Two of the most inspiring are Jean Vanier and Sister Helen Prejean. Their lives clearly show that they trust in God, follow the example of Jesus, and are open to the inspiration of the Holy Spirit.

32 Ethical Principles and Actions – Christian Lives Christian Lives – Jean Vanier Jean first became aware of great human suffering when he saw the brokenness and damage that World War II inflicted on people. In 1963, while in France, Jean visited a number of institutions for men who were intellectually disabled. He was overwhelmed by the poor conditions in these asylums. In one of them he met Philippe and Raphael. Jean knew that intellectually disabled people deserved better. Within a year, he bought a small house in the village of Trosly-Breuil. With the help of a psychiatrist, Jean set up a home where he was joined by Raphael and Philippe. This was the birth of L'Arche, named after Noah's Ark, the symbol of life, hope, and covenant between God and humankind. As they learned how to live together, Jean began to understand the needs and requirements of Raphael and Philippe. This life of simplicity and poverty attracted many friends who helped in practical ways – bringing soup, doing carpentry, giving vegetables and apples. Little by little a small Christian community was built around them.

33 Ethical Principles and Actions – Christian Lives Christian Lives – Jean Vanier Jean began to see beyond the practical needs of Raphael and Philippe, and the other intellectually disabled people who joined the community. He discovered their immense hidden pain but also the beauty and gentleness of their hearts, which they could not express in words. Jean shared the conviction with his friend Father Thomas Philippe that God had called them together to accomplish something. Jean was inspired by the life of Jesus. He realised that our society, which places great value on production and competition, has much to learn about the importance of sharing, acceptance, and joy from people with a mental disability. In the years since its beginning, the Federation of L'Arche has grown to more than 120 faith- based communities in over thirty countries. L'Arche has been called one of the most significant Christian ministries of the twentieth century and a living sign of the civilisation of love. Trust your heart, listen to other people, realise the gifts of simplicity and affection that the handicapped have to offer, appreciate the goodness of people and the value of community - Jean Vanier

34 Ethical Principles and Actions – Christian Lives Christian Lives – Sister Helen Prejean Helen Prejean from Louisiana didn't know what she was getting into when, in her forties, she made a simple decision to dedicate her life to the poor. In her early years, Helen was 'hosed down with love' by her parents. Her own desire to love widely led Helen to join the Sisters of St. Joseph of Medaille. After years of teaching in schools and parishes Helen went to live in the St. Thomas housing project. There, she became pen pals with Patrick Sonnier, the convicted killer of two teenagers, sentenced to die in the electric chair of Louisiana Angola State Prison. Upon Sonnier's request, Sister Helen repeatedly visited him as his spiritual advisor. On the night of April 5, 1984 she accompanied him at his execution. Sister Helen assured Patrick there was no way that he was going to die without seeing a loving face: You look at me, you look at my face. I can't bear the thought that you would die without seeing one loving face. I will be the face of Christ for you.

35 Ethical Principles and Actions – Christian Lives Christian Lives – Sister Helen Prejean Patrick Sonnier's death opened Sister Helen's eyes to the injustice of the execution process, which she saw as cruel and unfair: I couldn't watch someone being killed and walk away. Like a sacrament, the execution left an indelible mark on my soul. Since then Sister Helen has educated the public about the death penalty by lecturing, and writing. She continues to counsel inmates on death row and accompany them at their execution. Sister Helen also works with the families of both murderers and their victims. She wrote about her experiences in Dead Man Walking which was made into a major motion picture. Straightforward dedication and prayer drive Sister Helen. When she's at the right place at the right time, she's aware of God's presence. Although the Catholic Church teaches that the death penalty is almost never morally acceptable in modern society, there are around 3,000 people awaiting execution in the United States. We must oppose the death penalty – and stand with all who suffer from crime. - Sister Helen Prejean

36 Christian Values – The Ten Commandments Focus: Christian values are based on the Ten Commandments and on the words and actions of Jesus The Ten Commandments state what is required in love of God and neighbour Words to Understand Covenant - an agreement or oath taken by two people or parties Decalogue - Ten Commandments Natural Law - law written on every human heart Moses and the Ten Commandments – by Guido Reni

37 Christian Values – The Ten Commandments The Ten Commandments are a set of biblical principles relating to ethics and worship, which play a fundamental role in Judaism and Christianity. They include instructions to worship only God and to keep the Sabbath, and prohibitions against idolatry, blasphemy, murder, theft, and adultery. Different groups follow slightly different traditions for interpreting and numbering them. The Ten Commandments appear twice in the Hebrew Bible, in the books of Exodus and Deuteronomy. According to the story in Exodus, God inscribed them on two stone tablets, which he gave to Moses on Mount Sinai. Each commandment came from a particular cultural and historical context and represented important values which the Jewish people saw as responses to Gods special favours. They were not seen as wearisome obligations. The 10 Commandments can also be called The Decalogue.

38 Christian Values – The Ten Commandments What do they really mean? Examine each of the Ten Commandments (The Decalogue) and list the values addressed by them. They are Gods rules for us, but they are expressed in old fashioned language and we need to interpret their message. For example: You shall not steal – Means, Ensure honesty in friendship, relationships, dont take things that dont belong to you.

39 Christian Values – The Ten Commandments Task: Copy "The Ten Commandments" below into your workbook. In the box next to each Commandment, put the letter of the values given below which underlie each Commandment. e.g.: 1, C. In your workbooks, complete your page by rewriting the Commandments in a positive way to make their underlying values more evident. e.g.: 1 Give God a central place in my life and refuse to substitute 'idols' such as money, power popularity.

40 Christian Values – The Ten Commandments The Ten Commandments are found in Exodus 20:2-17 and Deuteronomy 5:6-21. The Summary below is adapted from the New American Bible translation. 1. I, the Lord, am your God who brought you out of slavery. You shall not have other gods except me. 2. You shall not take the name of the Lord, your God, in vain. 3. Remember to keep holy the Sabbath day. 4. Honour your father and your mother. 5. You shall not kill. 6. You shall not commit adultery. 7. You shall not steal. 8. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbour. 9. You shall not covet your neighbour's wife. (spouse) 10. You shall not covet anything that belongs to your neighbour.

41 Christian Values – The Ten Commandments A.respect for other people's property. avoiding stealing, cheating, shoplifting, excessive gambling etc. B.appreciation of and respect for human sexuality one's own and that of others. respect for marriage. sexual integrity. C.recognising God as Creator and giving God due reverence. refusing to make 'gods' out of things such as money, power or prestige. D.respecting God's name. appreciating the sacredness of God and things associated with God. E.right attitude towards material goods. avoiding an attitude of "I must have..." avoiding jealousy. F.putting the "Lord's Day" at the centre of our worship. appreciating the fact that we approach God in community, not as isolated individuals. G.respecting the total commitment of two people for each other in marriage. seeing the love and struggles of marriage as sacred. avoiding attitudes and actions that could break up this relationship. H.respect for parents (care-givers) and rightful authority. mutual respect between parents and children. I.respect for truth and honesty. respect for the good name and reputation of others. J.respect for human life – one's own and that of others. respect for the 'least of these': the unborn, the sick, the old and dying.

42 Values

43 Contemporary Commandments for todays world… Apply the commandments in contemporary situations: Form groups; give each group a commandment and ask them to prepare a poster showing applications of that commandment to contemporary situations. e.g. You shall not kill – You shall not engage in war, capital punishment, speeding, drugs, abortion. You shall not steal – You shall not engage in shoplifting, vandalism, cheating on exams, plagiarism. Use images, colour and magazine clippings to illustrate your 10 Commandments!

44 The Values of Jesus Focus: Jesus sums up the Ten Commandments when he says the way to eternal life is love of God and neighbour. The Beatitudes are at the heart of Jesus' teaching and state what is necessary to share in the promised life. Words to Understand The Great Commandment – love of God and love of neighbour Privilege – advantage granted to certain people or persons

45 The Great Commandment [Matthew 22:34-40]...and one of them, a lawyer, in an attempt to trip him up, asked him, 'Teacher, which commandment is the greatest?' Jesus said to him: 'You shall love the Lord your God with your whole heart, with your whole soul, and with all your mind. This is the greatest and first commandment. The second is like it: 'You shall love your neighbour as yourself.' On these two commandments the whole law is based, and the prophets as well.' In speaking of the Commandment to love God and self and neighbour, Jesus was not really imposing anything on human nature. Rather, he was exposing what was already there. Being fully human means knowing and responding to the love God has for you. Being human means loving and respecting oneself as made in God's image. Being human means showing this love respect towards everyone else who is also loved by God. As a consequence you would not steal what belongs to your neighbour out of respect for them. We cannot really separate the love of God from the love of self and neighbour.

46 The Values of Jesus Human Needs Various psychologists have pointed out that human beings have fundamental needs. Maslow, a psychologist, classified human needs according to different levels. The diagram below shows what these levels are. The first basic needs are physical ones: food, clothing, shelter for example.

47 The Values of Jesus Human Needs When these needs have been met, people can then move up to another level of need and so on until they reach the highest level of fulfilment, shown at the peak of the pyramid in the diagram. Full human life requires that all these needs are met. However, not everyone can have these needs fulfilled for various reasons: their situation in life, the selfishness of others etc. Make a list of things which stop people from having their needs met at each of Maslow's levels e.g. living in a war zone will prevent a person achieving security.

48 The Values of Jesus Love God, Self and Neighbour 1. Being in relationship with God requires us to acknowledge that God is our Creator. List three other examples of what being in relationship with God requires of us. 2. Complete the printable activity, 'Human Needs Grid', which is about loving our neighbour as we love ourselves.

49 The Beatitudes Focus: The Beatitudes are Christ's answer to the question of happiness and along with the whole of the Sermon on the Mount encapsulate Christian ethics. Words to Understand Beatitudes – state of great happiness or blessedness Kingdom of God – life in God, initiated in Christ, and completely fulfilled at the end time Humility – conscious of one's failings

50 The Beatitudes The word 'beatitude' means 'blessing'. The list of blessings known as the Beatitudes is found in Chapter Five of Matthew's Gospel, at the beginning of the long and important passage known as the Sermon on the Mount. The Beatitudes are central to Jesus' teaching about the Kingdom (or Reign) of God. They are also found, in a slightly different version, in Chapter Six of Luke's Gospel. A true appreciation of the Beatitudes requires a belief in the reality of the Kingdom of God which Jesus came to proclaim. In fact, this Kingdom began to be present in the world with the coming of Jesus although it will not be completely fulfilled until the end of the world. The Preface prayer for the Mass of the Feast of Christ the King describes this Kingdom as: 'an eternal and universal kingdom: a kingdom of truth and life, a kingdom of holiness and grace, a kingdom of justice, love and peace.' All Christians are called by God to work towards making this Kingdom present 'on Earth as it is in Heaven' by living their lives according to the values of Jesus. The Beatitudes speak of the attitudes and behaviour of those living out the values of the Kingdom.

51 The Beatitudes - [Matthew 5:3-10] 1. How blessed are the poor in spirit; the kingdom of God is theirs. 2. Blessed are the gentle: they shall have the earth as their inheritance. 3. Blessed are those who mourn; they shall be comforted. 4. Blessed are they who hunger and thirst for uprightness; they shall have their fill. 5. Blessed are the merciful; they shall have mercy shown them. 6. Blessed are the pure in heart: they shall see God. 7. Blessed are the peacemakers; they shall be recognised as children of God. 8. Blessed are those who are persecuted in the course of uprightness; the kingdom of heaven is theirs.

52 Values Auction ItemHighest BidWinnerItemHighest BidWinner 1. An opportunity to rid the world of prejudice 13. A chance to control the lives of 500, 000 people 2. An opportunity to become a famous figure (movie star, pop singer, sports hero, astronaut etc.) 14. Membership in a great health and sports club 3. A year of the worlds finest food from a famous chef 15. A chance to spend 6 months with any world leader or famous person of your choice 4. An opportunity to know the meaning of life 16. Unlimited travel and tickets to attend any concert, play, opera, film or ballet for one year 5. The possibility of setting your own working conditions 17. A three-year scholarship to any university of your choice at home or abroad 6. Becoming exceedingly rich18. An opportunity to serve the sick and needy 7. Achieving great political power – even Prime Minister of Australia 19. A chance to be voted Outstanding Person Of The Year and praised in every world newspaper 8. The possibility of being one of the worlds most attractive persons 20. Free psychoanalysis with a genius analyst 9. A chance to be one hundred with no illness 21. The perfect love affair 10. An audience with the Pope (In which he listens to your point of view) 22. A chance to be the wisest person in the world and to make only right decisions for 1 year 11. An opportunity to master the profession of your choice 23. A chance to rid the world of unfairness 12. A year with nothing to do but enjoy yourself with all needs and desires automatically met 24. A chance to work abroad in some self-help program for impoverished people 25. An opportunity of being able always to do your own thing without any arguments

53 Moral Decisions, Justice and Peace Declaration of Human Rights and the Beatitudes View the Declaration of Human Rights PDF Declaration of Human Rights and the Beatitudes: Students match up each statement from the declaration of human rights with each of the Beatitudes (teachers to stick up the beatitudes and students work in groups to align the human rights).

54 Moral Decisions, Justice and Peace Hélder Câmara (Bishop of the Slums)– Spiral of Violence Dom Hélder Pessoa Câmara (February 7, 1909, Fortaleza, Ceará, North East Brazil – August 27, 1999, Recife) was Roman Catholic Archbishop of Olinda and Recife. He was known as the 'Bishop of Corum' and took a clear position with the urban poor.[1] In 1959 he founded Banco da Providência in Rio de Janeiro, a philanthropic organization that still exists fighting poverty and social injustices. He is famous for stating, "When I give food to the poor, they call me a saint. When I ask why they are poor, they call me a communist."[2]

55 Moral Decisions, Justice and Peace Hélder Câmara (Bishop of the Slums)– Spiral of Violence Camara's short tract, Spiral of Violence (1971), was written at the time of the Vietnam War. It is distinctive not just for the manner in which it links structural injustice (Level 1 violence) with escalating rebellion (Level 2 violence) and repressive reaction (Level 3 violence), but also for the way in which Camara calls upon the youth of the world to take steps for breaking the spiral to which their elders are often addicted. This book has been out of print for about 20 years (in the UK), but a scanned version is now available on the web at the link given below. In 1973, he was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize by the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC).[3] He was awarded the Pacem in Terris Award. It was named after a 1963 encyclical letter by Pope John XXIII that calls upon all people of good will to secure peace among all nations. Pacem in Terris is Latin for "Peace on Earth."

56 Moral Decisions, Justice and Peace Hélder Câmara (Bishop of the Slums)– Spiral of Violence 'Injustice, within and between societies, constitutes a basic violence- Violence No 1. This established violence engenders Violence No 2. which is revolt. This occurs when either the oppressed or youth are firmly resolved to battle for a more just and humane world. Violence No 3 is governmental repression, under the pretext of guarding public order, national security, the free world. If violence is met by violence, the world will fall into a spiral of violence. The only answer is to have the courage to face the injustices that contribute to Violence No 1. (Dom Helder Camara. CCJP. Occasional paper No 6).

57 Integrity: Living by Our Values Focus: Living a moral life gives witness to the dignity of the human person. Human freedom enables a person to shape their lives and grow in truth and goodness. Every person has the natural right to be recognised as free and responsible. Words to Understand Human Dignity – the unique nature of humans created in the image and likeness of God Freedom – humans have the ability to choose to act in love to realise their full potential Reason – the power of the intellect to choose the truth Integrity – being of sound, honest character, with wholesome, moral principles

58 The Golden Rule Many religions claim that love is a basic force in making moral decisions which form the basis for their daily behaviour. The following statements assume that we have a healthy love and respect for ourselves. Buddhism: 'Hurt not others with that which pains thyself (5th Century BCE) Confucianism: 'What you don't want done to yourself, don't do to others' (6th Century BCE) Zoroastrianism: 'Do not do unto others all that which is not well for oneself' (5th Century BCE) Judaism: 'What is hateful to yourself, don't do to your fellow man' (Rabbi Hillel, 1st Century BCE)

59 The Golden Rule Christianity: 'Do unto others as you would have them do unto you" (Jesus, 1st Century) Making Choices 1. List the kind of choices you make in a day. 2. What kind of choices do you consider to be the most important? 3. What kind of choices do you think are most important to a person in the course of a lifetime? Which of these choices do you want to make freely? 4. Are there any choices or decisions that you would willingly give up the freedom to make? 5. Write your own definition of freedom. 6. Why do people value freedom?

60 Internal and External Freedom People who live by their values are able to make responsible moral decisions. This is because they have internal freedom. Another name for this internal freedom is integrity. People who have integrity live by a set of moral principles which motivate their actions and guide their choices. Another kind of freedom is external freedom, which enables people to choose and act without the control of others. It is possible for people to be internally free, even if they are externally restrained eg. St Maximillien Kolbe who was imprisoned in a Nazi concentration camp freely chose to die in place of another prisoner. You might be able to think of other examples of such people.

61 Internal and External Freedom 1. Use the following quotations on freedom to create a poster / song or poem about freedom and what it means to you. Freedom is an inner ability to determine one's own future, to be the author of one's own destiny. Freedom is the power to choose. Freedom is doing your 'own thing', getting on in the world, doing well for yourself. 2. In groups dramatise situations where people fail to take the responsibility of free choice using the following statements. 'I can't help it.' 'Everybody does it.' 'It's not hurting anyone.' 'I am free to do what I like.'

62 Justice, Just Actions and Peace – Scripture Search 1. Students complete a Scripture search: locating references to justice, just actions, and peace. Each reference is placed under one of three columns in their workbook: a. 'Jesus condemns injustice', b. 'Jesus affirms efforts for justice and peace' c. 'Jesus seeks and promises peace and non-violence'.

63 Justice, Just Actions and Peace – Scripture Search Scripture passages include Lk 14:16-24 'The great feast', Mt 18:23-35 'The unforgiving debtor', Mt 19:21 'Helping the poor', Lk 18: 'The rich ruler', Lk: 'The good Samaritan', Jn 14:27 and 20:19,20,26 'Jesus promises the gift of peace', Matt 26:50-53 'Jesus renounces violence when Peter cuts of the servants ear in Gethsemane'. ­- In groups, identify and record what these readings say about Jesus vision in what he says and does, and with whom he associates. Jesus brought good news of a Kingdom/Reign/Dream of God where the poor and suffering, the oppressed and the grieving are blessed by God

64 Conscience Focus: All people are called by their conscience to do good and avoid evil. An informed and educated conscience enables people to act responsibly. Words to Understand Conscience – innate ability of a person to judge what is right and what is wrong Virtue – habit which predisposes a person to do what is good Vice – morally bad habit that leads a person to do evil Habit – tendency to act in a particular way

65 Conscience Conscience is 'myself making a moral judgement'. That is, when I decide whether an act is right or wrong, then I am using my conscience. Catholics believe that there are two important principles to consider when making decisions about right and wrong: 1. We have a responsibility to make sure that our conscience is properly formed. This means that we must take the trouble to gather all the relevant information: what the facts of the matter are, what Scripture and Church teaching have to say etc. 2. Having formed our conscience, we must follow it. Our deepest moral obligation is to follow our conscience in doing what we know is right. We have been given the ability as human beings created in God's image to determine right from wrong, and we have a responsibility to act accordingly.

66 Conscience Can you think of five other times when you have made a conscience decision? Task : 'If Christ is 'the light of the world' in whom God's purposes are revealed, then it is we who are revealed to ourselves in that light. In the light of Christ, we come to know what is authentically human (i.e.; morally right) and what is not authentic (i.e.: immoral). ' One Lord, Faith, Baptism p.28 – Bishop Peter Cullinane In order to respond better to others and to God, and to grow in freedom and responsibility, it is important to know what conscience is. However, not all of our decisions are matters of conscience.

67 Conscience Read and copy the list below. Label the decisions which you feel are matters of conscience with a 'C' and those which are not with an 'N' e.g. 1(N) 1. Choosing a subject at school. 2. Cheating on exams. 3. Knowing someone in your class is stealing, and not reporting him or her. 4. Buying a stereo. 5. Going to a football or netball match on Saturday. 6. Driving over the speed limit. 7. Pursuing a career goal of becoming a social worker. 8. Befriending a new student when your friends dislike that person. 9. Working on the school magazine or newspaper. 10. Holding a grudge against a family member.

68 Conscience Habits Most of the time, the majority of people do not go through a long process of decision making before acting. They usually act from habit. A habit is the tendency to act in a particular way because in the past a person has repeatedly done a certain action. For example, if we have developed habits of honesty from our upbringing and education, we will tend to act honestly when the need arises. So if someone in front of us in the street unknowingly drops some money, we will immediately pick it up and return it to them, almost without thinking about it. On the other hand, if we have dishonest habits, our first inclination will be to keep the money. This is why it is very important to develop good habits, and to deliberately set out to change bad habits in the area of right and wrong, as in other areas of life. A good habit e.g. being fair towards others, is called a virtue. A bad habit e.g. stealing, is called a vice.

69 Conscience Habits Something to Discuss 1. Give some reasons why you think it is important to develop good habits. 2. What do you think is required to develop 'good' habits and to change 'bad' ones? 3. Give examples of habits that you think would be important to develop for your own life.

70 Making Moral Decisions as a Christian Informed Conscience In striving to make good decisions about tough moral issues, Christians look for guidance outside themselves as well as within their own hearts. The steps below attempt to summarise both dimensions of the process of decision- making. STEP ONE: Define the Issue Begin by defining the issue at hand as clearly as possible. In some cases, such as capital punishment, this may require considerable study and reflection. In other cases, such as stealing or destroying property, the issue may be more easily understood. STEP TWO: Seek Advice After defining the issue, look for outside resources for information and guidance. Among those resources are the following: the values and teachings of Jesus as found in the Christian Testament. the formal teachings of the Church. the advice of respected people who possess deep faith and obvious goodwill.

71 Making Moral Decisions as a Christian Informed Conscience STEP THREE: Reflect Honestly on the Consequences Reflect on the morality of certain actions, decisions, and attitudes in light of the results they are likely to cause. STEP FOUR: Pray for God's Guidance In prayer, the believer weighs the results of all the reflection suggested by the previous steps. The Christian asks God to guide him or her to do what is right and to reject what is wrong. A special gift of the Holy Spirit towards this end is 'Right Judgement'. STEP FIVE: Decide and Act Once the Catholic Christian has seriously considered a decision in light of guidelines such as these, he or she can act with confidence. Does this seem like a lot of work? Certainly. Yet, those who care enough to work at their moral decisions are able to live in dignity and peace. Adapted from: Zanzig, Understanding Catholic Christianity.

72 Making Moral Decisions as a Christian Using the Five Steps on 'Making Moral Decisions as a Christian', work through Case Study 1 and Case Study 2 in pairs or in groups. In your answers, ensure you: 1.Define the Issue 2.Seek Advice 3.Reflect Honestly on the Consequences. 4.Pray for God's Guidance 5.Decide and Act Make notes as you go, putting yourself in Bob and Jill's place where appropriate. Each pair or group are to give a brief report to the class on their decision and reasons for it.

73 Making Moral Decisions as a Christian Case Study One: Bob and the Family Car Bob used the family car last night. While backing out of the car park on his way home from a dance, he damaged another car to the tune of $1000. He did about $700 worth of damage to the family car. Realising that he would have to pay if he admitted the accident, Bob failed to leave a note on the damaged car, nor did he try to locate its owner. Today, Bob feels uneasy over his decisions. Clearly, in the above example, Bob dishonestly left the scene of the accident-without reporting it. His conscience was at work: a.Before he acted, when he was trying to judge what to do or what not to do. Conscience helps a person to sort the data before a decision is made. It helps in examining the right or wrong thing to do by reflecting on the teachings of Jesus and his Church, the rights of others, the helpfulness to one's growth, and the like. b.As he acted, by enabling him to make a judgment after considering the relevant data. Conscience ultimately makes it possible for a person to act or not to act, to hold an attitude or not to hold one. It is that depth of our being which says 'Yes, I am going to act, ' or 'No, I refuse to act.' c.After he acted, through any after-thoughts he may have had about his action the previous night. The third function of conscience is to help a person, after the action, to judge whether the judgment was right. In Bob's case, maybe fear of consequences helped make him act the way he did. He may regret his action the next day and try to make amends, as he is obliged to do.

74 Making Moral Decisions as a Christian Case Study One: Bob and the Family Car Clearly, in the above example, Bob dishonestly left the scene of the accident-without reporting it. His conscience was at work: a. Before he acted, when he was trying to judge what to do or what not to do. Conscience helps a person to sort the data before a decision is made. It helps in examining the right or wrong thing to do by reflecting on the teachings of Jesus and his Church, the rights of others, the helpfulness to one's growth, and the like. b. As he acted, by enabling him to make a judgment after considering the relevant data. Conscience ultimately makes it possible for a person to act or not to act, to hold an attitude or not to hold one. It is that depth of our being which says 'Yes, I am going to act, ' or 'No, I refuse to act.' c. After he acted, through any after-thoughts he may have had about his action the previous night. The third function of conscience is to help a person, after the action, to judge whether the judgment was right. In Bob's case, maybe fear of consequences helped make him act the way he did. He may regret his action the next day and try to make amends, as he is obliged to do.

75 Making Moral Decisions as a Christian Case Study Two: The Music Store Jill has just got a new job working at a large music store near her home. She discovers that the manager obtains some of his CD's by illegal means. Jill also discovers that the other employees at the store habitually steal CD's, and they urge her to do the same. They point out to her that the CD's do not rightfully belong to the manager anyway. Jill cannot decide whether or not to take the CD's. Based on Christian principles, what should she do?

76 Making Moral Decisions as a Christian A Literary Challenge The Dignity of the Moral Conscience The Church Today (Guadium et Spes) No.16. The Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World #1 maintains that "In the depths of his or her conscience, a person detects a law which they do not impose upon themselves, but which holds them to obedience. - What does this statement mean? - What are the implications for moral decision making? (Conscience: need for proper formation; Having formed conscience, it must be followed.) UF CMV p17 contains the statement above. Students are to deconstruct this piece of writing and re-write it for a teen magazine. Use examples to illustrate your understanding.

77 Whats The Difference? Focus: Moral problems are often difficult to solve because of the many circumstances involved in them. Words to Understand Norm – an action guide to avoid conduct that is morally wrong Moral Life – is the response to the initiative of love given by God Right moral action – actions judged to be morally right as they contribute to the good of the person

78 Whats The Difference? Trusted Friends – Source of Sound Advice Trusted friends can be a valuable source of advice in the case of making important decisions. The following song 'You've Got a Friend' alerts us to this value. After listening to this song, discuss the lyrics in a group.

79 Whats The Difference? Task Get into groups of 3 or 4 and read the following pairs of cases. Discuss each pair of cases by using the questions below. List, on a large sheet of paper, all the differences in circumstances between the two cases in each pair. One student from each group displays and reports the group's findings to the class. 1.What exactly is happening? 2.Why – with what motive? 3.How – in what manner, by what means or method? 4.Who is involved? 5.When and where is it happening? 6.Consequences – what are the foreseeable effects? 7.Options – are there any alternative choices

80 Whats The Difference? Task 1. A. A nurse gives a patient a prescribed dose of morphine to ease her pain. B. After work, the nurse takes a shot of the same drug. 2. A. You have strict orders never to use either of the family cars without your parents' permission. Your parents are gone, and you use the car for a quick race through town with your friends. B. You have strict orders never to use either of the family cars without your parents' permission. Your parents are gone, and you use the car to run a neighbour to the hospital to receive emergency medical attention. 3.A. A friend confides in you that she is pregnant and that the father of her child is a well respected, married business executive from town. Another friend, who enjoys being in on the gossip, asks you for details. You say, 'I don't know anything about the situation.' B. A friend confides in you that she has been part of a group doing vandalism around town and that she and the group are going to vandalise your school next. A local police officer asks you what you know; and you say, 'I don't know anything about the situation.'

81 Responsibility for Moral Choice Focus : People of integrity live by their values and make responsible moral decisions. People of integrity live by their values and make responsible moral decisions. Moral principles motivate their actions and guide their choices. Moral principles motivate their actions and guide their choices.

82 Responsibility for Moral Choice Use See Judge Think Act process See: 1. Who is the person or organisation you wish to pay a tribute to? 2. What is the cause they are addressing? Think: 1. Why do you think this issue needs addressing? 2. How big is the problem? Eg. the number affected, the effect on communities. 3. What do you believe would be the consequence of not addressing the issue? Judge: 1.How is this issue addressed in Catholic Social Justice Teaching, Scripture and Human Rights Declaration? Act: 1. Discuss 3 ways MDCC community can support the work of the person or organisation.

83 Responsibility for Moral Choice Task Eight negative actions are described below. Number them from 1 (most serious) to 8 (least serious) according to your opinion of the seriousness of the actions. a. a father of a family who regularly gambles away his pay b. a mother arrested for driving while drunk c. illegally downloading music to your MP3 player d. a politician who takes a bribe e. bullying other students via text messages f. a senior citizen on a pension who steals a can of tuna from the supermarket g. teenagers who wear T shirts with offensive racist slogans h. writing graffiti on public buildings

84 Degrees of Moral Responsibility There are different degrees of moral responsibility. Persons are responsible for their actions according to their degree of freedom, their knowledge of right and wrong, and their intention or motivation. Degrees of Freedom Consider these two cases: 1. A bank teller who deliberately steals from his or her employer by putting extra money into a relation's account. 2. A bank teller who hands over some of his or her employer's money to a robber who is pointing a gun at him or her. The first is responsible and the second not responsible for his or her actions because of the degree of freedom involved.

85 Degrees of Moral Responsibility Degrees of Knowledge Consider these two cases: 1. A man who deliberately poisons his wife in order to get her life insurance money. 2. A man who suffers from a mental illness and kills his wife without realising the seriousness of what he was doing. The first would be judged guilty of murder because he knew what he was doing, while the second would be judged not responsible for the murder and committed to an asylum because he could not distinguish right from wrong. He lacked knowledge of the consequences of his actions.

86 Degrees of Moral Responsibility Degrees of Intention Consider these two cases: 1. A woman accidentally runs over and kills a child who dashes out from behind a parked car. 2. A gangster deliberately runs down and kills the child of a policeman who has arrested a gang member. The result is the same. Both children are dead. In the first case however the woman did not intend to kill the child - it was an accident and she may not be charged with any offence. The gangster however was intending to kill and, if caught, will be charged with murder.

87 Degrees of Moral Responsibility Task Using the above cases as examples, write your own scenario which shows the difference between degrees of moral responsibility. Share and discuss your cases in class with the teacher.

88 Ethical Principles and Actions 1. Students move into groups of four/five and are guided to research one Christian of exemplary moral integrity - Maximillian Kolbe, Mother Teresa, Martin Luther King, Nelson Mandela, Saint Mary Mackillop, or a person related to the charism/sprituality of the school 2. Students create a presentation for the class in a format of their choosing 3.Students will research and present the following information - A brief overview about each person - A description about why this person is important to our history - Identify the struggles each person experienced in their lives and explain how they overcome these struggles - An evaluation about why each person is a person of exemplary moral integrity - A short discussion about how we can use the examples of these special people in our own day to day lives

89 Ethical Principles and Actions 1. Students move into groups of four/five and are guided to research one Buddhist or Hindu person of exemplary moral integrity - Dali Lama (Buddhism), Nargajuna (Buddhism), Ramakrishnap (Hindusim), Mohandas Ghandi (Hinduism). 2. Students create a presentation for the class in a format of their choosing 3.Students will research and present the following information - A brief overview about each person - A description about why this person is important to our history - Identify the struggles each person experienced in their lives and explain how they overcome these struggles - An evaluation about why each person is a person of exemplary moral integrity - A short discussion about how we can use the examples of these special people in our own day to day lives

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