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USE CASE MODELLING A use case is a scenario that describes the use of a system by an actor to accomplish a specific goal. An actor is a user playing a.

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Presentation on theme: "USE CASE MODELLING A use case is a scenario that describes the use of a system by an actor to accomplish a specific goal. An actor is a user playing a."— Presentation transcript:

1 USE CASE MODELLING A use case is a scenario that describes the use of a system by an actor to accomplish a specific goal. An actor is a user playing a role with respect to the system. - people, other systems. Scenario A sequence of steps that describe the interactions between an actor and the system. The use case model consists of the collection of all actors and all use cases.

2 Use cases help.. · Capture the system's functional requirements from the users' perspective · Actively involve users in the requirements- gathering process · Provide the basis for identifying major classes and their relationships · Serve as the foundation for developing system test cases

3 USE CASE MODELLING -functional reqts., analysis phase - what a system does: functions represented as use cases - Actor: external agent that interacts with the system, exchanges info. with the system (user, sub-system, etc.) - a role played by user Note: a use case represents a complete functionality. –view of system behavior from an external person’s viewpoint –effective tool for validating requirements –an effective communication tool –basis for a test plan –basis for user manual D eveloping the use cases in not difficult; ensuring that you have them all is murder.

4 Use Case Diagrams –Actor –Line: actor communicates with or is associated with use-case CustomerLoses a Tape

5 Use Case relationships: – >: one use case always involves the steps of another – >: under certain conditions, a use case follows a variant Customer Loses a Tape Buy a Tape > Customer VIP Loses a Tape >

6 Goals of use cases Interactions that provide value to actors No implementation specific language –No assumptions about how the use case may be realized in code or user-interface –Note: use-cases drive the whole life-cycle, and they get refined – implementation specific use-cases User-appropriate level of detail –General at requirements gathering stage User-appropriate volume –Large systems: no more than use cases –Small number of use cases – forces abstraction

7 Use case scenarios a realization of a use case. Instance of an use case that effectively tests one path through a use case To demonstrate whether a use case accurately reflects user needs useful during testing Example: Use case name: Determine benefits eligibility for enrollee Steps: 1. This use case starts when the social worker enters the enrollee’s name and employment situation. 2. This use case ends when the system responds with a determination of whether the enrollee is eligible for benefits and the financial extent of benefits. Alternative path: In step 1, if the enrollee has applied for benefits previously, based on the enrollee’s own disclosure, the social worker enters the enrollee’s name to search for his or her previous records

8 Use case scenario - example Example of scenario 1.The social worker asks Edward Trueman if he has applied previously for and/or received benefits. And Mr. Trueman replies that he has applied previously. 2.The social worker provides Mr. Trueman’s name as search criterion 3.The system provides Mr. Trueman’s previous records, which state that he applied for benefits on Dec 9 th, 1997, and was determined to be ineligible on Dec 9 th 1997 because of his current part-time employment status at Boeing Aerospace in the capacity of assembly line worker.

9 Registration for special class Class registration Prereq courses not completed Student Billing Student Bursar’s office Registration Clerk Instructor > Use-Case Diagram Extends: extension to or variation of a use-case that exists in its own right

10 Order Food Hire Employee Reorder supplies Produce mgt. reports Track sales and inv. data > Customer Applicant Supplier Service Person Manager Uses: factors common behavior amongst multiple use-cases into a generalized use-case.

11 Step 1: Identifying Actors and Use Cases –From context diagram, workflow diagram Step2:Construct Use Case Model –System scope and boundary in terms of use cases and actors –partitioned into sub-systems Step 3:Use Case sequence of actions Step4: Identifying use case dependencies Step5: Use case alternate course of actions Step6: Finding Potential Objects –Nouns in use case Step7: Selecting proposed Objects Class Diagram (Object Association Model, Object Relationship Model)

12 Finding the actors -Ask client and domain experts how system will be used - Who will perform the obvious tasks? Secondary tasks of maintenance and administration? Interact with other systems? -Clear and differentiated names (eg. manager vs supervisor)

13 Recording the use cases -For each actor, what interactions /”results” they require of the system –each is a use case Not overly precise yet, just note them down –What tasks does the actor want the system to perform –What information must the actor provide to the system –Are there events that the actor must tell system about –Does actor need to be informed when something happens –Does actor help initialize or shut down the system

14 Example: video store system Actor: Customer - What tasks does the actor want the system to perform? -Find movie to rent, rent tape, return tape, reserve tape -What information must the actor provide to the system? -Name, address, membership#, film name -Are there events that the actor must tell system about? -Change of address -Does actor need to be informed when something happens? -Reserved tape is ready to be rented -Does actor help initialize or shut down the system -no

15 Example: video store system Resulting use cases: Customer joins and provides contact information including name, address, phone#, credit information, spouse and kids Customer browses system looking for a tape to rent Customer comes to store looking for a specific tape to rent Customer rents a tape Customer returns a tape Customer reserves a tape Customer is contacted when a reserved tape is ready Note: simple phrases, without much details initially.

16 Finding the actors -Ask client and domain experts how system will be used - Who will perform the obvious tasks? Secondary tasks of maintenance and administration? Interact with other systems? -Clear and differentiated names (eg. manager vs supervisor)

17 Recording the use cases -For each actor, what interactions /”results” they require of the system –each is a use case Not overly precise yet, just note them down –What tasks does the actor want the system to perform –What information must the actor provide to the system –Are there events that the actor must tell system about –Does actor need to be informed when something happens –Does actor help initialize or shut down the system

18 Example: video store system Actor: Customer - What tasks does the actor want the system to perform? -Find movie to rent, rent tape, return tape, reserve tape -What information must the actor provide to the system? -Name, address, membership#, film name -Are there events that the actor must tell system about? -Change of address -Does actor need to be informed when something happens? -Reserved tape is ready to be rented -Does actor help initialize or shut down the system -no

19 Example: video store system Resulting use cases: Customer joins and provides contact information including name, address, phone#, credit information, spouse and kids Customer browses system looking for a tape to rent Customer comes to store looking for a specific tape to rent Customer rents a tape Customer returns a tape Customer reserves a tape Customer is contacted when a reserved tape is ready Note: simple phrases, without much details initially.

20 Example: video store system – Other actors: Clerk adds a new film to the system It is time to order more films – manager wants to know which films are popular so as to get extra copies Store orders 10 new copies of film; when they arrive, clerk adds them to system and puts them on shelf Manager wants to know if he is making money thinking of these may lead to some more customer use cases: - Customer wants to know new movies in the store.

21 Example: video store system Use cases from attributes of “things” –tapes have actors, film name, director, release date –Customer wants to find every movie starring a specific actor –Customer wants to find movies with same director as the last film she rented –Manager wants to put together list of movies rated ‘G’. Use cases to manage the attributes: –Clerk adds new film to system –Clerk removes obsolete film from system –Clerk updates information about a film

22 Example: video store system These use cases can remind us of similar responsibilities for customers: –Clerk adds customer to the system –Clerk removes customer account from system –Clerk updates customer’s account

23 Use case name, description Example: Customer Loses a Tape The customer reports to the clerk that he has lost a tape. The clerk prints out the rental record and asks customer to speak with the manager, who will arrange for the customer to pay a fee. The system will be updated to reflect lost tape, and customer’s record is updated as well. The manager may authorize purchase of a replacement tape.

24 Scenarios: a use case scenario shows the flow of events in a particular instance of a use case. –focussed on the business problem, not the solution -shows most common situation -can have greater or less detail as required to understand flow of interactions and events -also consider exceptional rather than the normal situations. Scenario guidelines –how does the scenario begin? what causes it to end? -what is the distinction between what the actors do and how the system responds -what feedback will the actor receive? -which activities may repeat, and what causes them to stop? –Is there conditional branching in the flow of the scenario?

25 Formal description of use cases: -Use case name -Actors, brief description -Actions taking place -scenario – flow of events -Some use cases have multiple scenarios to explore various contingent activities -Preconditions –before the use case can begin –Eg. for Lost a Tape use case, customer must be member and must have rented a tape. -Post-conditions: state of system and perhaps for actors, after the use case is completed

26 Member Services Department Past Member Club Member Request Membership rpts Submit subscription renewal Create new subscription program Submit New Subscription Send subscription renewal offer Send new subscription offer Potential Member Member Services System Submit Regular Order Request Sales Reports Submit Promotion Order Marketing Department Create New Seasonal Promotion Create New Monthly Promotion Request Promotion Reports Send Club Promotion Membership System Orders SubSystem Promotions SubSystem

27 Send subscription renewal offer subscription renewal Create new subscription program Send new subscription offer Submit New Subscription depends on Submit Promotion Order Send Club Promotion Create New Seasonal Promotion Create New Monthly Promotion depends on OR depends on Request Membership rpts Request Promotion Reports Request Sales Reports Submit Regular Order Member Services System Use Case Dependency Diagram

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33 New Membership Plan & Sub. Offer Sales and Promotion Reports New Monthly OR Seasonal Promotion Club promotion Promotion order regular order Subscription renewal offer Subscription renewal Club Member Past Member Potential Member Order to be filled Membership Reports Warehouse Member Services Dept. Marketing Dept. A/C Receivable DB Member credit status Subscription Offer New Subscription Member Services Context Model


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