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Writing case studies for publication

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1 Writing case studies for publication
Name Role Afiliation [With thanks to the Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies Editors] Emerald Group Publishing Limited

2 Agenda Key steps Differences between teaching/learning and research cases Writing and structuring a case What makes a good case and common mistakes Copyright and plagiarism After submission Resources What won’t be covered today: Case Research as a methodology. We will only be looking at the process of writing up the case for potential publication and use for training/ knwoledge-sharing purposes rather than actually delving into the research methodology which precedes and informed the writing. If there are any questions we cannot answer today, we will get the information to you as soon as possible after the session.

3 Emerald Group Publishing – company background
Emerald Group Publishing Limited Founded in 1967 in Bradford, West Yorkshire For academics by academics Emerald Group Publishing - background Founded by academics, for academics. Moved into book publishing in 2007.

4 Emerald Group Publishing – company background

5 Teaching/ Learning Case Studies and Emerald
Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies collection – a welcome addition to our emerging markets content. 150 + peer-reviewed teaching cases from and about the world’s most exciting economies. All Business and Management disciplines covered. Partners include: CEEMAN; AIB MENA; AABS. EEMCS authors enjoy wide international dissemination: downloads in the first year. Main publishing contact: Victoria Buttigieg “We are really grateful for the comprehensive and thorough review of our case.” [From authors currently in the review process] Peer-review is a benefit for both authors and customers: Authors receive formative feedback which helps them improve their case Customers receive quality assured content which is ready to use in the classroom. Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies collection is part of a growing host or resources from Emerald focusing on Emerging Economies. A full list of titles is here: Accounting and Finance • Asian Review of Accounting • China Finance Review International • Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies Economics • China Agricultural Economic Review • Indian Growth and Development Review • Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies Enterprise and Innovation • Journal of Chinese Entrepreneurship • Journal of Knowledge-based Innovation in China Human Resource Management • Journal of Chinese Human Resource Management Industry and Public Sector • Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies International Business • International Journal of Emerging Markets • South Asian Journal of Global Business Research Management Science/Management Studies • Asia Pacific Journal of Business Administration • Journal of Advances in Management Research (in collaboration with Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi) Managing Quality • Asian Journal on Quality Operations and Logistics Management • Journal of Science and Technology Policy in China • Journal of Technology Management in China Regional Management Studies • African Journal of Economic Management Studies • Baltic Journal of Management • Chinese Management Studies • EuroMed Journal of Business • Journal of Asia Business Studies • Journal of Indian Business Research • Management Research – offi cial journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management • Nankai Business Review International

6 Keep the key steps in mind
Learning/ Research Objectives. Identify Case Lead through documents, interviews, observations. Establish which documents/ people you will need access and gain access. Collect information on case through further documents, interviews, observation. Write case and get permission to publish. Write the Instructor/ Teaching Notes. Try out the case to see if there is enough information.

7 Teaching Cases and Research Cases
Teaching/ Learning Cases: facilitate training, knowledge-sharing have a story line that group can get immersed in and relate to highlight practical applications of theory reflect the ambiguity of the situation and need not have a single outcome, the intent being to create a dialogue, encourage critical thinking and lead to research and evaluation of recommendations. Research Cases: An in depth look at a particular situation, event, entity. A methodology used to inform quantitative research findings/ identify areas where more quant is needed. - Associated with qualitative research, ethnography, field study, and participant observation

8 Teaching Cases and Research Cases (cont…)
In both cases you should: Have a case study protocol (after Robert K. Yin) Collect relevant information from your case organization or case lead. Ensure you have correct documentation. Get permission letters. In Case Study Research: Design and Methods, Yin recommends that a case study protocol should be essential part of every case study project. A protocol defines the instrument for the research, but also the procedures and general rules that should be followed using the instrument: - Overview of the study project (objectives, issues, readings, literature & research) - Field procedures (access to field sites, sources of information) - Case study questions posed to INVESTIGATORS; key classifications; suggestions for likely sources of evidence (not the literal questions to be asked) - A guide for the case study report - Note: Case study protocol should be co-authored by all study investigators

9 Considering co-authorship
Where to find a co-author Supervisor or colleague Conferences Publications Emerald Research Connections Benefits First time authors Demonstrates the authority and rigour of the research Especially useful for cross-disciplinary research Co-authorship as a possibility Co-authorship is often a good opportunity for first-time authors. Adds value and weight to the case, can draw on a variety of strengths, cross-disciplinary. Three caveats: 1) People have different writing styles and may even contradict each other: make sure the paper reads as a whole and as one voice, there are no conflicting statements of duplications. 2) Do not have to share the work evenly. Instead, play to your individual strengths: one author might be better at data analysis, one a better writer. Let the statistician do the stats! 3) Agree and clarify order of appearance of authors. Very important since this cannot be changed after publication. Decide on who should be the corresponding author: should be the person quickest to reply to s. There is always something that needs clarifying e.g. missing reference, copyright etc. If it takes three weeks for you to reply, the publication of your paper will be delayed. The quicker the publisher receives a reply, the quicker you paper will get published.

10 Considering co-authorship Tips
Ensure the manuscript is checked and edited so that it reads as one voice Exploit your individual strengths Agree and clarify order of appearance of authors and the person taking on the role of corresponding author Distributing work Leader Extending your work

11 Writing the case Past tense
Identify and establish an issue/problem which can be used to teach/ explore a concept or theory The opening paragraph : WHO is the main protagonist? WHO is the key decision maker? WHAT is the nature of the issue/problem? WHEN did the case take place? Specify the date line in this paragraph. WHERE did the case take place; what organization? WHY did the issue/problem arise?

12 Writing the case Body of the Case Concluding Paragraph
Tell the whole story - usually in a chronological order It typically contains general background on macro environment, organisational background, and the details of the specific issue(s) faced. Tell more than one side to the story so that learners can think of competing alternatives. Concluding Paragraph Provide a short synthesis of the case to reiterate the main issues, or even to raise new questions.

13 What makes a good teaching/ learning case?
Should be a case not a story Should tackle a relevant and important issue Voyage of discovery Controversy Contrast and compare Currently useful generalizations Data to tackle not solve the problem Personal touch Well structured and easy to read Pertinent topic Reference: “What makes a good case” by Prof. Derek Abell, Professor Emeritus, ESMT

14 Common mistakes - teaching case
Written as a research article not a case Submitting a case that has never been tried out on learners “Taking sides” Including analysis and lessons learned Not following instructions – author guidelines. Lack of fit (‘why was it sent to this collection’?). Case does not adequately suit the teaching/ learning objectives it sets out to achieve. Lack of permission documentation from organisation.

15 What makes a good teaching note
Case synopsis Target audience Clear learning objectives Suggested session time, broken down by topics Suggested student/ learner assignment Brief description of the opening minutes Challenging case discussion questions with sample answers Brief description of the closing minutes If applicable, an update of “what actually happened” Supporting material – worksheets, links to videos, readings, reference material, etc.

16 Common mistakes - teaching note
Teaching the case requires additional information 90 minute teaching plan supported by a one page Instructor Note Suggested answers are not supported by the case Learning objectives – applying a model without a purpose. No sample answers No analysis or lessons learned

17 Example of author guidelines
Author guidelines Presenter to go through author guidelines highlighting key points

18 Plagiarism and referencing
Plagiarism is hard to detect with peer review but there are new tools to help us Emerald’s entire portfolio is included in iThenticate web-based software from iParadigms Emerald’s Plagiarism Policy can be seen at rism.htm For more general information visit

19 Copyright As the author, you need to ensure that you get permission to use content you have not created as soon as your manuscript has been accepted otherwise this may delay your paper being published Supply written confirmation from the copyright holder when submitting your manuscript If permission cannot be cleared, we cannot republish that specific content More information including a permissions checklist and a permissions request form is available at: As the author, you need to ensure that you get permission to use content you have not created as soon s your paper has been accepted The publisher of the original content needs to know print runs, pagination etc This includes e.g. tables, figures, illustrations, photographs and more Supply written confirmation from the copyright holder when submitting your manuscript Failing to do so exposes you to potential legal risks If you have any doubts whether or to clear permission or not, do so! Better safe than sorry Copyright holders who do not mind their work being reused will only be too happy to grant permission and will appreciate being asked If permission cannot be cleared, we cannot republish that specific content You probably would not appreciate your work being reused without your knowledge or permission

20 Consent to Publish Release Form
It is important that the organisation you have written about is happy for the case to be published. Form to be downloaded, completed and signed by rep from firm. Without the form, you will need to disguise the case.

21 How to increase electronic dissemination
Use a short descriptive title containing main keyword – don’t mislead Write a clear and descriptive abstract containing the main keywords and following any instructions as to content and length Provide relevant and known keywords – not obscure new jargon Make your references complete and correct – vital for reference linking and citation indices All of this will make your case more discoverable which means more dissemination How to increase electronic dissemination Electronic use: Increasingly where your usage and citations come from; most things are read online. How to increase the chances of your paper being found / read / cited more widely / have more impact. The better the title and the abstract, the greater the chance of your article being read online. Remember your own “Google behaviour”. Use a short but descriptive titles, make sure people will understand what the paper is about. Don’t try to be too clever e.g. if it’s about marketing strategy and prioritizing, don’t call it ‘Putting the cart before the horse’ as no-one will find it except some bewildered agricultural student. 2) Choose 5-6 broad but relevant keywords that accurately describe your paper. Don’t make up new terms. Increases the chance of your paper being found by users searching the database. Also: Complete and correct references. The electronic environment has made it easier to both commit and detect plagiarism so very important to make correct attributions.

22 EEMCS structured abstracts
Subject area of the case Student level and proposed courses the case can be used on Brief overview of the case What are the main points of the case? What is the argument you are trying to make? Expected learning outcomes What should readers of this case get out of it? List of supplementary materials Standard message: ‘Teaching Notes are available to Faculty. Please consult your librarian.’

23 Example of a good abstract
Title – Financial closure of Bengaluru International Airport Limited. Subject area – Infrastructure finance. Study level/applicability – II MBA/Executive MBA (Project Finance, Infrastructure Finance). Case overview – It is generally believed that the Indian economy is on the threshold of achieving significant growth in the coming years. The availability of adequate infrastructure facilities will play a key role in realizing this growth potential. To accelerate the process of creating infrastructure capacity, the Government of India has opened up many infrastructure sectors for private sector investment. Creation of international standard airport facilities is an important component of such new infrastructure creation.

24 Example of a good abstract
… This case study presents the initial development and financing closure of Bengaluru International Airport Limited (BIAL), the first major private sector airport in India. In retrospect, it is generally felt that BIAL was an important milestone in the privatization of airports in India. The blueprint for the greenfield PPP airport in Hyderabad was closely modelled on the BIAL project. The experience gained in the development of BIAL also played a major role in subsequent brownfield PPP airport expansion projects in Mumbai and Delhi. Expected learning outcomes – The goal of this case study is to illustrate the complexities that exist in the process of infrastructure development and financing including: The importance of using an appropriate project structure. The prevalence of early returns to project sponsors as compared to lenders. The process of achieving financial closure.

25 Before you submit your case: check for errors
Let someone else see it – show a draft to friends or colleagues and ask for their comments, advice and honest criticism We are always too close to our own work to see its failings Always proof-check thoroughly – no incorrect spellings, no incomplete references. Spell checkers are not fool-proof Your own peer review We are always TOO close to our own work to see its failings. Our sub- editors and proof-readers NEVER receive a perfect paper. You will look at your paper over and over again but you will miss errors. Yet the guy at the next desk will spot it straight away. Check your figures – do they add up, include a note if you have rounded them up. Read and re-read your paper for typos. A lot of proofreading is done by people who are not subject specialists; won’t necessarily spot any errors. Writers should ask not only the principal investigator to view drafts, but also every co-author, as well as fellow students or postdocs, and colleagues outside the immediate field of research. Lead authors should give co-authors set deadlines of 10 days to two weeks to suggest changes. Experienced authors counsel letting the draft sit for a few days before reading it with fresh eyes to catch mistakes or problems in flow. Blumberg prefers to read drafts aloud with his students to spot errors. At a minimum run your paper through a computer spell-checker but don’t rely on it. E.g. we published this as the affiliation of one of our book reviewers; he used spell check and so did we! Spot the error: “A knew research methodology introduced in 2007…” 25

26 Before you submit your case: check it works
Ask a trainer to test it. If they can use it with no further support or supplementary material then it works!

27 EEMCS Editorial supply chain
Editorial Team Publishing team Educator Production Users EiC, Regional Editors, EAB and reviewers Solicit new cases Handle review process; support authors Promote collection to peers Develop collection Develop new partnerships Access via Sub or Pay per view Use teaching case in class Try, test, improve teaching case Submit through ScholarOne Respond to reviewers’ feedback EEMCS is the acronym for Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies collection. We have Regional Editors for each of the key emerging markets. The EiC has overall responsibility for the collection and makes the final decisions on cases, after the Regional Editors manage the review process and make their recommendations. I have put notes on Publishing Team and Production here to avoid overcrowding the slide: (also our audience will be most interested in how they could get involved rather than in what we do) Publishing Team: Main liaisons between Publishing house and Editorial Team and amongst the international Editorial Team members who are spread all over the globe. Ensure that the collection hits it’s publication targets. Handle author queries. Manage the infrastructure used for review process: SOM Promote to potential authors through marketing campaigns, competitions, attendance at conferences Manage relationships with supply partners Quality control, copyright and permissions Production: Advanced sub-Editing Text-setting Case in PDF and HTML; Teaching note in HTML only and protected so that only faculty can access DOI 27

28 Submission to initial feedback to authors
Editorial Office: Initial checks of manuscript and permissions. The regional editors identify and contact reviewers. The regional editors assess the reviewers' comments and recommendations and recommend a decision. The editor-in-chief makes the final decision. This slide helps to show what exactly happens to the paper following submission. It helps to explain why it can take months before an author gets feedback from first review!

29 Possible editor decisions
You will be advised of one of four possible decisions: - Accept Minor revision Major revision - Reject

30 Request for revision A request for revision is good news! It really is
You are now in the publishing cycle. Nearly every published case is revised at least once Don’t panic! Even if the comments are sharp or discouraging, they aren’t personal Revising A request for revision really is good news. You are now in the publishing cycle. Editors and reviewers will not request a revision unless they genuinely think your paper is right for the journal. Remember that nearly every published paper is revised at least once, even those by the most distinguished academics. Incorporating feedback and improving quality is after all what the peer review process is all about. Remember the comments are not personal, particularly not in blind peer- reviewed journals. If your paper is rejected Most importantly – keep at it!! At least 50 per cent of papers in business and management do not get published and everybody has been rejected once. It is hard, but try not to take it personally or be so discouraged that you don’t try again. Keep trying. The reviewer or editor comments should give you the information you need to strengthen the weak areas of the paper. Ask for reasons if they are not immediately forthcoming. There are hundreds of other journals out there – you can always re-submit to another journal. Read the Author Guidelines and adjust your paper accordingly.

31 How to revise your case Acknowledge the editor and set a revision deadline If you disagree, explain why to the editor Clarify understanding if in doubt – ‘This is what I understand the comments to mean…’ Consult with colleagues or co-authors and tend to the points as requested Meet the revision deadline Attach a covering letter which identifies, point by point, how revision requests have been met (or if not, why not) For example “The change will not improve the case because…” How to revise your paper Acknowledge the editor and set a revision deadline If you are unsure about any of the comments, seek clarification. If you disagree with them, say so and give good reasons explaining why you do not think a change is necessary. But try not to take a defensive position, treat comments objectively. Covering letter explaining clearly what revisions were requested and how you addressed each point, ideally providing specific page numbers. Makes life a lot easier for the editor.

32 What if your case is rejected?
Don’t give up! Everybody has been rejected at least once Ask why, and listen carefully! Most editors will give detailed comments about a rejected case. Take a deep breath, and listen to what is being said Try again! Try to improve the case and re-submit. Do your homework and target your case as closely as possible. Keep trying!

33 Positive outcomes of rejection
Incentive to improve your work Valuable feedback Good experience of how the system works

34 Typical editor comment
Accept Congratulations!! Following a lot of hard work and at least one revision your case has been accepted. “In all the years I have been an editor I have not accepted a single case study on first submission.” Typical editor comment

35 How to promote your work
Why? Support educators/ trainers globally Raise your profile Attract collaborators and funding New opportunities e.g. in consulting, the media How? Use your network e.g. through listservs, press releases or simply link to the case in your signature Contact the authors in your reference list Hone your media skills and ‘brand image’ Ask the publisher to provide you with leaflets For all content: How to promote your work Emerald encourages authors to spell out the practical implications of their work. Should be of interest to a great many kinds of people – managers, policy makers, the media, key influencers able to act on the implications of your research. It can also greatly increase your profile and that of your work and lead to attracting collaborators and funding or new opportunities for you e.g. in consulting or the media. 1. Use your network to spread the word about your latest research. Books: Ask colleagues to review your work e.g. on Amazon. 2. Issue your own press releases either yourself or via your institution / department. 3. Join the debate. Engage with peers in your subject area; participate in online discussion forums, listservs, etc. 4. Inform any professional bodies of which you are a member; contact their press or media relations department. 5. Contact the authors in your reference list. Tell them that you have referred to their work - they may want to read (and cite!) your article. 6. Build your own brand image e.g. via your own website. List and link to your publications. Use an Emerald Literati Network logo. Include a press release section. Link to the article in your signature. 8. Call a meeting – discuss your findings with the people best placed to promote your work. 9. Hone your media skills e.g. by attending a workshop. Successful promotion and media handling will attract a lot of attention to yourself and possibly your colleagues; make sure that you are well prepared! 10. Ask the publisher to provide you with book or journal leaflets which you can take to conferences and events or display on your office door.

36 Additional opportunities
Other important publishing work that you might wish to get involved in includes: Reviewing Journal articles Book authorship Editorial advisory board membership Contributing editorship Regional editorship Editorship Partnering organization For details of opportunities in this area please do get in touch with us! Beyond authorship Various benefits as well as enhancing your status, allowing you to keep up to date with key developments in your discipline. Opportunity to build a network of peers around the globe.

37 Main points Have a clear idea of objectives from the start.
Develop a productive relationship with organisation. Follow author guidelines. Use your network, publisher, editor for advice and feedback.

38 Useful resources

39 Resources for case writers
Instructional Materials Competitions EEMCS- AIB MENA Case Writing Competition International Case Writing Competition CEEMAN case writing competition AABS case writing competition ASFOR case writing competition

40 Talk to us, use us! Tell us how we can help you Give us feedback online Use Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies For any answers you didn’t get today (or were too shy to ask) … Victoria Buttigieg ++44 (0) Write for us!

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