Presentation on theme: "Writing case studies for publication"— Presentation transcript:
1Writing case studies for publication NameRoleAfiliation[With thanks to the Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies Editors]Emerald Group Publishing Limited
2AgendaKey stepsDifferences between teaching/learning and research casesWriting and structuring a caseWhat makes a good case and common mistakesCopyright and plagiarismAfter submissionResourcesWhat won’t be covered today: Case Research as a methodology. We will only be looking at the process of writing up the case for potential publication and use for training/ knwoledge-sharing purposes rather than actually delving into the research methodology which precedes and informed the writing.If there are any questions we cannot answer today, we will get the information to you as soon as possible after the session.
3Emerald Group Publishing – company background Emerald Group Publishing LimitedFounded in 1967 in Bradford, West YorkshireFor academics by academicsEmerald Group Publishing - backgroundFounded by academics, for academics.Moved into book publishing in 2007.
5Teaching/ Learning Case Studies and Emerald Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies collection – a welcome addition to our emerging markets content.150 + peer-reviewed teaching cases from and about the world’s most exciting economies.All Business and Management disciplines covered.Partners include: CEEMAN; AIB MENA; AABS.EEMCS authors enjoy wide international dissemination: downloads in the first year.Main publishing contact: Victoria Buttigieg“We are really grateful for the comprehensive and thorough review of our case.” [From authors currently in the review process]Peer-review is a benefit for both authors and customers:Authors receive formative feedback which helps them improve their caseCustomers receive quality assured content which is ready to use in the classroom.Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies collection is part of a growing host or resources from Emerald focusing on Emerging Economies. A full list of titles is here:Accounting and Finance• Asian Review of Accounting• China Finance Review International• Journal of Accounting in Emerging EconomiesEconomics• China Agricultural Economic Review• Indian Growth and Development Review• Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade StudiesEnterprise and Innovation• Journal of Chinese Entrepreneurship• Journal of Knowledge-based Innovation in ChinaHuman Resource Management• Journal of Chinese Human Resource ManagementIndustry and Public Sector• Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging EconomiesInternational Business• International Journal of Emerging Markets• South Asian Journal of Global Business ResearchManagement Science/Management Studies• Asia Pacific Journal of Business Administration• Journal of Advances in Management Research (in collaboration with Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi)Managing Quality• Asian Journal on QualityOperations and Logistics Management• Journal of Science and Technology Policy in China• Journal of Technology Management in ChinaRegional Management Studies• African Journal of Economic Management Studies• Baltic Journal of Management• Chinese Management Studies• EuroMed Journal of Business• Journal of Asia Business Studies• Journal of Indian Business Research• Management Research – offi cial journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management• Nankai Business Review International
6Keep the key steps in mind Learning/ Research Objectives.Identify Case Lead through documents, interviews, observations.Establish which documents/ people you will need access and gain access.Collect information on case through further documents, interviews, observation.Write case and get permission to publish.Write the Instructor/ Teaching Notes. Try out the case to see if there is enough information.
7Teaching Cases and Research Cases Teaching/ Learning Cases:facilitate training, knowledge-sharinghave a story line that group can get immersed in and relate tohighlight practical applications of theoryreflect the ambiguity of the situation and need not have a single outcome, the intent being to create a dialogue, encourage critical thinking and lead to research and evaluation of recommendations.Research Cases:An in depth look at a particular situation, event, entity.A methodology used to inform quantitative research findings/ identify areas where more quant is needed.- Associated with qualitative research, ethnography, field study, and participant observation
8Teaching Cases and Research Cases (cont…) In both cases you should:Have a case study protocol (after Robert K. Yin)Collect relevant information from your case organization or case lead.Ensure you have correct documentation.Get permission letters.In Case Study Research: Design and Methods, Yin recommends that a case study protocol should be essential part of every case study project. A protocol defines the instrument for the research, but also the procedures and general rules that should be followed using the instrument:- Overview of the study project (objectives, issues, readings, literature & research)- Field procedures (access to field sites, sources of information)- Case study questions posed to INVESTIGATORS; key classifications; suggestions for likely sources of evidence (not the literal questions to be asked)- A guide for the case study report- Note: Case study protocol should be co-authored by all study investigators
9Considering co-authorship Where to find a co-authorSupervisor or colleagueConferencesPublicationsEmerald Research ConnectionsBenefitsFirst time authorsDemonstrates the authority and rigour of the researchEspecially useful for cross-disciplinary researchCo-authorship as a possibilityCo-authorship is often a good opportunity for first-time authors.Adds value and weight to the case, can draw on a variety of strengths, cross-disciplinary.Three caveats:1) People have different writing styles and may even contradict each other: make sure the paper reads as a whole and as one voice, there are no conflicting statements of duplications.2) Do not have to share the work evenly. Instead, play to your individual strengths: one author might be better at data analysis, one a better writer. Let the statistician do the stats!3) Agree and clarify order of appearance of authors. Very important since this cannot be changed after publication. Decide on who should be the corresponding author: should be the person quickest to reply to s. There is always something that needs clarifying e.g. missing reference, copyright etc. If it takes three weeks for you to reply, the publication of your paper will be delayed. The quicker the publisher receives a reply, the quicker you paper will get published.
10Considering co-authorship Tips Ensure the manuscript is checked and edited so that it reads as one voiceExploit your individual strengthsAgree and clarify order of appearance of authors and the person taking on the role of corresponding authorDistributing workLeaderExtending your work
11Writing the case Past tense Identify and establish an issue/problem which can be used to teach/ explore a concept or theoryThe opening paragraph :WHO is the main protagonist?WHO is the key decision maker?WHAT is the nature of the issue/problem?WHEN did the case take place? Specify the date line in this paragraph.WHERE did the case take place; what organization?WHY did the issue/problem arise?
12Writing the case Body of the Case Concluding Paragraph Tell the whole story - usually in a chronological orderIt typically contains general background on macro environment, organisational background, and the details of the specific issue(s) faced.Tell more than one side to the story so that learners can think of competing alternatives.Concluding ParagraphProvide a short synthesis of the case to reiterate the main issues, or even to raise new questions.
13What makes a good teaching/ learning case? Should be a case not a storyShould tackle a relevant and important issueVoyage of discoveryControversyContrast and compareCurrently useful generalizationsData to tackle not solve the problemPersonal touchWell structured and easy to readPertinent topicReference: “What makes a good case” by Prof. Derek Abell, Professor Emeritus, ESMT
14Common mistakes - teaching case Written as a research article not a caseSubmitting a case that has never been tried out on learners“Taking sides”Including analysis and lessons learnedNot following instructions – author guidelines.Lack of fit (‘why was it sent to this collection’?).Case does not adequately suit the teaching/ learning objectives it sets out to achieve.Lack of permission documentation from organisation.
15What makes a good teaching note Case synopsisTarget audienceClear learning objectivesSuggested session time, broken down by topicsSuggested student/ learner assignmentBrief description of the opening minutesChallenging case discussion questions with sample answersBrief description of the closing minutesIf applicable, an update of “what actually happened”Supporting material – worksheets, links to videos, readings, reference material, etc.
16Common mistakes - teaching note Teaching the case requires additional information90 minute teaching plan supported by a one page Instructor NoteSuggested answers are not supported by the caseLearning objectives – applying a model without a purpose.No sample answersNo analysis or lessons learned
17Example of author guidelines Author guidelinesPresenter to go through author guidelines highlighting key points
18Plagiarism and referencing Plagiarism is hard to detect with peer review but there are new tools to help usEmerald’s entire portfolio is included in iThenticate web-based software from iParadigmsEmerald’s Plagiarism Policy can be seen at rism.htmFor more general information visit
19CopyrightAs the author, you need to ensure that you get permission to use content you have not created as soon as your manuscript has been accepted otherwise this may delay your paper being publishedSupply written confirmation from the copyright holder when submitting your manuscriptIf permission cannot be cleared, we cannot republish that specific contentMore information including a permissions checklist and a permissions request form is available at:As the author, you need to ensure that you get permission to use content you have not created as soon s your paper has been accepted The publisher of the original content needs to know print runs, pagination etcThis includes e.g. tables, figures, illustrations, photographs and moreSupply written confirmation from the copyright holder when submitting your manuscriptFailing to do so exposes you to potential legal risksIf you have any doubts whether or to clear permission or not, do so!Better safe than sorryCopyright holders who do not mind their work being reused will only be too happy to grant permission and will appreciate being askedIf permission cannot be cleared, we cannot republish that specific contentYou probably would not appreciate your work being reused without your knowledge or permission
20Consent to Publish Release Form It is important that the organisation you have written about is happy for the case to be published.Form to be downloaded, completed and signed by rep from firm.Without the form, you will need to disguise the case.
21How to increase electronic dissemination Use a short descriptive title containing main keyword – don’t misleadWrite a clear and descriptive abstract containing the main keywords and following any instructions as to content and lengthProvide relevant and known keywords – not obscure new jargonMake your references complete and correct – vital for reference linking and citation indicesAll of this will make your case more discoverable which means more disseminationHow to increase electronic disseminationElectronic use: Increasingly where your usage and citations come from; most things are read online. How to increase the chances of your paper being found / read / cited more widely / have more impact. The better the title and the abstract, the greater the chance of your article being read online. Remember your own “Google behaviour”.Use a short but descriptive titles, make sure people will understand what the paper is about. Don’t try to be too clever e.g. if it’s about marketing strategy and prioritizing, don’t call it ‘Putting the cart before the horse’ as no-one will find it except some bewildered agricultural student.2) Choose 5-6 broad but relevant keywords that accurately describe your paper. Don’t make up new terms. Increases the chance of your paper being found by users searching the database.Also:Complete and correct references. The electronic environment has made it easier to both commit and detect plagiarism so very important to make correct attributions.
22EEMCS structured abstracts Subject area of the caseStudent level and proposed courses the case can be used onBrief overview of the case What are the main points of the case? What is the argument you are trying to make?Expected learning outcomes What should readers of this case get out of it?List of supplementary materials Standard message: ‘Teaching Notes are available to Faculty. Please consult your librarian.’
23Example of a good abstract Title – Financial closure of Bengaluru International Airport Limited.Subject area – Infrastructure finance.Study level/applicability – II MBA/Executive MBA (Project Finance, Infrastructure Finance).Case overview – It is generally believed that the Indian economy is on the threshold of achieving significant growth in the coming years. The availability of adequate infrastructure facilities will play a key role in realizing this growth potential. To accelerate the process of creating infrastructure capacity, the Government of India has opened up many infrastructure sectors for private sector investment. Creation of international standard airport facilities is an important component of such new infrastructure creation.
24Example of a good abstract … This case study presents the initial development and financing closure of Bengaluru International Airport Limited (BIAL), the first major private sector airport in India. In retrospect, it is generally felt that BIAL was an important milestone in the privatization of airports in India. The blueprint for the greenfield PPP airport in Hyderabad was closely modelled on the BIAL project. The experience gained in the development of BIAL also played a major role in subsequent brownfield PPP airport expansion projects in Mumbai and Delhi.Expected learning outcomes – The goal of this case study is to illustrate the complexities that exist in the process of infrastructure development and financing including:The importance of using an appropriate project structure.The prevalence of early returns to project sponsors as compared to lenders.The process of achieving financial closure.
25Before you submit your case: check for errors Let someone else see it – show a draft to friends or colleagues and ask for their comments, advice and honest criticismWe are always too close to our own work to see its failingsAlways proof-check thoroughly – no incorrect spellings, no incomplete references. Spell checkers are not fool-proofYour own peer reviewWe are always TOO close to our own work to see its failings. Our sub- editors and proof-readers NEVER receive a perfect paper. You will look at your paper over and over again but you will miss errors. Yet the guy at the next desk will spot it straight away.Check your figures – do they add up, include a note if you have rounded them up. Read and re-read your paper for typos. A lot of proofreading is done by people who are not subject specialists; won’t necessarily spot any errors.Writers should ask not only the principal investigator to view drafts, but also every co-author, as well as fellow students or postdocs, and colleagues outside the immediate field of research. Lead authors should give co-authors set deadlines of 10 days to two weeks to suggest changes. Experienced authors counsel letting the draft sit for a few days before reading it with fresh eyes to catch mistakes or problems in flow. Blumberg prefers to read drafts aloud with his students to spot errors.At a minimum run your paper through a computer spell-checker but don’t rely on it. E.g. we published this as the affiliation of one of our book reviewers; he used spell check and so did we!Spot the error:“A knew research methodology introduced in 2007…”25
26Before you submit your case: check it works Ask a trainer to test it.If they can use it with no further support or supplementary material then it works!
27EEMCS Editorial supply chain Editorial TeamPublishing teamEducatorProductionUsersEiC, Regional Editors, EAB and reviewersSolicit new casesHandle review process; support authorsPromote collection to peersDevelop collectionDevelop new partnershipsAccess viaSub or Pay per viewUse teaching case in classTry, test, improve teaching caseSubmit through ScholarOneRespond to reviewers’ feedbackEEMCS is the acronym for Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies collection.We have Regional Editors for each of the key emerging markets. The EiC has overall responsibility for the collection and makes the final decisions on cases, after the Regional Editors manage the review process and make their recommendations.I have put notes on Publishing Team and Production here to avoid overcrowding the slide: (also our audience will be most interested in how they could get involved rather than in what we do)Publishing Team:Main liaisons between Publishing house and Editorial Team and amongst the international Editorial Team members who are spread all over the globe.Ensure that the collection hits it’s publication targets.Handle author queries.Manage the infrastructure used for review process: SOMPromote to potential authors through marketing campaigns, competitions, attendance at conferencesManage relationships with supply partnersQuality control, copyright and permissionsProduction:Advanced sub-EditingText-settingCase in PDF and HTML; Teaching note in HTML only and protected so that only faculty can accessDOI27
28Submission to initial feedback to authors Editorial Office: Initial checks of manuscript and permissions.The regional editors identify and contact reviewers.The regional editors assess the reviewers' comments and recommendations and recommend a decision.The editor-in-chief makes the final decision.This slide helps to show what exactly happens to the paper following submission. It helps to explain why it can take months before an author gets feedback from first review!
29Possible editor decisions You will be advised of one of four possible decisions:- AcceptMinor revisionMajor revision- Reject
30Request for revision A request for revision is good news! It really is You are now in the publishing cycle. Nearly every published case is revised at least onceDon’t panic!Even if the comments are sharp or discouraging, they aren’t personalRevisingA request for revision really is good news. You are now in the publishing cycle. Editors and reviewers will not request a revision unless they genuinely think your paper is right for the journal. Remember that nearly every published paper is revised at least once, even those by the most distinguished academics.Incorporating feedback and improving quality is after all what the peer review process is all about.Remember the comments are not personal, particularly not in blind peer- reviewed journals.If your paper is rejectedMost importantly – keep at it!! At least 50 per cent of papers in business and management do not get published and everybody has been rejected once. It is hard, but try not to take it personally or be so discouraged that you don’t try again. Keep trying.The reviewer or editor comments should give you the information you need to strengthen the weak areas of the paper. Ask for reasons if they are not immediately forthcoming.There are hundreds of other journals out there – you can always re-submit to another journal. Read the Author Guidelines and adjust your paper accordingly.
31How to revise your caseAcknowledge the editor and set a revision deadlineIf you disagree, explain why to the editorClarify understanding if in doubt – ‘This is what I understand the comments to mean…’Consult with colleagues or co-authors and tend to the points as requestedMeet the revision deadlineAttach a covering letter which identifies, point by point, how revision requests have been met (or if not, why not)For example “The change will not improve the case because…”How to revise your paperAcknowledge the editor and set a revision deadlineIf you are unsure about any of the comments, seek clarification. If you disagree with them, say so and give good reasons explaining why you do not think a change is necessary. But try not to take a defensive position, treat comments objectively.Covering letter explaining clearly what revisions were requested and how you addressed each point, ideally providing specific page numbers. Makes life a lot easier for the editor.
32What if your case is rejected? Don’t give up! Everybody has been rejected at least onceAsk why, and listen carefully! Most editors will give detailed comments about a rejected case. Take a deep breath, and listen to what is being saidTry again! Try to improve the case and re-submit. Do your homework and target your case as closely as possible.Keep trying!
33Positive outcomes of rejection Incentive to improve your workValuable feedbackGood experience of how the system works
34Typical editor comment AcceptCongratulations!!Following a lot of hard work and at least one revision your case has been accepted.“In all the years I have been an editor I have not accepted a single case study on first submission.”Typical editor comment
35How to promote your work Why?Support educators/ trainers globallyRaise your profileAttract collaborators and fundingNew opportunities e.g. in consulting, the mediaHow?Use your network e.g. through listservs, press releases or simply link to the case in your signatureContact the authors in your reference listHone your media skills and ‘brand image’Ask the publisher to provide you with leafletsFor all content:How to promote your workEmerald encourages authors to spell out the practical implications of their work. Should be of interest to a great many kinds of people – managers, policy makers, the media, key influencers able to act on the implications of your research. It can also greatly increase your profile and that of your work and lead to attracting collaborators and funding or new opportunities for you e.g. in consulting or the media.1. Use your network to spread the word about your latest research. Books: Ask colleagues to review your work e.g. on Amazon.2. Issue your own press releases either yourself or via your institution / department.3. Join the debate. Engage with peers in your subject area; participate in online discussion forums, listservs, etc.4. Inform any professional bodies of which you are a member; contact their press or media relationsdepartment.5. Contact the authors in your reference list. Tell them that you have referred to their work - they may want to read (and cite!) your article.6. Build your own brand image e.g. via your own website. List and link to your publications. Use an Emerald Literati Network logo. Include a press release section. Link to the article in your signature.8. Call a meeting – discuss your findings with the people best placed to promote your work.9. Hone your media skills e.g. by attending a workshop. Successful promotion and media handling will attract a lot of attention to yourself and possibly your colleagues; make sure that you are well prepared!10. Ask the publisher to provide you with book or journal leaflets which you can take to conferences and events or display on your office door.
36Additional opportunities Other important publishing work that you might wish to get involved in includes:ReviewingJournal articlesBook authorshipEditorial advisory board membershipContributing editorshipRegional editorshipEditorshipPartnering organizationFor details of opportunities in this area please do get in touch with us!Beyond authorshipVarious benefits as well as enhancing your status, allowing you to keep up to date with key developments in your discipline. Opportunity to build a network of peers around the globe.
37Main points Have a clear idea of objectives from the start. Develop a productive relationship with organisation.Follow author guidelines.Use your network, publisher, editor for advice and feedback.
39Resources for case writers Instructional MaterialsCompetitionsEEMCS- AIB MENA Case Writing CompetitionInternational Case Writing CompetitionCEEMAN case writing competitionAABS case writing competitionASFOR case writing competition
40Talk to us, use us!Tell us how we can help youGive us feedback onlineUse Emerald Emerging Markets Case StudiesFor any answers you didn’t get today (or were too shy to ask) …Victoria Buttigieg++44 (0)Write for us!