2Cost of Capital Defined Cost of capital: percentage cost of permanent funds employed in business, or firm’s capital structureCapital structure: mix of long-term debt and equity by firm for its permanent financing needs
3Cost of Capital Defined Sample Restructured Balance Sheet(“mix” of company’s permanent financing)Firm only has two categories of assets: net working capital and fixed assetsNet working capital is current assets minus current liabilities.“Restructured” right-hand side represents firm’s capital structure such that there are two categories of financing for two categories of assets.Net workingCapitalLong-termdebtFixed AssetsEquity
4Cost of Capital Defined Two costs of capitalAverage cost of capital (ACC): weighted average after-tax cost of new capital raised during given yearAnalysis of current financial decisions requires focus on current costsMarginal cost of capital (MCC): represents incremental ACC as function of total dollar amount of capital raisedAs increasing amounts of capital are raised, cost of capital begins to increaseIncreased cost occurs at increments such that MC of additional dollar of capital is greater than AC of capitalAC increases more slowly than MC
5Cost of Capital Defined Consider an analogy of average and marginal tax rates. Example:Corporate tax rate15% on first $50,000 of income25% on next $25,00035% on all income above $75,000If corporation earned $50,000 before taxes, both average and marginal tax rates are 15%.At $60,000, average tax rate is 16.7% and marginal tax rate is 25%.Above $75,000, marginal tax rate is 35%.
6Cost of Capital Defined Same general pattern holds for corporate cost of capital as in example.As more capital is raised, cost increases at margin, increasing marginal cost in increments.Average cost increases at slower rate and eventually approached marginal cost.See exhibit 13.2
7Marginal Cost and Capital Budgeting MCC is the capital cost that should be used for making capital budgeting decisions.Firm is inclined to make capital budgeting decisions based on comparison of cost of each additional dollar of capital raised with expected rate of return on each additional dollar of capital invested.Firm should accept all investment projects where IRR ≥ MCC in order to maximize value of firm.See exhibit 13.3
8Calculating the Average Cost of Capital Calculate after-tax cost of individual capital components.Calculate average of component costs, weighted by percentage that each comprises of total capital structure.Calculate cost of debt and preferred stockEstimate cost of equity
9Cost of DebtBefore-tax cost of debt: interest paid divided by principal amount borrowedConvert to after-tax basis by multiplying before-tax cost by 1 minus firm’s effective tax rate1 minus tax rate represents percentage of interest that is paid by firm after taking into account tax deductibility of interest paymentsTax rate multiplied by dollars of interest paid represents amount of interest that is “paid” through tax savings.
10Cost of Debt Effective after-tax cost of debt Kd = I/P (1 – T) where Kd = after-tax cost of debtI = interest in dollarsP = principal amount borrowedT = effective tax rate
11Cost of Debt Kd = [(I/P(1-F)] (1-T) If firm raises debt capital by selling bonds publicly, then it will incur some sales costs.Flotation costs: cost of taking the issue public and include expenses such as legal research, underwriting expenses, salesperson’s commissionsFlotation costs (fixed costs) as a percentage of size of issue become larger as issue size becomes smaller.Adjust after-tax cost of debt calculation to account for flotation costs. Let F equal flotation costs as percentage of face value of bond issue:Kd = [(I/P(1-F)] (1-T)Principal amount on which interest is calculated is reduced by amount of flotation costs
12Cost of Debt Cost of Preferred Stock Since preferred stock is an equity security, dividends represent profit distributions to owners of corporation and are not tax deductible to corporation.Before-tax cost of preferred stick is the same as after-tax cost:Kp = D/Pwhere Kp = cost of preferred stockD = dividend in dollarsP = price of preferred stock
13Cost of Debt Cost of Preferred Stock Adjust for flotation costs for newly issued preferred stock that is publicly marketed:Kp = D/[P(1-F)]
14Cost of Debt Cost of Common Equity Cost of common stock must be estimatedCommon equity: rate of return stockholders require on equity capitalRate of return on equity that firm must earn in order to maintain value of its own common stockExpected rate of return necessary to induce investors to invest in firm’s common stock
15Cost of Debt Cost of Common Equity Two components of stockholders’ expected rate of return:(Ke represents cost of equity)Ke = Expected dividend yield + Expected capital gain
16Cost of Debt Cost of Common Equity Use company’s dividend divided by its price as dividend yield and expected growth rate of earnings and dividends as measure of expected capital gain:Ke = (D/P) + gwhere Ke = cost of equityD = dividend in dollarsP = price of stockg = expected growth rateAdequate to measure cost of equity capital generated by reinvested earnings.Measurement is cost of retained earnings portions of equity capital
17Cost of Debt Cost of Common Equity Adjust for flotation costs to measure cost of equity capital generated through new issues of common stock:Ke = [D/(P(1-F)] + g
18Cost of Debt A Computational Example Calculate average cost of capital for firm having capital structure consisting of40% debt10% preferred stock50% equityDebt bears interest at 8%Preferred stock sells for $100 (its par value) and pays dividend of $8Common stock sells for $55 and pays dividend of $2.20Expected growth rate of earnings and dividends is 9%Firm’s effective tax rate is 34%No flotation costs will be incurredNewly issued debt and preferred stock will be privately placedRequired equity capital will be generated through reinvested earnings
19Cost of Debt A Computational Example See exhibit 13.4 Cost of debt is 5.3% after taxCost of preferred stock is 8%Cost of common equity is 13% (4% dividend yield plus 9% growth rate)Weighted average cost of capital is 9.42% (calculated by multiplying each component cost by percentage of capital structure it comprises and summing results)
20The Capital Asset Pricing Model Capital asset pricing model (CAPM): stockholders’ required rate of return on equity capital is function of risk-free rate of return, rate of return earned on stocks in general (“market return”), and riskiness of particular stock in which investor may be considering investingKe = Risk-free rate + Risk premiumRisk premium is determined by riskiness of particular stock relative to market and by difference between market rate of return and risk-free rate.
21The Capital Asset Pricing Model Riskiness of individual stock is measured by stock’s beta factor: measure of volatility of stock relative to marketBeta of 1.0: stock has same volatility as marketBeta of 0.5: stock is about half as volatile as marketBeta of 2.0: stock is approximately twice as volatile as marketStock’s beta is estimated by regressing stock’s price against level of some broad market indexEx. Standard and Poor’s Index of 500 Common Stocks (S&P 500)Beta factor is slope of regression line and measure of company’s systematic risk
22The Capital Asset Pricing Model CAPM in equation form:Ke = Rf + (Rm – Rf)Bwhere Ke = cost of equity capitalRf = risk-free rate of returnRm = market rate of returnB = beta
23Capital Structure Management From perspective of capital markets, cost of equity capital must be greater than cost of debt.Investors are averse to risk.Investors must demand a higher rate of return on equity than on debt because investing in equity is riskier than investing in debt.Capital structure management focuses on finding appropriate combination of debt and equity such that combined weighted average cost of capital is minimized.
24Capital Structure Management See exhibit 13.5Ke and Kd are constant over a broad range, but at some point begin to increase as leverage gets higher.Risk causes increase. As firm becomes increasingly debt heavy, increased risk of insolvency drives up both Kd (return to creditors) and Ke (return to stockholders).If firm is 100% equity financed (leverage = 0), its ACC is at maximum.If firm employs some debt financing, relatively expensive equity is combined with relatively inexpensive debt. This reduces weighted ACC.
25Capital Structure Management In theory, operate on minimum point of ACC curve.In practice, ACC tends to be flat over fairly broad range so optimal-capital-structure theory is useful as broad policy guideline.Effective capital structure management requires capital structure mix that is within “range of optimality.”
26Capital Structure Management Location of range of optimality varies with riskiness of particular industry.In general, the higher the business risk in industry, the less leverage firm may employ before cost curves turn up.Riskier firms will have higher cost curves to begin with.