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Oil Exploration & Production At the end of this presentation, you will be able to: Define completion Describe the process of completion List and define.

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Presentation on theme: "Oil Exploration & Production At the end of this presentation, you will be able to: Define completion Describe the process of completion List and define."— Presentation transcript:

1 Oil Exploration & Production At the end of this presentation, you will be able to: Define completion Describe the process of completion List and define the different types of completion Describe surface control equipments Define subsea completion Completion Agenda

2 Oil Exploration & Production After exploratory drilling confirms the presence of an oil or natural gas reservoir, the hydrocarbons are brought to the surface. Once the design well depth is reached, the formation is tested and evaluated to determine whether the well is to be completed for production, or plugged and abandoned. This decision is taken based on the information available on reservoir characteristics. To complete the well production, casing is installed and cemented, and the drilling rig is dismantled and moved to the next site. A service rig is brought in to perforate the production casing and run production tubing along with downhole equipments. The installation of surface safety equipments takes place and production begins. 30 CASING 20 CASING 13 3/8 CASING 7 LINER RESERVOIR SEA BED PLATFORM Production casing (9 5/8) Downhole Equipment Safety Equipment Introduction Completion Process Completion

3 Oil Exploration & Production Well completion creates a dependable pathway to the surface for the hydrocarbons. Once the well is drilled, it has to be made ready for the safe and efficient production of oil. The term completion describes the assembly of Down hole tubulars and other safety equipments that is required to enable the safe and efficient production of oil or gas from the well after it has been drilled. Completion Process What is Completion? Completion

4 Oil Exploration & Production Well completion activities include: Conducting drill stem test Setting production casing Running production tubing along with downhole equipments Installing surface safety equipments Starting production flow If it is decided that the well will not be completed, then it will be plugged and abandoned. Well Completion Activities Completion Process Completion

5 Oil Exploration & Production Well completion activities include: Conducting drill stem test Setting production casing Running production tubing along with downhole equipments Installing surface safety equipments Starting production flow Well Completion Activities Conducting Drill Stem Test (DST) To determine the potential of a producing formation, the operator may order a drill stem test (DST). The DST crew makes up the test tool on the bottom of the drill stem, then lowers it to the bottom of the hole. Weight is applied to the tool to expand a hard rubber sealer called a packer. Opening the tool ports allows the formation pressure to be tested. This process enables workers to determine whether the well can be produced. Completion Process Completion

6 Oil Exploration & Production Well completion activities include: Conducting drill stem test Setting production casing & perforation Running production tubing along with downhole equipments Installing surface safety equipments Starting production flow Well Completion Activities Setting Production Casing Production casing is the final casing in a well. It can be set from the bottom to the top. Sometimes a production liner is installed. This casing is set the same as other casings, then cemented in place. Completion Process Completion

7 Oil Exploration & Production 30 CASING 9 5/8 CASING 20 CASING 13 3/8 CASING PRODUCTION TUBING SEA BED PLATFORM BOP GAS OIL WATER RESEVOIR

8 Oil Exploration & Production GAS OIL WATER 30 CASING 9 5/8 CASING 20 CASING 13 3/8 CASING 7 LINER PRODUCTION TUBING RESEVOIR SEA BED PLATFORM Only this casing is visible from outside Production casing (9 5/8) WELL HEAD EQUIPMENT BACK

9 Oil Exploration & Production GAS OIL WATER 30 CASING 9 5/8 CASING 20 CASING 13 3/8 CASING 7 LINER PRODUCTION TUBING RESEVOIR SEA BED PLATFORM Only this casing is visible from outside Production casing (9 5/8) WELL HEAD EQUIPMENT BACK

10 Oil Exploration & Production Running Production Tubing and Downhole Equipments A well is usually produced through tubing inserted down the production casing. Oil and gas is produced more effectively through this smaller-diameter tubing than through the large-diameter production casing. Joints of tubing are joined together with couplings to make up a tubing string. Tubing is run into the well similar to casing, but it is smaller in diameter and is removable. Completion Process Completion Well completion activities include: Conducting drill stem test Setting production casing & perforation Running production tubing along with downhole equipments Installing surface safety equipments Starting production flow Well Completion Activities

11 Oil Exploration & Production Installing Surface Safety Equipments Though the tubings and downhole equipments are present in the well, production cannot start without installing surface control equipments. They are required to prevent uncontrolled oil flow out of the well. Completion Process Completion Well completion activities include: Conducting drill stem test Setting production casing & perforation Running production tubing along with downhole equipments Installing surface safety equipments Starting production flow Well Completion Activities

12 Oil Exploration & Production Starting Production Flow Production flow is started by washing in the well and setting the packer. The pumping in of water or brine to flush out the drilling fluid is called washing in. Usually this is enough to start the well flowing. If this does not work then the flow might be started by pumping high-pressure gas into the well after setting the packer. Completion Process Completion Well completion activities include: Conducting drill stem test Setting production casing & perforation Running production tubing along with downhole equipments Installing surface safety equipments Starting production flow. Well Completion Activities

13 Oil Exploration & Production Downhole Equipment The parts of a downhole equipment are: Completion Gas Lift Valve Safety Valve Hydraulic Control Line Pump Out Plug Packer Completion Process

14 Oil Exploration & Production Well Head The surface termination of a wellbore that incorporates facilities for installing casing hangers during the well construction phase is the well head. It is a means by which the production tubing is hung, the Christmas tree and the surface flow-control facilities are installed, in preparation for the production phase of the well. The BOP also sits on top of well head. The well head is installed on top of the casing before starting to drill. It has two or three sections. Each section has two flanges to facilitate the connections at both the ends. Surface Control Equipments Completion well head Sections Flanges

15 Oil Exploration & Production Each well head section has three components: Casing Bowl Casing Hanger Tubing Head Surface Control Equipments Completion Components of a Well Head

16 Oil Exploration & Production Each well head section has three components: Casing Bowl Casing Hanger Tubing Head Surface Control Equipments Completion Components of a Well Head Casing Bowl The casing bowl consists of heavy fittings that provide a seal between the casing and the surface. It also supports the entire length of casing that is run all the way down the well. This piece of equipment typically contains a gripping mechanism that ensures a tight seal between the head and the casing itself. Sealing

17 Oil Exploration & Production Each well head section has three components: Casing Bowl Casing Hanger Tubing Head Surface Control Equipments Completion Components of a Well Head Casing Hanger This is the sub-assembly of a well head that supports the casing string when it is run into the wellbore. The casing hanger provides a means of ensuring that the string is correctly located and generally incorporates a sealing device or system to isolate the casing annulus from upper well head components.

18 Oil Exploration & Production Each well head section has three components: Casing Bowl Casing Hanger Tubing Head Surface Control Equipments Completion Components of a Well Head Tubing Head The tubing head is a well head component that supports the tubing hanger and provides a means of attaching the Christmas tree to the well head.

19 Oil Exploration & Production Tubing Hanger The tubing hanger is a device attached to the topmost tubing joint in the well head to support the tubing string. The tubing hanger is located in the tubing head, with both components incorporating a sealing system to ensure that the tubing conduit and annulus are hydraulically isolated. The tubing hanger assembly supports the weight of the tubing string and seals the annulus from the upper well head and Christmas tree components. It also provides connections at the surface, which controls the flow of fluids out of the well. Surface Control Equipments Completion Anchor bolts to hold tubing hanger in place

20 Oil Exploration & Production 1.5 m 20 Casing Terminates Here Tubing hanger comes here Production Casing (9 5/8) terminates here A Section B Section C Section 30 Casing Remains Outside Well Head Anchor Bolts

21 Oil Exploration & Production Christmas Tree The assembly of valves, spools, pressure gauges, and chokes that are fitted to the well head of the completed well is called a Christmas Tree. It is used to control the flow of oil through the tubing hanger. The function of a christmas tree is to: Prevent the release of oil or gas from an oil well into the environment Direct and control the flow of formati on fluids from the well When the well is ready to produce oil or gas, valves are opened and the release of the formation fluids is allowed through a pipeline leading to a refinery. Surface Control Equipments Completion

22 Oil Exploration & Production Oil which flows from the tubing is diverted through this pipe to the main header and from there to the process platforms Top part of the C-section of well head Tubing hanger comes up to this point Lower Master Valve Upper Master Valve Crown/ Swab Valve Wing Valve Surface Control Equipments

23 Oil Exploration & Production Well Head Reservoir Packer Safety Valve Gas Lift Valve X-mas Tree Tubing hanger Production Tubing Perforation Hydraulic Control Line Pump Out Plug Sump Oil Well After Completion Surface Control Equipments

24 Oil Exploration & Production Types of Completion The types of completion include: Natural Completions Natural completions are those in which little or no stimulation is required for production. Sandstone and carbonate systems with good permeability and mechanical stability are ideal for natural completions. Stimulated Completions These completions are generally applied to improve the natural drainage patterns of hard, low-permeability formations. It is used to remove barriers that prevent easy passage of fluids into the wellbore. Sand-Control Completions Sand-control completions support the formation while allowing the flow of fluids. They are performed in young, unconsolidated or less mechanically competent sandstones. Completion Process Completion

25 Oil Exploration & Production Completion Subsea Completions Subsea production systems are wells located on the sea floor, as opposed to at the surface. The safety equipments are installed underwater on the seabed. They enable early production from deepwater, remote, and marginal fields. The evolution of subsea well completions has attracted a lot of attention because they offer a means of producing field extremities not reachable by directional drilling from existing platforms. They also offer production options where field economics do not justify the installation of one or more additional platforms. Subsea Completion

26 Oil Exploration & Production Downhole Equipment The tubings along with the downhole equipment are lowered into the 95/8 casing of the well. The parts of a downhole equipment are: Completion Gas Lift Valve Safety Valve Hydraulic Control Line Pump Out Plug Packer Packer is a device consisting of a sealing device, a holding or setting device and an inside passage for fluids. It expands externally to seal the well bore. It helps in blocking the fluids through the annular space between the pipe and the well bore wall. Packers use flexible, electrometric elements that expand. It is set hydraulically from the surface. X Completion Process

27 Oil Exploration & Production Downhole Equipment The parts of a downhole equipment are: Completion Gas Lift Valve The gas lift valve is a device installed on a gas lift cylinder or mandrel. This device is used to control the flow of gas between the exterior and interior of well tubing. It consists of an inlet, outlet, a main valve, a main chamber and so on. The design of the side pocket is such that the components that are installed do not obstruct the flow of production. This enables access to the well bore and the other components of completion. X Completion Process Gas Lift Valve Safety Valve Hydraulic Control Line Pump Out Plug Packer

28 Oil Exploration & Production Downhole Equipment The parts of a downhole equipment are: Completion Safety Valve A safety valve is a device that is installed in the upper well bore to provide emergency closure of the channels that produce oil. The valve has a housing and a movable valve element that controls the flow of fluid in the well. X Completion Process Gas Lift Valve Safety Valve Hydraulic Control Line Pump Out Plug Packer

29 Oil Exploration & Production Downhole Equipment The parts of a downhole equipment are: Completion Hydraulic Control Line Hydraulic control line is a device filled with hydraulic fluid and connected to a hydraulic fluid source. Hydraulic control line is used to operate the safety valve. When the control line is pressurized up to a certain pressure limit, the safety valve opens. Its one end connects at the top of the safety valve and the other end to a pressurizing panel at the surface. It is lowered along with the safety valve while lowering the tubing string during completion. X Completion Process Gas Lift Valve Safety Valve Hydraulic Control Line Pump Out Plug Packer

30 Oil Exploration & Production Downhole Equipment The parts of a downhole equipment are: Completion Pump Out Plug Since the tubing is open at the bottom, the packer cannot be set as the whole tubing string needs to be pressurized to set it. So a pump out plug (POP) is used for this purpose. A steel ball is dropped inside the tubing string from the surface. This goes all the way down and sits on the POP seat at the bottom. When water is pumped from the top, the ball is pressed against the POP seat and forms a seal. When pressure in the tubing string reaches a certain limit, the packer is set. This is indicated in the pumping unit in the form of a sharp fluctuation of the pressure reading. Then the pressure is increased, further, to shear the POP seat pins. This is done to remove the steel ball. When the pins are sheared, the POP seat drops along with the ball into the well sump. X Well Sump A well sump is the extra bore space below the perforated zone that allows the collection of junk for example steel ball. Completion Process Gas Lift Valve Safety Valve Hydraulic Control Line Pump Out Plug Packer

31 Oil Exploration & Production In a traditional well, components such as valves control the flow of fluids. Screens or gravel packs stop sand from entering the well. Pipe joints and packers needed to ensure the well retains its integrity over its producing life. However traditional wells do not respond to changing conditions and all the fluids (oil,gas and water) have to be produced together and separated at the surface.

32 Oil Exploration & Production IQ for Intelligent Wells Intelligent Wells Automatic Surface Interaction/Continuous Monitoring/Automatic Flow control/Extensive Downhole communication Semi Intelligent Wells Manual Surface Interaction/Limited Downhole communication Conventional Limited Interaction

33 Oil Exploration & Production Smart wells offer the possibility to respond to changing conditions. Smart wells combine existing state-of-the-art technologies such as wireless technologies,remote sensing capabilities, remote control mechanism and robotic tools. Remote sensors can immediately show what is going on in the down hole. Valves down the hole can be adjusted, controlling flow or shutting off production at one level and increasing it from another. Fluid processing can take place down the hole with gas and liquids being separated by devices such as hydro-cyclones Smart Wells

34 Oil Exploration & Production Drivers Improved Reliability Optimum Production leading to longer well and reservoir life. –Optimization of reservoir drainage No mechanical intervention is required freeing up resources. Lower Operating Cost –Less number of work overs –Decrease Water Production –Better sand control Increase Reservoir Knowledge –Monitoring of fluid/gas contact zone movements –Improved reservoir characterization (saturation, structure, pressure, temperature)

35 Oil Exploration & Production Smart Well Packers Hydraulic or Electrical Control Lines Sensors Inflow Control Valves ICV Surface Control Unit (Monitoring and Remote Operation)

36 Oil Exploration & Production

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38 Examples of Controls in Intelligent Wells Controlling Commingled production Controlling Down Hole Water Separation Controlling Down Hole Gas Separation and Re-injection

39 Oil Exploration & Production Application for Intelligent Wells Marginal Reserves Highly Deviated. Horizontal and MLW Deepwater Wells High Volume Wells Shell has about 20 intelligent wells worldwide and is working to increase that number. One of its showcase pieces is a well in the North Seas Brent field. The well produces oil but also has a perforated gas zone up hole thats opened for a short period each year to meet a gas contract.

40 Oil Exploration & Production Oilfields Data Extract Clean Transform Load Data Store Data Warehouse Interpret Analyze Communicate Decide Partners, Agencies Operation Management

41 Oil Exploration & Production Reservoir Management Team Devise Process Control Methodologies Life Cycle Cost and Benefits Modeling Processes Requiring Real time Management Down hole Equipment Design Monitor Dynamic Production Data


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