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**-- in other words, logic is**

i.e. the study of argument and the use of reason -- in other words, logic is the study of thinking

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Logic: differs from Psychology does not deal with all mental phenomena (learning, remembering, daydreaming, etc.), but only with that type of thinking called “reasoning.”

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Logic is not concerned with emotional states at all, or with the “inner processes” going on in the mind of the thinker.

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Logic is concerned only with reasoning itself, and the formulation of rules that will help us determine if any particular piece of reasoning is logical; i.e. coherent and consistent.

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**The Structure of Argument**

The basic unit of logic is the proposition or statement, typically expressed in a declarative sentence: e.g. “Smith loves Jones.” “Socrates is mortal.”

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**The Structure of Argument**

The key characteristic of each proposition is that it can be either true or false, but not both. e.g. Either “Socrates is a man” is true, or “Socrates is not a man” is true -- but not both.

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**The Structure of Argument**

The chief concern of logic is how the truth of some propositions (premises) is connected with the truth of another (the conclusion).

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**The Structure of Argument**

For example: All men are mortal. (premise) Socrates is a man. (premise) Socrates is mortal. (conclusion)

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**The Structure of Argument**

The pattern of logic that lets us connect these premises to arrive at the conclusion we call an inference.

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**The Structure of Argument**

Without this pattern of inference, we have merely a collection of disjointed propositions. e.g. “My dog has fleas.” “The moon is made of cheese.” “Strawberries are red.”

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**The Structure of Argument**

Our primary concern is to evaluate the reliability of inferences, the patterns of reasoning that lead from premises to conclusion in a valid argument.

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Logic and Reason. Deductive Reasoning Reasoning that moves from the general to the particular Watchdogs bark at strangers. The watchdog did not bark at.

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