2References Handbook of Army Health Solid Waste Burning (US Army) CFP 213CFP 269STANAG 2982 Essential Field Sanitary Requirements
3Selection of Camp SiteA camp site should never be chosen without medical representation and advice on health aspects. Proper site selection is essential to suture sanitary control.CFP 213, pg 16-6
4Selection of CampsiteWhenever possible, the following factors should betaken into account in planning temporary camp orbarrack accommodation:Climate:particularly important in the tropics and must include gaining max benefit from prevailing winds, natural shade, height above sea level. Air conditioning may be required in certain circumstances.REF: B28TP 2
5Selection of Campsite Population density: relationship between population density and diseases is well known. Optimum requirements for camps and barracks are laid down in terms of number of persons and buildings per unit area of ground.Communicable disease:areas of high local disease incidence should be avoided. Airborne infections and ingestion diseases are generally more prevalent in high density areas. Provision of medical intelligence is of great value when planning accommodation related to local disease factors.
6Selection of Campsite Communications: road, rail, sea, river and air travel facilities must be considered. Availability of helicopter landing pads and air strips has become more important.Expansion Facilities:availability of building land locally may be relevant to future plans for expansion.Water supplies:an accessible supply of wholesome water is usually an overriding factor in deciding whether or not to accept a building site.
7Selection of Camp Site The following factors are essential: Site selection:good drainage on sand, gravel or loam (clay, sand and organic matter or a rich dark soil) must be sought and gently sloping, high ground is preferable to the valley floor. Broken ground, swamps, rivers banks and ground with high subsoil water level should be avoided.
8Selection of Camp Site Liaison with engineers and others: better to plan properly than try to rectify mistakes later, liaison will be concerned mostly with water supply, ablution, latrines and waste disposal.Water point/Ablution:Should be placed to one side of the camp and be well drained
9Selection of Camp Site Accommodation: Camp frontage: site offices near the main entrance with living areas to the rear and messing facilities near the latter.Camp frontage:should face into the prevailing wind, if possible.
10Selection of Camp Site Latrines/urinals: Transport lines: site these as far as possible from the water point and cookhouse; on the leeward (in the direction toward which the wind blows) side of the camp, if possible, and within 100 yards of the living accommodations.Transport lines:concentrated in an area separate from the main camp and with separate entrance.
11Selection of Camp Site General considerations: Temporary Camps (12 hrs – 7 days):during operations and exercises there are many moves. Tactical considerations, not least being camouflage, are frequently overriding factors. Often, a unit has to make the best of the area allocated and whatever shelter it can find. The occupation of buildings, damaged or otherwise, may permit use to be made of exiting sanitary facilities. This is a practical and time conserving approach.
12Selection of Camp Site General considerations: Semi-Permanent Camps (7 days – 6 months):such camps are used for concentration of troops in base or communication zones, orfor training. They should be healthy, providing due regard is paid to selection, layout and maintenance.
13Selection of Camp Site When tactical considerations permit, the following principles should be applied:Location:close proximity to towns and villages in under-developed countries is undesirable. Such locations often provide the source of nuisance and infection.
14Selection of Camp Site Terrain: broken ground encourages bad sanitation, harbours insects and vermin. Swampy areas should be avoided. Such locations, together with banks of lakes and rivers, often increase the problem of mosquitoes and biting insects. If camp sites are adjacent to rivers or lakes it may encourage drinking from or washing in polluted waters. It is desirable to select fairly high ground, well grassed, which possesses natural drainage.
15Selection of Camp Site Terrain cont’d: it is well to avoid steep slopes and the bottoms of valleys. Recently turned soil becomes quagmired (wet, boggy) quickly. The sanitary defects of previous occupants may becomes unpleasantly apparent if recently vacated sites are occupied. Parks, camps and caravan sites may offer many useful facilities when circumstances permit their use.
16Selection of Camp Site Approaches: Water: Metalled roads are desirable, but approach should be off a main traffic route.Water:A good potable water supply is desirable. Tactical considerations may necessitate this being situated some distance from the camp.
17Camp Site Selection Summary of Requirements: Gentle, grassy slopes On fairly high ground, with gravel type soil to aid drainageOpen to the wind, but not too exposedGood approaches, linked to a camp circuit roadAmple space, with room for expansionConvenient water supply
18SanitationOn arrival at a camp site, or very soon after, facilities must be provided for the correct disposal of all wastes.If sanitation is not put on a sound basis from the outset it is difficult to correct the problems that will occur.Improvisation is time consuming and it is desirable that many of the appliances required for field use be prefabricated. When practicable they should be portable.
19Camp Layout Front of camp: Sleeping Quarters: to face in the direction of the prevailing wind.Sleeping Quarters:should be sited in front of all other accommodations. If in tents, allow 30 sq ft floor area per man. Provide floor boards in tents. Ventilation, when under canvas, requires particular supervision.
20Camp Layout Kitchen: Drinking water: may be aligned to flank sleeping quarters.Drinking water:should be located upgrade from the camp, unless mobile tanks or a piped service furnish the supply.
21Camp Layout Latrines: Ablution: should be down-wind from the kitchen and sleeping areas, but with due regard to the water supply. Latrines should be lighted at night.Ablution:should be located between latrines and other accommodations.
22Camp Layout Refuse disposal and Liquid Waste Disposal: locate downwind from camp to minimize hazards from flies and water pollution
23Bivouacs General principles of camp sanitation are applicable to bivouacs, which are generallyused on active service during war or as anaccommodation on exercise.Bivouac:a temporary encampment in the open, with only tents or improvised shelter.The field sanitary appliances used will be of a temporary nature, but the greatest possible care must be exercised in their siting and maintenance, even if only for one night. Location of latrines, urinals, and other waste disposal sites must be filled in and clearly marked.Bivouac: a temporary encampment in the open, with only tents or improvised shelter.Bivouac (from Fr.: bivouac or bivac). Often shortened in British army slang to ‘bivvy’, the word has only been used in English since about 1700 and was not in common use before the Napoleonic wars. The French use of the word probably dates from the Thirty Years War. Its origins can be traced into dialectal (Swiss) German and the word beiwacht, a term used in Aargan and Zurich to refer to a patrol of citizens (Schaarwache) which were added (beigegeben) to the ordinary town watch at night at any time of special need or danger. The marriage of the two words beigegeben and Schaarwache produced beiwacht. It denoted special circumstances—a night watch by a whole army kept under arms, at times when the enemy is close and contact is anticipated—what we would now call ‘on alert’. Hence it came to mean a temporary encampment of troops in the field without tents and using only locally available shelter.
24BivouacsIts origin:Bivouac (from Fr.: bivouac or bivac). Often shortened in Britisharmy slang to ‘bivvy’, the word has only been used in Englishsince about 1700 and was not in common use before theNapoleonic wars. The French use of the word probably dates fromthe Thirty Years War. Its origins can be traced into dialectal(Swiss) German and the word beiwacht, a term used inAargan and Zurich to refer to a patrol of citizens (Schaarwache)which were added (beigegeben) to the ordinary town watch atnight at any time of special need or danger. The marriage of thetwo words beigegeben and Schaarwache produced beiwacht.
25Temporary Camps - Shallow Trench Latrine Adequate for up to three days. Attempts should be made to provide something more permanent if more than three days are to be spent in one place.The most basic of all field latrines, it is simply a shallow pit.Should be dug in rows and maximum use be made of natural cover.
26Semi-Permanent Camps Various latrines are suitable for use in such camps. Selection depends on a number offactors:Length of the campNumber of people to be accommodatedNature of sub-soil (can it be excavated)Labour and materials availableReligious and national habits
27Types of Latrines Two main types of latrine for semi-permanent camps: Excavated: usually preferable but require careful siting to avoid pollution of underground water supplies. Fly breeding, odours and nuisance can be prevented by sound constructional techniques and good maintenance.Receptacle: not as satisfactory as excavated types. Primary objection is that the contents require eventual disposal, usually necessitating carriage and digging of pits. This duplicates effort.
28Deep Trench LatrineOne of the most satisfactory type of latrines used in semi-permanent camps. Consists of a pit which is 3.6m long and 0.75 m wide by at least 2.5m deep. The deeper the better.The site must be selected with care, danger of contaminating underground water supplies must be considered.
29Shallow Bore LatrineConsists of a vertical bore of mm (3/4 feet) in diameter. The shaft is sunk with a small auger to a minimum of 2m. This type of latrine is also suitable for extended temporary camps.
30Deep Bore Latrine This type of latrine has a vertical bore of mm (1.47 ft) in diameter.The shaft is sunk with a purpose designed auger and is sunk to a depth of 5 – 6 m or until sub-soil water is reached.Its use:this type of latrine is ideal for small, isolated camps and due to it’s depth it requires little maintenance and no fly breeding will occur.concurrence of medical and engineering services should be obtained before constructing a deep bore latrine. This ensures that ground water supplies will not be polluted by this type of latrine.
31Bucket LatrineFar from ideal, main objections being spillage, contamination and fly attraction during disposal of contents. When possible, a contractor should be employed to empty buckets and transport the waste away from the camp otherwise contents should be emptied into an Otway pit (septic tank).
32Otway PitAfter contents are emptied buckets must be thoroughly cleaned.Constructed in a manner similar to a deep trench latrine, except for the cover. Measures 3.8m x 0.75m x 2.5m (minimum).
35Urinals – Temporary Camps Shallow Trench Urinal: A pit 2 m x 600 mm x 150mm deep. Soil of the pit is loosened to assist disposal of urine. Earth is banked on three sides and used to refill the pit.
36Semi-permanent campsTrough Urinal: Metal construction - each end of thetrough should be sealed off and a drainage pipeconnects the trough to a soakage pit.
37Semi-permanent campsFunnel urinal: Funnels discharge into a soakage pit and top offunnel should not be more than 600mm (2 ft) above the ground.Some form of strainer should be fitted to each funnel to preventblockages.
39Semi-permanent camps Urinoil: 22 litre oil drum set into a standard soakage pit. Small holes are punched around the circumference of the drum 300 mm from the top. A pipe is inserted through the filler port extending to within 25mm of the bottom. The joint between the pipe and filler port is packed tight with oil soaked cloth. 15 litres of water are poured through the pipe followed by 0.5 l of waste oil.
40Night UrinalsBuckets maybe provided as night urinals. When they are utilised, buckets must be emptied each morning, the bucket thoroughly cleaned and lightly oiled.
41Liquid waste The liquid wastes which commonly need sanitary methods of disposal in the field arethose resulting from:Liquid wastes from kitchen:high proportions of grease, food particles, soap and other detergentsPersonal ablutions:soapy water
42Liquid wasteBoth types of waste, by their chemical composition, soon clog the most absorptive soil when discharged to the ground. It is, therefore, necessary to remove as much of the grease, particulate matter and soap as possible from the waste water before it reaches the soil.
43Soakage PitUse straw, grass or brushwood at the top. This layer is removed and replace daily, the old layer may be burned.The pit can be provided with a removable cover.
44Grease Trap Must be watertight boxes and are filled with cold water. Theincoming warm,grease laden waterpasses through theprimary strainer,which retainssolids.
45Solid Refuse In the field, solid refuse, generated by troops and requiring sanitary disposal,falls into two categories:Food waste attract pestsDry waste provide harbourages and breeding places (cartons, paper, cans etc…)Effective destruction or other disposal of all refuse is important to the control communicable diseaseDisposal will be by incineration or burial (landfill) as in static location during peace, but in the field many appliances must be improvised.
46Refuse Containers There should be two types: Containers for food waste must be covered in all temperate or warm climatesWhere a metal container has an open end, an efficient cover can be made from a square of sacking or other rough fabricEmpty sacks may be used as receptacles for dry refuse but must be supported upright
47Solid Waste BurningGarbage: Spoiled or waste food that is thrown away (also, any worthless, unnecessary or offensive matter)Rubbish: any material thrown away or rejected as worthless, trash, refuse.most frequently and preferred selected method. When burial is not possible, the combustible solid waste can be burned.Open burning of wastes is not desirable when wind and other conditions cause the smoke plume to remain close to the ground and in the direction of personnel. One of the most important hazards associated with the open burning of human and other solid wastes comes from the fuel that is used to ignite and help burn the wastes.
48Solid Waste Burning (exposures) Personnel conducting solid waste burning operations may be exposed to fire, heat, smoke, and possibly, viable pathogenic organisms.
49Solid Waste Burning (PPE) Care should be taken to locate burn-out sites and to select burning opportunities that minimize exposure of personnel to smoke. Changing environmental conditions may cause a smoke plume to change directions or fall toward the ground after the fire is started.
50Solid Waste Burning (PPE) Personnel involved in igniting and maintaining the burning material should be appropriately protected from the fire and the heat. Immunizations against bacterial and viral enteric pathogens (typhoid, Hep A) provide protection for personnel directly involved in burning operations
51Solid Waste Burning Viable organisms may become aerosolized during the burning process. These organisms may includepathogenic should practice good personal hygieneand not stand in the smoke plume. trains. Personnelinvolved in the burning process When recommendedby preventive medicine staff, personnel in theimmediate area who are conducting the burningoperation should be appropriately fitted with air-Filtering respirators (N-95 or -99) and placed in theRespiratory Protection Program.
52Solid Waste Burning – Health Effects There is a remote possibility that viable pathogens may be aerosolized during the burning of sanitary waste. Enteric and other diseases may be spread in this manner. Caution should be taken to insure good combustion while avoiding inhalation of smoke (eyes and respiratory tract irritants) or aerosolized material. Respiratory protection may be recommended for personnel directly involved in the burning of sanitary and other solid wastes have more significant exposures due to the concentration of the pollutants at the source and the duration of their exposure.